Rurouni Kenshin

Last updated
Rurouni Kenshin
Kenshinvolume28.jpg
Cover of the twenty-eighth manga volume, featuring Kamiya Kaoru and Himura Kenshin
るろうに剣心 -明治剣客浪漫譚-
(Rurōni Kenshin -Meiji Kenkaku Roman Tan-)
Genre
Manga
Written by Nobuhiro Watsuki
Published by Shueisha
English publisher
Imprint Jump Comics
Magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump
Demographic Shōnen
Original runApril 25, 1994September 21, 1999
Volumes28 (List of volumes)
Manga
Anime
Original video animations
Live-action films
Wikipe-tan face.svg   Anime and mangaportal

Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story (Japanese: るろうに剣心 -明治剣客浪漫譚-, Hepburn: Rurōni Kenshin -Meiji Kenkaku Roman Tan-), [lower-alpha 1] sometimes also known as Samurai X in the TV show, is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Nobuhiro Watsuki. The story begins during the 11th year of the Meiji period in Japan (1878) and follows a former assassin from the Bakumatsu, known as Hitokiri Battosai. After his work against the bakufu, Hitokiri Battosai disappears to become Himura Kenshin: a wandering swordsman who protects the people of Japan with a vow never to take another life. Watsuki wrote the series upon his desire to make a shōnen manga different from the other ones that were published at the time, with Kenshin being a former assassin and the story taking a more serious tone as it continued. The manga revolves around themes of atonement, peace, and romance.

Contents

The manga was serialized in Shueisha's Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine from April 1994 to September 1999. The complete work consists of 28 tankōbon volumes, while years later it was reprinted into twenty-two kanzenban volumes. Studio Gallop, Studio Deen and SPE Visual Works adapted the manga into an anime television series, which aired in Japan from January 1996 to September 1998. Besides an animated feature film, two series of original video animations (OVAs) were also produced. The first adapted stories from the manga that were not featured in the anime, while the second was a sequel to the manga. Several art and guidebooks for Rurouni Kenshin have been published, and writer Kaoru Shizuka has authored three official light novels which were published by Shueisha. Many video games have also been released for the PlayStation, PlayStation 2, and PlayStation Portable consoles. A successful live-action theatrical film adaptation was released in 2012, with limited international screenings.

The manga, as well as the first light novel and first guidebook, has received a complete North American release by Viz Media. Rurouni Kenshin is subtitled "Wandering Samurai" in some English versions. [2]

The Rurouni Kenshin manga has over 72 million copies in circulation as of 2019, making it one of the best-selling manga series. The series has received praise from various publications for manga, anime and other media, with both having received a good response on the characters' designs and historical setting. In 2017, Watsuki began a direct sequel titled Rurouni Kenshin: The Hokkaido Arc in Jump Square .

Plot

In the early Meiji era, after participating in the Bakumatsu war as the assassin " Hitokiri Battōsai", Himura Kenshin wanders the countryside of Japan with a reverse blade katana. He is offering protection and aid to those in need as atonement for the murders he once committed. When arriving in Tokyo in the 11th year of Meiji (1878), he meets a young woman named Kamiya Kaoru, who is in the middle of a fight with a murderer - who claims to be the Hitokiri Battōsai - tarnishing the name of the swordsmanship school that she teaches. Kenshin decides to help her and defeats the fake Battōsai. After discovering that Kenshin is the real infamous assassin, Kaoru offers him a place to stay at her dojo, noting that he is peace-loving and not cold-hearted, as his reputation implies. Kenshin accepts and begins to establish lifelong relationships with many people such as Sagara Sanosuke, a former Sekihō Army member; Myōjin Yahiko, an orphan from a samurai family who is also living with Kaoru as her student; and a doctor named Takani Megumi, caught in the opium trade. However, he also deals with his fair share of enemies, new and old, including the former leader of the Oniwabanshū, Shinomori Aoshi.

After several months of living in the dojo, Kenshin faces a rival from the Bakumatsu turned police officer, Saitō Hajime. This challenge turns out to be a test to face his successor. Shishio Makoto, plans to conquer Japan by destroying the Meiji Government, starting with Kyoto. Feeling that Shishio's faction may attack his friends, Kenshin meets Shishio alone to defeat him. However, many of his friends, including a young Oniwabanshū named Makimachi Misao, whom he meets in his travels, decide to help him in his fight. After his first meeting with him, Kenshin realizes he needs to get stronger to defeat Shishio without becoming the cold assassin he was in the past and returns to the man who taught him kenjutsu, Hiko Seijūrō, to learn the school's final technique. He finally accepts his friends' help and defeats Shishio in a close fight. After that, Shishio died burning to ashes after passing the limit of his abnormal body condition.

When Kenshin and his friends return to Tokyo, he finds Yukishiro Enishi, who plans to enact revenge. At this point, it is revealed that, during the Bakumatsu, Kenshin was to be married to a woman named Yukishiro Tomoe. She had initially wanted to avenge the death of her 1st fiancé, whom Kenshin had assassinated, but instead, they both fell in love, and she got proposed to. It is eventually revealed that Tomoe was related to Edo guards who wanted to kill Kenshin. They outwitted Tomoe after realizing her deception first and captured her to use as bait. Kenshin rushed to the rescue. Although the ambushers managed to injure him severely, Kenshin managed to kill almost all of them and moved on. Then, in the final fight against the group leader, Kenshin accidentally kills Tomoe, who jumps in at the last second to help Kenshin create an opening to win the battle. Wanting to take revenge for the death of his sister, Enishi kidnaps Kaoru and leaves behind a corpse doll bearing a stunning resemblance of her for Kenshin to find and momentarily grieve over. Once discovering that Kaoru is alive, Kenshin and his friends set out to rescue her. A final battle between Kenshin and Enishi follows, and the former assassin emerges as the victor.

Five years later, Kenshin has married Kaoru and has a son named Himura Kenji. Now at peace with himself, Kenshin gives his reverse-blade sword to Yahiko as a ceremonial gift.

Production

A prototype series titled Rurouni: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story appeared as a pair of separate short stories published in 1992 and 1993. [3] [4] The first story, published in December 1992 in the Weekly Shōnen Jump Winter Special issue of 1993, featured an earlier version of Kenshin stopping a crime lord from taking over the Kamiya family dojo. Watsuki described the first Rurouni story, echoing the "Megumi Arc," as a "pilot" for Rurouni Kenshin. According to Watsuki, the final Rurouni Kenshin series was not composed entirely of his free will. Describing the creation of historical stories as "hard," Watsuki initially wanted to make his next series in a contemporary setting. An editor approached Watsuki and asked him to make a new historical story. With the historical concept, Watsuki intended to use the Bakumatsu period from Moeyo Ken (Burn, O Sword) with a story akin to Sanshiro Sugata . Watsuki experimented with various titles, including Nishin (Two-Hearts) Kenshin, Yorozuya (Jack-of-All-Trades) Kenshin, and variations of "Rurouni" and "Kenshin" with different kanji in that order. [3]

The second Rurouni story, published in April 1993 in the Weekly Shōnen Jump 21–22 double issue of that year, featured Kenshin helping a wealthy girl named Raikōji Chizuru. Watsuki recalled experiencing difficulty when condensing "everything" into 31 pages for that story. He said that he "put all [his] soul into it" but sighs when looking at it from his perspective after the publication of the Rurouni Kenshin Volume 1 graphic novel in Japan. Watsuki describes that second Rurouni: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story as receiving mediocre reviews and about two hundred letters. [4] He referred to it as a "side story." [3]

During his childhood, Watsuki used to practice kendo, which influenced his making of the series. Although Watsuki developed various one-shots before the official serialization from the series, he mentioned he based the series from Crescent Moon in the Warring States, a story which introduced Kenshin's fighting style and his teacher. While naming the characters, he based some of their names from places he used to live such as Makimachi Misao's "Makimachi" and Sanjō Tsubame, who are named after places from Niigata. [5]

Being fascinated by the Shinsengumi, Watsuki designed the characters by basing their characteristics to that of the real Shinsengumi members and also used fictional representation of them and other historical characters from the Bakumatsu period of Japan. [6] [7] The historical characters were considered to be a hard task by Watsuki. Due to problems with the characterization from Sagara Sōzō, Watsuki decided to illustrate Saitō Hajime in his own style avoiding the historical figure. He felt very good with Saitō's character having noted he fit very well in the manga. [8] However, Watsuki mentioned that many Japanese fans of the Shinsengumi complained about the personality of Saitō, as he was made sadistic. [6]

When questioned about the series' theme being Kenshin's self-redemption, Watsuki mentioned that when he was young, he used to read shōjo and that it influenced his writing of Rurouni Kenshin. He added that he wanted to make a story different from other comics as he considers the main character Kenshin is neither a good nor evil character. Since volume 7, Watsuki mentioned the series took a more adult tone due to the various conflicts in the story but commented it was influenced by the shōjo manga he read. Through the series' development, Watsuki was deciding if Kamiya Kaoru's character was going to die before the end. However, he later decided to keep Kaoru alive as he came to the conclusion he wanted a happy ending and that the manga is aimed at young readers. [8] Watsuki said he was an "infatuated" type of person rather than a "passionate" kind of person, therefore Rurouni Kenshin is a "Meiji Swordsman Story" as opposed to being a "Meiji Love Story." [9]

When the manga series started to be published in Weekly Shōnen Jump , Watsuki had little hope in the development of the series. He planned to finish the story in approximately 30 chapters, ending with Kenshin's departure from Tokyo similarly to the one from volume 7. Kenshin's enemies would have been people from Kyoto who would send an assassin to kill Kenshin. When the Oniwabanshū were introduced during the serialization, Watsuki noted that the series could be longer as he had created various main characters. In that time, there was a survey, and the series had become very popular. [8]

When the series reached seven volumes, Watsuki's boss suggested to him that it was time to make a longer story-arc, which resulted in the creation of the fights between Kenshin and Shishio Makoto. The arc was only meant to be serialized for one year, but it ended up being one year-and-a-half-long. This arc was also done to develop Kenshin's character as he considered him not to have a weak point. Watsuki commented that his artistic skills were honed with this arc, as he could draw everything he wanted to. The last arc from the manga was meant to be much shorter, but it turned out to be a fairly long one as he could not present it simplistically. Watsuki originally made this arc prior to the series' start, having already thought about how would Kenshin's scar had been made. [8] Watsuki also had ideas to create a "Hokkaido episode, a sequel" but wanted to start a new manga and so ended Rurouni Kenshin with the last arc he made. [10] In 2012, Watsuki revealed that when he clashed with the editorial staff at the end of the series, his editor Hisashi Sasaki understood his intentions and saw that he was at his physical limit and backed him up. He said it was out of respect and appreciation for the readers that he ended the popular series while it was still popular. [11] The Hokkaido sequel, Rurouni Kenshin: The Hokkaido Arc , began serialization in 2017.

Themes

The series' main theme is responsibility as seen through Kenshin's action as he wants to atone for all the people he killed during the Bakumatsu by aiding innocent people by wielding a non-lethal sword. [12] Marco Olivier from the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University said that the sakabatō symbolizes Kenshin's oath not to kill again which has been found challenging by other warriors appearing in the series. [13] This theme also encourages former drug dealer Takani Megumi into becoming a doctor upon learning of Kenshin's past and actions. Another theme is power, which is mostly seen by Sagara Sanosuke and Myojin Yahiko. However, like Megumi, these two characters are also influenced by the main character as they wish to become stronger to assist Kenshin across the plot. Additionally, the series discourages revenge as seen in the final arc when Yukishiro Enishi believes he succeeded in getting his revenge on Kenshin but starts having hallucinations of his late sister with a sad expression on her face. [12]

Media

Manga

Written and illustrated by Nobuhiro Watsuki, the first chapter of Rurouni Kenshin premiered in the 19th issue of Weekly Shōnen Jump on April 25, 1994, [14] and was serialized in the magazine until its 43rd issue on September 21, 1999. [15] [16] [lower-alpha 2] The 255 individual chapters were collected and published in 28 tankōbon volumes by Shueisha, with the first volume released on September 9, 1994 and the last on November 4, 1999. [18] [19] In July 2006, Shueisha began re-releasing the series in a twenty-two kanzenban special edition volumes. A single chapter follow up to the series that follows the character of Yahiko Myōjin, Yahiko's Sakabatō (弥彦の逆刃刀, Yahiko no Sakabatō), was originally published in Weekly Shōnen Jump after the conclusion of the series. Left out of the original volumes, it was added as an extra to the final kanzenban release. [20]

In December 2011, Shueisha announced Watsuki would be putting his current series, Embalming -The Another Tale of Frankenstein- , on hold to begin a "reboot" of Rurouni Kenshin, called Rurouni Kenshin: Restoration , as a tie-in to the live-action movie. The series began in the June 2012 issue of Jump Square , which was released on May 2, 2012, [21] and ended in the July 2013 issue on June 4, 2013. [22] The reboot depicts the battles that are featured in the first live-action film. Another special titled Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story: Chapter 0, was published in Weekly Shōnen Jump in August 2012 as a prologue to Restoration and included in its first volume. [23] In 2014, Watsuki wrote a two-chapter spin-off titled Rurouni Kenshin: Master of Flame for Jump SQ., which tells how Shishio met Yumi and formed the Juppongatana. [24] [25] [26]

Watsuki and his wife, Kaworu Kurosaki, collaborated on a two chapter spinoff titled Rurouni Kenshin Side Story: The Ex-Con Ashitaro for the ninth anniversary of Jump SQ. in 2016. [27] It acts as a prologue to the Rurouni Kenshin: The Hokkaido Arc , which began in September 2017 as a sequel to the original manga series.

Rurouni Kenshin was licensed for an English language release in North America by Viz Media. The first volume of the series was released on October 7, 2003. [28] Although the first volumes were published on an irregular basis, since volume 7 Viz established a monthly basis due to good sales and consumer demands. [29] Therefore, the following volumes were published until July 5, 2006, when the final volume was released. [30] Yahiko's Sakabatō was also published in English Shonen Jump during 2006. [31] In January 2008, Viz began re-releasing the manga in wideban formats called both "Three-In-One" & "Viz Big Edition", which is a collection of three volumes in one. [32] The final four-in-one "Viz Big Edition" ninth volume included Yahiko no Sakabato (Yahiko's Sakabatō) and Cherry Blossoms in Spring, which take place after the original manga. Viz uses the actual ordering of Japanese names, with the family name or surname before the given name, within the series to reduce confusion and because Rurouni Kenshin is a historical series. [33]

Anime series

An anime television series adaptation of Rurouni Kenshin, produced by SPE Visual Works and Fuji TV, animated by Studio Gallop (episode 1 to 66) and Studio Deen (episode 67 to 95), [34] [35] [36] and directed by Kazuhiro Furuhashi, was broadcast in Japan on Fuji TV from January 10, 1996 to September 8, 1998. [37]

Animated film

An anime film, titled Rurouni Kenshin: The Motion Picture, originally released in North America as Samurai X: The Motion Picture, premiered in Japan on December 20, 1997. [38]

Original video animations

A 4-episode original video animation (OVA), titled Rurouni Kenshin: Trust & Betrayal, which served as a prequel to the anime television series, was released in Japan in 1999. [39]

A 2-episode OVA, titled Rurouni Kenshin: Reflection, which served as a sequel to the anime television series, was released in Japan from 2001 to 2002. [40] [41]

A 2-episode OVA, Rurouni Kenshin: New Kyoto Arc, which remaked the series' Kyoto arc, was released in Japan from 2011 to 2012. [42] [43]

Live-action films

On June 28, 2011, a live-action film adaptation of Rurouni Kenshin was announced. [44] Produced by Warner Bros., with actual film production done by Studio Swan, the film was directed by Keishi Ōtomo and stars Takeru Satoh (of Kamen Rider Den-O fame) as Kenshin, Munetaka Aoki as Sanosuke Sagara and Emi Takei as Kaoru. [45] The film was released on August 25, 2012 in Japan. [46] In August 2013, it was announced that two sequels were being filmed simultaneously for release in 2014. Kyoto Inferno and The Legend Ends adapt the Kyoto arc of the manga. [47] [48] [49] On April 12, 2019, it was announced that two new live-action films will premiere in summer 2020 depicting the Remembrance/Tenchu & Jinchu arcs, [50] but the films were delayed to 2021 due to COVID-19 epidemic.

Soundtracks

Cover of Rurouni Kenshin OST 1. Kenshinost.jpg
Cover of Rurouni Kenshin OST 1.

All of the series music was composed by Noriyuki Asakura and several CDs have been released by Sony Records. The first, Rurouni Kenshin OST 1 was released on April 1, 1996 and contained twenty-three songs that were used during the first episodes of the series. [51] The second one, Rurouni Kenshin OST 2 - Departure was released on October 21, 1996 and contained fifteen tracks that were first used before the start of the Kyoto Arc. [52] The next one, Rurouni Kenshin OST 3 - Journey to Kyoto was released on April 21, 1997 and contained the thirteen tracks that originally used in the Kyoto Arc. [53] For the next arc, Rurouni Kenshin OST 4 - Let it Burn was released on February 1, 1998 and contained twelve tracks. [54]

For the OVAs series, all themes were composed by Taku Iwasaki and the CDs were released by Sony Visual Works. The first, Rurouni Kenshin Tsuioku Hen OST was released on March 20, 1999 and contained sixteen tracks that were used in Samurai X: Trust & Betrayal . [55] For the Reflection OVA a soundtrack called Rurouni Kenshin Seisō Hen OST was released on January 23, 2002 and contained eighteen tracks. [56]

Several compilations of the anime songs were also released in collection CDs. Thirty tracks were selected and joined in a CD called Rurouni Kenshin - The Director's Collection, that was released on July 21, 1997. [57] Rurouni Kenshin Best Theme Collection was released on March 21, 1998 and contained ten tracks. [58] All of the opening and ending themes were also collected in a CD called Rurouni Kenshin OP/ED Theme Collection. [59] The Japanese voice actors of the series also composed songs that were released as two Cds Rurouni Kenshin Songs Album. All of the anime tracks, including OVAs and films tracks were collected in Rurouni Kenshin Complete CD-Box that was released on September 19, 2002. It contains the four TV OSTs, the two OVA OSTs, the movie OST, the two game OSTs, an opening & closing theme collection, and the two Character Songs albums. [60] On July 27, 2011, Rurouni Kenshin Complete Collection, which includes all the opening and ending themes and the theme song of the animated film, was released. [61]

Several drama CDs, which adapted stories in the Rurouni Kenshin manga, were also released in Japan. Each of them featured different voice actors from that one that worked in the anime adaptation. [62] In Volume 5 of the manga Watsuki stated that he anticipated that the script of the third volume, which has the stories involving the character Udō Jin-e, would be "pretty close" but would have additional lines belonging to Sanosuke and Yahiko. [63]

Stage shows

In 2016, the Takarazuka Revue performed a musical adaptation of the manga called Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story. The show ran from February to March, and starred Seina Sagiri as Kenshin and Miyu Sakihi as Kaoru. [64] The musical was written and directed by Shūichirō Koike.

In 2018, a stage play adaptation was performed in Shinbashi Enbujō theater in Tokyo and Shōchikuza theater in Osaka. Seina Sagiri returned to play as Kenshin while Moka Kamishiraishi play as Kaoru. Kanō Sōzaburō, an original character introduced in the previous musical, made a return appearance played by Mitsuru Matsuoka. Shūichirō Koike returned as the director and the script writer of the play. [65]

In 2020, a stage musical adaptation of the manga's Kyoto arc was scheduled to be held from November to December 2020 in IHI Stage Around Tokyo. Starring Teppei Koike as Himura Kenshin and Mario Kuroba as the antagonist Makoto Shishio, Shūichirō Koike returned as director and script writer of the play. [66] This stage musical was cancelled due to COVID-19 pandemic. [67]

Art and guidebooks

Two encyclopedias of the Rurouni Kenshin manga were released in Japan. The first one, Rurouni Kenshin Profiles (原典), was released first in Japan on July 4, 1996 by Shueisha and in the United States by Viz Media on November 1, 2005. [68] [69] Kenshin Kaden (剣心華伝), released on December 15, 1999 includes the story Haru no Sakura (春の桜, lit."Cherry Blossoms in Spring"), which details the fates of all of the Rurouni Kenshin characters. The story takes place years after the manga's conclusion, when Kenshin and Kaoru have married and have a young son, Kenji. Many of the series' major characters who have befriended Kenshin reunite or otherwise reveal their current whereabouts with him in a spring picnic. [70] For the anime, three Kenshin Soushi artbook were published from 1997 to 1998. While the first two were based on the TV series, the third one was based on the film. The film one was named Ishin Shishi no Requiem Art Book and was released along with the movie. [71] [72] [73] Also released was Rurouni-Art Book, which contained images from the OVAs. A guidebook from the kanzenban imprint of the series was published on June 4, 2007. [74]

Light novels

The Rurouni Kenshin light novels were published by Shueisha's Jump J-Books line and co-written by Kaoru Shizuka. Most of them are original stories which were later adapted in the anime. Others are adaptations of manga and anime stories.The very first novel, Rurouni Kenshin: Voyage to the Moon World, which was published in Japan on October 10, 1996 and in North America on October 17, 2006 details another adventure involving the return of Tales of the Meiji Season 3's Beni-Aoi Arc characters like Kaishu Katsu & the Kamiya Dojo's third pupil Daigoro. [75] [76] The second, Yahiko's Battle, was released on October 3, 1997. It retells various stories featured in the manga and anime series. [77] The third novel, TV Anime Shimabara Arc, was published on February 4, 1999. [78] A novel adaptation of Rurouni Kenshin Cinema-ban, titled Rurouni Kenshin -Ginmaku Sōshihen- (るろうに剣心 ―銀幕草紙変―) and written by Watsuki's wife Kaoru Kurosaki, which was released on September 4, 2012 is a Japanese light novel version of America's Restoration's New Kurogasa (Jin-E) Arc mangas featuring Banshin & a different younger Gein. Both are Ishin members of Enishi's team of the Jinchu/Tenchu (Judgment of Earth/Heaven) portions of the Enishi saga in the main plot manga series. [79]

Video games

There are five Rurouni Kenshin games released for the PlayStation console. The first, Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Kenkaku Romantan: Ishin Gekitōhen (るろうに剣心 -明治剣客浪漫譚- 維新激闘編) was released on November 29, 1996. It was developed by ZOOM Inc.. The game is a 3D fighter game with 5 playable characters, while the plot focuses in the first seven volumes from the manga. [80] The second one, Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Kenkaku Romantan: Jūyūshi Inbō Hen (るろうに剣心 -明治剣客浪漫譚- 十勇士陰謀編 - The Ten Warrior Conspiracy) was released on December 18, 1997 and was re-released in the PlayStation The Best lineup on November 5, 1998. The game is a role-playing video game with a story unrelated to either the manga or anime. [81]

Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Kenkaku Romantan: Enjō! Kyōto Rinne (るろうに剣心 -明治剣客浪漫譚- 炎上!京都輪廻) is the only video game for the PlayStation 2 console. Its Japanese release was slated for September 13, 2006. [82] The game has sold over 130,000 copies in Japan. [83] A 2D fighting game titled Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Kenkaku Romantan: Saisen (るろうに剣心 -明治剣客浪漫譚- 再閃) was released for the PlayStation Portable on March 10, 2011 in Japan. [84] [85] On August 30, 2012, a sequel, Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Kenkaku Romantan: Kansen (るろうに剣心 -明治剣客浪漫譚- 完醒), was released. [86]

Himura Kenshin also appears in the 2005 and 2006 Nintendo DS games Jump Super Stars and Jump Ultimate Stars as a battle character, while others were support characters and help characters. [87] Kenshin and Shishio appear as playable characters in the 2014 PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Vita game J-Stars Victory VS , [88] [89] and in the 2019 game Jump Force for Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One. [90]

Merchandise

Watsuki commented that there was a lot of Rurouni Kenshin merchandise released for the Japanese market. He recommended that buyers consider quality before paying for merchandise items and for them to consult their wallets and buy stuff that they feel is "worth it." Watsuki added that he liked the prototype for a stuffed Kenshin doll for the UFO catcher devices. [91]

Reception

Manga

Rurouni Kenshin has been highly popular, having sold over 55 million tankōbon copies in Japan alone up until February 2012, making it one of Shueisha's top ten best-selling manga series. [92] In 2014, it was reported that the series had 70 million tankōbon copies in circulation. [93] As of December 2019, the manga had over 72 million copies in circulation, including digital releases. [94] Volume 27 of the manga ranked second in the Viz Bookscan Top Ten during June 2006, [95] while volume 21 and 20 ranked second and tenth, respectively, in the Top 10 Graphic Novels of Viz of 2005. [96] Rurouni Kenshin volume 24 also ranked in 116th position in the USA Today's best selling book list for the week ending February 26, 2006. [97] During the third quarter from 2003, Rurouni Kenshin ranked at the top of ICv2's Top 50 Manga Properties. [98] In the same poll from 2005, it was featured at the top once again based on sales from English volumes during 2004. [99] In the Top Ten Manga Properties from 2006 from the same site, it ranked ninth. [100] On TV Asahi's Manga Sōsenkyo 2021 poll, in which 150.000 people voted for their top 100 manga series, Rurouni Kenshin ranked 31st. [101]

The manga has received praise and criticism from various publications. Mania Entertainment writer Megan Lavey found that the manga had a good balance between character development, comedy and action scenes. The artwork of Watsuki was said to have improved as the series continued, noting that characters also had reactions during fights. [102] Steve Raiteri from Library Journal praised the series for its characters and battles. However, he noted some fights were too violent, so he recommended the series to older teenagers as well as adults. [103] Surat described the series as an example of a "neo-shōnen" series, where a shōnen series also appeals to a female audience; Surat stated that in such series, character designs are "pretty" for female audiences, but not too "girly" for male audiences. Surat cited Shinomori Aoshi and Seta Sōjirō, characters who ranked highly in popularity polls even though, in Surat's view, Aoshi does not engage in "meaningful" battles, and Sōjirō is a "kid." Surat explained that Aoshi appears "like a Clamp character wearing Gambit's coat and Sōjirō always smiles despite the abuse inflicted upon him. [104] Surat said that the character designs for the anime television series were "toughened up a bit." He added that the budget for animation and music was "top-notch" because Sony produced the budget. [105] Watsuki's writing involving romance and Kenshin's psychological hidden weakpoints also earned positive response by other sites with AnimeNation also comparing it to Clamp's X based on the multipe elements the series. [106] [107]

As a result of the series taking a darker tone in later story arcs with Kenshin facing new threats and at the same time his Battosai self, Kat Kan from Voice of Youth Advocates recommended it to older teens. Kan also found that the anime viewers will also enjoy Watsuki's drawings due to the way he illustrates battles. [108] This is mostly noted in the "Kyoto arc" where Mania Entertainment writer Megan Lavey applauded the fight between Himura Kenshin and anti-hero Saito Hajime which acts as prologue of such narrative. [109] Mania.com remarks the build up Aoshi, Saito and other characters bring to the story due to how they similar goals in the same arc. [110] Although the site Manga News enjoyed Seta Sojiro's fight and how it connected with Shishio's past, they said sixteenth manga's best part was Kenshin's fight against Shishio due to the build up and symbolism the two characters have. [111] The eventual climax led further praise based on how menacing Shishio is shown in the battle against his predecessor although he questioned if Kenshin had been a superior enemy if had kept back his original killer persona. [112]

Critics expressed mixed opinions in regards to the final arc. Zac Bertschy from Anime News Network (ANN) praised the story from the manga, but noted that by volume 18 of the series, Watsuki started to repeat the same type of villains who were united to kill Kenshin similar to Trigun . Although he praised Watsuki's characters, he commented that some of them needed some consistency due to various "bizarre" antagonists. [113] Due to Kaoru, Kenshin and Sanosuke missing from the final arc during the Jinchu arc, Manga News described Aoshi as the star of the series' 24th volume due to how he explores the mysteries behind Enishi's revenge and his subsequent actions that made him stand out most notably because he had been absent for multiple chapters. [114] IGN reviewer A.E. Sparrow liked the manga's ending, praising how the storylines are resolved, and how most of the supporting cast end up. He also praised the series' characters, remarking that Kenshin "belongs in any top ten of manga heroes." [115] Otaku USA reviewer Daryl Surat said that the manga's quality was good until the "Revenge Arc," where he criticized the storyline and the new characters. [116] Carlo Santos from the same site, praised Enishi and Kenshin's final fight despite finding the ending predictably. [117] While also liking their final showdown, Megan Lavey from Mania Entertainment felt that twist that happens shortly after battle is over serves to show Enishi's longlife trauma but at the same time Kenshin's compassion towards others. [118]

Before becoming an official manga author, Masashi Kishimoto decided he should try creating a Chanbara manga since Weekly Shōnen Jump had not published a title from that genre. However, during his years of college, Kishimoto started reading Hiroaki Samura's Blade of the Immortal and Rurouni Kenshin which used the said genre. Kishimoto recalls having never been surprised by manga ever since reading Akira and found that he still was not able to compete against them. [119]

Live-action films

At the box office, the 2012 live-action film Rurouni Kenshin grossed $62.5 million worldwide, including $61.7 million up until December 2012 prior to its release in the Philippines, [120] $728,085 from Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines up until May 2013, [121] and then $8,389 in the United Kingdom [122] and $32,445 in the United States. [123]

At the 2014 worldwide box office, the sequel Kyoto Inferno grossed $52.9 million. [124] Released later that year, The Legend Ends grossed $44 million worldwide, including ¥4.35 billion ($41.06 million) in Japan, [125] ₩16,916,100 ($14,955) in South Korea, [126] and $2,484,963 in other territories. [127]

In total, the live-action film trilogy grossed $159.4 million at the worldwide box office.

Notes

  1. "Rurouni" is a word created by the author by blending the words 流浪 (rurō "wandering") and 浪人 ( rōnin "masterless samurai", literally "wanderer"), and it is spelled in kanji within the manga as ()(ろう)(). A rough translation of the whole title would be "Kenshin the Wandering Masterless Samurai: Meiji Swordsman, a collection of Romantic Folk Tales."
  2. Although the cover date of the 1999 43rd issue of Weekly Shōnen Jump was October 4, the actual issue release date was September 21, the same issue in which Naruto was first published. [17]

Related Research Articles

Himura Kenshin Fictional character and protagonist of the Rurouni Kenshin manga

Himura Kenshin, known as Kenshin Himura in the English-language anime dubs, is a fictional character and protagonist of the manga Rurouni Kenshin created by Nobuhiro Watsuki. Kenshin's story is set in a fictional version of Japan during the Meiji period. Kenshin is a former legendary assassin known as "Hitokiri Battōsai" (人斬り抜刀斎), more properly named Himura Battōsai (緋村抜刀斎). At the end of the Bakumatsu, he becomes a wandering swordsman, now wielding a sakabatō—a katana that has the cutting edge on the inwardly curved side of the sword, thus being nearly incapable of killing. Kenshin wanders the Japanese countryside offering protection and aid to those in need as atonement for the murders he once committed as an assassin. In Tokyo, he meets a young woman named Kamiya Kaoru, who invites him to live in her dojo, despite learning about Kenshin's past. Throughout the series, Kenshin begins to establish lifelong relationships with many people, including ex-enemies, while dealing with his fair share of enemies, new and old.

Kamiya Kaoru Fictional character from Rurouni Kenshin

Kamiya Kaoru, known as Kaoru Kamiya in the Media Blasters English-language dub and Kori Kamiya in the English Sony Samurai X dub, is a fictional character in the Rurouni Kenshin manga created by Nobuhiro Watsuki. In the story Kaoru is the instructor of a kendo school in Tokyo, Kamiya Kasshin-ryū (神谷活心流). The students leave when many people are killed by someone claiming to be the Hitokiri Battōsai (人斬り抜刀斎) from the Kamiya Kasshin-ryū", damaging the school's reputation. Kaoru is saved from the murderous impostor by the real Battōsai, Himura Kenshin, now a wanderer who has sworn to stop killing. During the series, Kaoru grows fond of Kenshin due to his good actions to society and becomes his ally.

Myōjin Yahiko Fictional character from Rurouni Kenshin

Myōjin Yahiko, known as Yahiko Myojin in the Media Blasters English-language dub and Yoshi Myojin in the English Sony Samurai X dub, is a fictional character from the Rurouni Kenshin manga and anime series authored by Nobuhiro Watsuki. The character of Yahiko is based on the author's childhood experiences practicing kendo; since Watsuki's experienced frustration during kendo classes, the author wrote Yahiko as experiencing frustration with his kendo skills. Watsuki liked Yahiko, and while writing the manga, he began to develop the character so that readers would enjoy him.

Nobuhiro Nishiwaki, better known by his pen name Nobuhiro Watsuki, is a Japanese manga artist. He is best known for his samurai-themed series Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story (1994–1999), which has over 70 million copies in circulation and a sequel he is currently creating titled Rurouni Kenshin: The Hokkaido Arc (2017–present). He has written three more series, the western Gun Blaze West (2001), the supernatural Buso Renkin (2003–2005), and the horror manga Embalming -The Another Tale of Frankenstein- (2007–2015). Watsuki has mentored several well-known manga artists, including One Piece creator Eiichiro Oda, Hiroyuki Takei of Shaman King fame, and Mr. Fullswing author Shinya Suzuki.

Sagara Sanosuke Fictional character from Rurouni Kenshin

Sagara Sanosuke is a fictional character from the Rurouni Kenshin manga and anime series created by Nobuhiro Watsuki. In the English anime adaptations he is known as Sanosuke Sagara and nicknamed Sano. Watsuki, being a fan of the Shinsengumi, created Sanosuke by basing his name and characteristics on that of a real Shinsengumi member named Harada Sanosuke.

Shinomori Aoshi Fictional character from Rurouni Kenshin

Shinomori Aoshi, known in Western order as Aoshi Shinomori in the English version of the anime, is a fictional character in the Rurouni Kenshin manga series created by Nobuhiro Watsuki. He is the genius young Okashira of the Oniwabanshū for Edo Castle. After the Meiji Restoration Shinomori alone was offered rankings in the military, however, instead of abandoning his comrades, he decided to work with them for Takeda Kanryū. This decision leads to the death of his comrades and his defeat by Himura Kenshin, which results in driving him mad. For the remainder of the series, Shinomori swears to kill Kenshin at any cost in order to gain the title of "the strongest" and bestow this title upon the graves of his fallen comrades.

Saitō Hajime (<i>Rurouni Kenshin</i>) Fictional character from Rurouni Kenshin

Saitō Hajime, known as Hajime Saito in the English-language anime dubs, is a fictional character from the Rurouni Kenshin manga and anime series created by Nobuhiro Watsuki. Being a fan of the Shinsengumi, Watsuki created Saitō as an anti-heroic foil to Himura Kenshin, the main character of the story, while basing him on the real life Shinsengumi member of the same name.

Shishio Makoto Fictional character from Rurouni Kenshin

Shishio Makoto, known in the English anime in Western order as Makoto Shishio, is a fictional character from the Rurouni Kenshin manga series created by Nobuhiro Watsuki. The primary villain of the series' Kyoto arc, Shishio is the successor of the Hitokiri (人斬り), or assassin Himura Kenshin, the protagonist of the series. After working for Ishin Shishi, the new Meiji government tried killing Shishio by dousing him in oil and burning him alive. However, Shishio manages to survive and recruits an army led by the Juppongatana to get his revenge and take down Japan. With the government's members fearing their deaths, they recruit both Kenshin and the former Shinsengumi Saito Hajime to defeat his forces. Besides the manga, Shishio has appeared in the series' anime adaptation, games, as well as two live-action films. He is also the protagonist of the manga prequel Rurouni Kenshin: Master of Flame, showing the origins of the Juppongatana.

Seta Sōjirō Fictional character from Rurouni Kenshin

Seta Sōjirō, addressed as Sojiro Seta in the English anime, is a fictional character from the Rurouni Kenshin manga series created by Nobuhiro Watsuki. He is Shishio Makoto's right-hand man. Sōjirō has been favorably popular with the Rurouni Kenshin reader base, placing high in several popularity polls.

Yukishiro Enishi Fictional character from Rurouni Kenshin

Yukishiro Enishi is a fictional character from the Rurouni Kenshin universe created by Nobuhiro Watsuki. In the English language OVA dubs, he is known in Western order as Enishi Yukishiro. Enishi is the main antagonist of the Jinchū Arc, the final arc of the series.

<i>Rurouni Kenshin: Reflection</i>

Rurouni Kenshin: Reflection is a Japanese original video animation (OVA) which serves as a sequel to the anime television series adaptation of the manga series Rurouni Kenshin by Nobuhiro Watsuki. It was produced by Studio Deen, directed by Kazuhiro Furuhashi and written by Reiko Yoshida and released in Japan from December 19, 2001 to March 20, 2002.

<i>Rurouni Kenshin</i> (film) 2012 Japanese period action-adventure film

Rurouni Kenshin is a 2012 Japanese period action-adventure film based on the manga of the same name written and illustrated by Nobuhiro Watsuki. Directed by Keishi Ōtomo, the film stars Takeru Satoh and Emi Takei. It focuses on fictional events that take place during the early Meiji period in Japan, telling the story of a wanderer named Himura Kenshin, formerly known as the assassin Hitokiri Battōsai. After participating in the Bakumatsu war, Kenshin wanders the countryside of Japan offering protection and aid to those in need as atonement for the murders he once committed.

<i>Rurouni Kenshin: Restoration</i>

Rurouni Kenshin: Restoration is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Nobuhiro Watsuki. It is a remake of his Rurouni Kenshin series, and served to promote the then upcoming live-action film released in August 2012. The manga was serialized in Shueisha's Jump Square from May 2012 to June 2013 and collected into two tankōbon volumes.

<i>Rurouni Kenshin: New Kyoto Arc</i>

Rurouni Kenshin: New Kyoto Arc is a series of two original video animations created by Studio Deen that retell the Kyoto arc of Nobuhiro Watsuki's manga Rurouni Kenshin. The story focuses on the young Oniwabanshu Makimashi Misao who encounters the protagonist, the wanderer Himura Kenshin, who is on a quest to defeat the forces of his hitokiri successor Shishio Makoto.

<i>Rurouni Kenshin: The Hokkaido Arc</i> Japanese manga series

Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story The Hokkaido Arc is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Nobuhiro Watsuki, with story consultation by his wife Kaworu Kurosaki. It is a direct sequel to Rurouni Kenshin and follows Himura Kenshin and his friends in 1883 Japan as they traverse Hokkaido in search of his father-in-law.

<i>Rurouni Kenshin: Master of Flame</i> Japanese manga series

Rurouni Kenshin: Master of Flame is a two-chapter Japanese manga written and illustrated by Nobuhiro Watsuki. It is a spin-off of the main series Rurouni Kenshin. It tells the story about how Shishio Makoto met Komagata Yumi and formed the Juppongatana.

Rurouni Kenshin, also known sometimes as Samurai X in the TV show, is a Japanese anime television series, based on the manga series of the same name created by Nobuhiro Watsuki. The series was produced by Studio Gallop, Studio Deen and SPE Visual Works and directed by Kazuhiro Furuhashi. It was broadcast in Japan on Fuji TV from January 1996 to September 1998. Besides an animated feature film, two series of original video animations (OVAs) were also produced. The first adapted stories from the manga that were not featured in the anime, while the second was a sequel to the manga series.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "The Official Website for Rurouni Kenshin". Viz Media. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  2. Erickson, Hal (2005). Television Cartoon Shows: An Illustrated Encyclopedia, 1949 Through 2003 (2nd ed.). McFarland & Co. p. 699. ISBN   978-1476665993.
  3. 1 2 3 Watsuki, Nobuhiro (2004). "Rurouni: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story (2)". Rurouni Kenshin, Volume 3. Viz Media. ISBN   1-59116-356-0.
  4. 1 2 Watsuki, Nobuhiro (6 June 2006). "Rurouni: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story (1)". Rurouni Kenshin, Volume 1. Viz Media. p. 168. ISBN   1-4215-0674-2.
  5. Watsuki, Nobuhiro (2005). "Interview with Nobuhiro Watsuki". Rurouni Kenshin Profiles. Viz Media. ISBN   978-1-4215-0160-4.
  6. 1 2 Watsuki, Nobuhiro (2004). "The Secret Life of Characters" (21) Saitō Hajime". Rurouni Kenshin, Volume 7. Viz Media. ISBN   978-1-59116-357-2.
  7. Watsuki, Nobuhiro (2003). "The Secret Life of Characters (6) Sagara Sanosuke". Rurouni Kenshin, Volume 2. Viz Media. p.  48. ISBN   1-59116-249-1.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Watsuki, Nobuhiro (1999). "Interview with Nobuhiro Watsuki". Kenshin Kaden. Shueisha. ISBN   4-08-782037-8.
  9. Watsuki, Nobuhiro (2006). "Free Talk". Rurouni Kenshin, Volume 27. Viz Media. p. 168. ISBN   1-4215-0674-2.
  10. Watsuki, Nobuhiro (2006). "Free Talk I". Rurouni Kenshin, Volume 28. Viz Media. ISBN   1-4215-0675-0.
  11. Watsuki, Nobuhiro (2014). Rurouni Kenshin: Restoration, Volume 2. Viz Media. p. 207. ISBN   978-1-4215-5570-6.
  12. 1 2 Burnham, Jef (2013). "Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Swordsman Romantic Story". In Beaty, Bart H.; Weiner, Stephen (eds.). Critical Survey of Graphic Novels : Manga. Ipswich, Mass.: Salem Press. pp. 268–272. ISBN   9781587659553 via EBSCOhost.
  13. Olivier, Marco (2007). "Nihilism in Japanese Anime" (PDF). South African Journal of Art History. 22 (3): 66. Retrieved November 12, 2009.
  14. 週刊少年ジャンプ 1994年(平成6年)19 表紙=和月伸宏「るろうに剣心」 (in Japanese). Mandarake Inc. Archived from the original on November 30, 2019. Retrieved November 30, 2019.
  15. 週刊少年ジャンプ 1999年(平成11年)43 表紙=岸本斉史「NARUTO」 (in Japanese). Mandarake Inc. Archived from the original on November 30, 2019. Retrieved November 30, 2019.
  16. "【「ヒカルの碁」「るろ剣」「封神演義」「I"s」――「NARUTO」が始まった1999年の「週刊少年ジャンプ」 デジタル版が無料配信!". ITmedia (in Japanese). November 9, 2014.
  17. "【イベント】 「週刊少年ジャンプ」読者招待制音楽イベント「NARUTO THE LIVE vol.0」、4月11日(土)に東京国際フォーラムにて開催!出演アーティスト第1弾を発表!" [【Event】 "Weekly Shonen Jump" Readers' invitation music event "NARUTO THE LIVE vol.0" will be held at the Tokyo International Forum on Saturday, April 11! Announced the first stage of casting artists!]. Music Lounge (in Japanese). February 24, 2015. Archived from the original on June 20, 2017.
  18. るろうに剣心 1 [Rurouni Kenshin 1] (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  19. るろうに剣心 28 [Rurouni Kenshin 28] (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  20. るろうに剣心 完全版 22 [Rurouni Kenshin Kanzenban 22] (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  21. "Rurouni Kenshin Manga Series to Return in Japan in May". Anime News Network. December 26, 2011. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
  22. "Rurouni Kenshin Restoration Manga to End". Anime News Network. May 31, 2013. Archived from the original on June 7, 2013. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  23. "Rurouni Kenshin Manga's "Chapter 0" to Run in Shonen Jump". Anime News Network. April 24, 2012. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  24. "New Rurouni Kenshin Manga Spinoff to Be About Enemy Characters". Anime News Network. January 6, 2014. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
  25. "Viz's Shonen Jump to Publish Rurouni Kenshin's Shishio Spinoff". Anime News Network. July 7, 2014. Archived from the original on July 13, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  26. 「るろ剣」志々雄一派の読切と小説が1冊に (in Japanese). Natalie. October 3, 2014. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  27. "Rurouni Kenshin 2-Chapter Spinoff Manga Features New Main Character". Anime News Network. November 5, 2016. Archived from the original on November 6, 2016. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  28. "Viz makes Hikaru no Go and Kenshin official". Anime News Network . July 24, 2003. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  29. Luther, Katerine (October 3, 2004). "Rurouni Kenshin Goes Monthly". About.com. Archived from the original on August 4, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  30. "Kenshin Manga Bids Goodbye". Anime News Network . June 14, 2006. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  31. "Shonen Jump". 4 (8). Viz Media. August 2006. ISSN   1545-7818.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  32. "Rurouni Kenshin, Vol. 1 (VIZBIG Edition)". Viz Media. Archived from the original on December 2, 2007. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  33. Watsuki, Nobuhiro (2003). "Glossary of the Restoration". Rurouni Kenshin, Volume 1. Viz Media. p. 200. ISBN   978-1-59116-220-9.
  34. ぎゃろっぷ作品履歴1999 (in Japanese). Gallop. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  35. "Episode list" (in Japanese). Sony. Archived from the original on May 23, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
  36. "Staff" (in Japanese). Sony. Archived from the original on 2009-01-31. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
  37. るろうに剣心 -明治剣客浪漫譚-. Akiba Souken (in Japanese). Kakaku.com. Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  38. るろうに剣心 ―明治剣客浪漫譚― 維新志士への鎮魂歌. Media Arts Database (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. Archived from the original on June 1, 2021. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  39. るろうに剣心 (in Japanese). Studio Deen. Archived from the original on April 17, 1999. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  40. オリジナル・ビデオ・アニメーション『るろうに剣心-明治剣客浪漫譚-』星霜編 ~下巻~. Sony Music Shop (in Japanese). Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  41. "SonyMusicShop" オリジナル・ビデオ・アニメーション『るろうに剣心-明治剣客浪漫譚-』星霜編 ~上巻~. Sony Music Shop (in Japanese). Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  42. "New Rurouni Kenshin Anime's Part I Promo Video Streamed". Anime News Network . Archived from the original on November 29, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
  43. "New Rurouni Kenshin Anime's Part II Promo Streamed". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  44. ""Rurouni Kenshin" to get film adaptation starring Sato Takeru!". Tokyohive. Archived from the original on June 30, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
  45. "Emi Takei to Play Live-Action Rurouni Kenshin's Kaoru". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
  46. "Live-Action Rurouni Kenshin Film Image Published". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on December 2, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  47. "Rurouni Kenshin Gets 2 New Live-Action Kyoto Arc Films". Anime News Network . 2013-06-29. Archived from the original on 2013-12-15. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
  48. "New Live-Action Rurouni Kenshin Sequel Image Previews Juppongatana". Anime News Network. January 1, 2014. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  49. "New Live-Action Rurouni Kenshin Sequels' Photos Feature Kenshin vs. Sōjirō". Anime News Network. January 8, 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
  50. Mateo, Alex (April 11, 2019). "Rurouni Kenshin Gets 'Final' 2 Live-Action Films in Summer 2020". Anime News Network . Retrieved April 12, 2019.
  51. "るろうに剣心 Limited Edition" (in Japanese). Retrieved June 5, 2008.
  52. "るろうに剣心 : 明治剣客浪漫譚 ― オリジナル·サウンドトラック ~ディパーチャー Soundtrack" (in Japanese). Retrieved June 5, 2008.
  53. "るろうに剣心~明治剣客浪漫譚~III Soundtrack" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2008.
  54. "るろうに剣心 : 明治剣客浪漫譚 ― オリジナル·サウンドトラック 4 ~レット·イット·バーン Soundtrack" (in Japanese). Retrieved June 5, 2008.
  55. "Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Kenkaku Romantan -Tsuiokuhen Original Soundtrack" (in Japanese). CdJapan. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved June 5, 2008.
  56. るろうに剣心 : 明治剣客浪漫譚 星霜編 ― オリジナル·サウンドトラック (in Japanese). Retrieved June 5, 2008.
  57. るろうに剣心 : 明治剣客浪漫譚 ― オリジナル·サウンドトラック ~ディレクターズ·コレクション (in Japanese). Retrieved June 5, 2008.
  58. るろうに剣心 / 明治剣客浪漫譚 ― ベスト·テーマ·コレクション (in Japanese). Retrieved May 26, 2009.
  59. るろうに剣心~明治剣客浪漫譚~ 主題歌 音楽絵巻 (in Japanese). Retrieved May 26, 2009.
  60. "「るろうに剣心-明治剣客浪漫譚-」COMPLETE CD-BOX" (in Japanese). Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  61. "First new "Rurouni Kenshin" anime in 9 years + compilation album". Tokyohive.com. Archived from the original on April 30, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  62. Watsuki, Nobuhiro (19 November 2003). "Free Talk". Rurouni Kenshin, Volume 2. Viz Media. p.  77. ISBN   1-59116-249-1.
  63. Watsuki, Nobuhiro (2004). Rurouni Kenshin, Volume 5. Viz Media. p.  15. ISBN   978-1-59116-320-6.
  64. "The Kenshin Musical Cast Looks Perfect in Costume". Archived from the original on 2016-07-22. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
  65. "Rurouni Kenshin Gets New Stage Play in October". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  66. "Rurouni Kenshin Manga's Kyoto Arc Gets Stage Musical This Fall Starring Teppei Koike". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  67. "New Rurouni Kenshin Stage Musical Canceled Due to COVID-19". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  68. 原典・るろうに剣心―明治剣客浪漫譚―「剣心秘伝」 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on June 2, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
  69. Watsuki, Nobuhiro (November 2005). Rurouni Kenshin Profiles (Rurouni Kenshin) (Paperback). ISBN   1421501600.
  70. 全史・るろうに剣心 ―明治剣客浪漫譚― 剣心華伝 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on August 3, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
  71. るろうに剣心・剣心草紙―電影画帖―アニメコレクション1 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
  72. るろうに剣心・剣心草紙―電影画帖―アニメコレクション3 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on August 3, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
  73. るろうに剣心・剣心草紙―電影画帖―アニメコレクション2 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on August 3, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
  74. るろうに剣心 完全版 ガイドブック 剣心皆伝 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
  75. "Viz Media - Products: Rurouni Kenshin: Voyage to the Moon World (Novel)". Viz Media. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2008.
  76. るろうに剣心1~明治剣客浪漫譚~ (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  77. るろうに剣心 2 〜明治剣客浪漫譚〜 (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  78. るろうに剣心~明治剣客浪漫譚~島原編 ルロウニケンシン (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  79. るろうに剣心 ―銀幕草紙変― (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  80. "Rurouni Kenshin: Ishin Gekitouhen". GameSpot . Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2009.
  81. "Rurouni Kenshin: Meiji Kenyaku Romantan: Juuyuushi Inbou Hen". GameSpot . Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2009.
  82. "Rurouni Kenshin: Enjou! Kyoto Rinne". GameSpot . Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2009.
  83. "Charts Japon : le Top 500 de 2006". Jeuxactu. August 29, 2006. Archived from the original on January 13, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
  84. "Rurouni Kenshin Gets PSP 2D Fighting Game in Spring (Update 2)". Anime News Network . November 2, 2010. Archived from the original on November 5, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
  85. るろうに剣心-明治剣客浪漫譚- 再閃 (in Japanese). jp.playstation.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  86. るろうに剣心 -明治剣客浪漫譚- 完醒 (in Japanese). jp.playstation.com. Archived from the original on July 12, 2015. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  87. "Jump Ultimate Stars" (in Japanese). Nintendo. Archived from the original on January 22, 2008. Retrieved November 22, 2008.
  88. "Bleach, Kenshin Join J-Stars Victory Vs. Team Battle Game". Anime News Network . June 5, 2013. Archived from the original on August 12, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
  89. "Naruto/DBZ/One Piece/Kenshin Rivals Join J-Stars Victory Vs. Game". Anime News Network . January 15, 2014. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
  90. Hodgkins, Crystalyn (18 November 2018). "Jump Force Game Adds Rurouni Kenshin's Kenshin Himura, Makoto Shishio as Playable Characters". Anime News Network . Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  91. Watsuki, Nobuhiro (2005). Rurouni Kenshin, Volume 11. Viz Media. p. 51. ISBN   978-1-59116-709-9.
  92. "Top 10 Shonen Jump Manga by All-Time Volume Sales". Anime News Network . Archived from the original on 2016-10-08. Retrieved 2012-12-20.
  93. "Top 20 Most Popular Manga Ranked By Publication Numbers". Anime News Network . Archived from the original on 2014-09-06. Retrieved 2014-09-04.
  94. るろうに剣心:初の展覧会が2020年4月開催 作品誕生から25周年. Mantan Web (in Japanese). December 4, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  95. "Viz Sweeps Bookscan Top Ten". Anime News Network . June 5, 2006. Archived from the original on January 2, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2008.
  96. "Viz Takes Ownership of top 10 Manga". Anime News Network . December 8, 2005. Archived from the original on January 2, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2008.
  97. "Viz Scores Highest Ever Sales Ranking for a Manga in Booklist". Anime News Network . December 8, 2005. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved March 3, 2006.
  98. "Manga Competition Heats Up". ICv2. October 18, 2004. Archived from the original on February 10, 2005. Retrieved January 26, 2005.
  99. "Manga Market Continues Robust Growth in '04". ICv2. July 12, 2006. Archived from the original on January 29, 2005. Retrieved January 26, 2005.
  100. "ICv2's Ten Most Powerful". ICv2. July 12, 2006. Archived from the original on June 30, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  101. テレビ朝日『国民15万人がガチで投票!漫画総選挙』ランキング結果まとめ! 栄えある1位に輝く漫画は!?. animate Times (in Japanese). Animate. January 3, 2021. Archived from the original on January 3, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  102. Lavey, Megan (December 18, 2004). "Rurouni Kenshin G.novel 18". Mania Entertainment. Archived from the original on April 26, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2009.
  103. Raiteri, Steve (2004-03-01). "Watsuki, Nobuhiro. Rurouni Kenshin, Vol. 1". Library Journal . Library Journals, LLC. 129 (4): 63(1). ISSN   0363-0277.
  104. Surat, Daryl. "Heart of Steel." Otaku USA . Volume 4, Number 1. August 2010. 34.
  105. Surat, Daryl. "Heart of Steel." Otaku USA . Volume 4, Number 1. August 2010. 34–36.
  106. Luther, Katherine. "Top 8 Anime Love Stories". About.com . Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  107. "Ask John: Should There Be More Variety in Shōnen & Shōjo Anime?". AnimeNation. April 23, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  108. Kan, Kat (2004-06-01). "Samurai with a weird sword". Voice of Youth Advocates. E L Kurdyla Publishing LLC. 27 (2): 118(2). ISSN   0160-4201.
  109. Lavey, Megan (2004-10-27). "Rurouni Kenshin Vol. #07". Mania Entertainment. Archived from the original on 2015-02-20. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
  110. Lavey, Megan. "Rurouni Kenshin Vol. #08 of 28". Mania.com. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
  111. "Kenshin le Vagabundo 16". Manga News. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  112. "Kenshin le Vagabundo 17". Manga News. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  113. Bertschy, Zac (October 2, 2005). "Rurouni Kenshin G.novel 18". Anime News Network . Archived from the original on April 26, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
  114. "Critique du volume manga". Manga News. Retrieved October 28, 2020.
  115. Sparrow, A.E. (June 27, 2006). "Rurouni Kenshin Vol. 28 Review". IGN . Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
  116. Surat, Daryl. "Heart of Steel." Otaku USA . Volume 4, Number 1. August 2010. 37.
  117. Santos, Carlo (October 2, 2005). "RIGHT TURN ONLY!! Bye Bye Mr. Battousai". Anime News Network. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
  118. Lavey, Megan. "Rurouni Kenshin Vol. #28". Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
  119. Kishimoto, Masashi (2007). Naruto, Volume 13. Viz Media. p.  66. ISBN   978-1-4215-1087-3.
  120. "'Rurouni Kenshin' sequels coming to PH this year". Sun.Star . PressReader. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  121. "Rurôni Kenshin: Meiji kenkaku roman tan (2012)". Box Office Mojo . Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  122. "Rurouni Kenshin". Box Office Mojo . Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  123. "Rurouni Kenshin: Origins (2016)". Box Office Mojo . Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  124. Nancy Tartaglione and David Bloom (January 10, 2015). "'Transformers 4′ Tops 2014's 100 Highest-Grossing International Films – Chart". Deadline Hollywood . Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  125. "2014". Eiren. Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  126. "영화정보". KOFIC. Korean Film Council . Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  127. "Rurôni Kenshin: Densetsu no saigo-hen (2014)". Box Office Mojo . Retrieved 14 February 2019.

Further reading