Russell Harrison Varian (April 24, 1898 – July 28, 1959) and Sigurd Fergus Varian (May 4, 1901 – October 18, 1961) were brothers who founded one of the earliest high-tech companies in Silicon Valley. Born to theosophist parents who helped lead the utopian community of Halcyon, California, they grew up in a home with multiple creative influences. The brothers showed an early interest in electricity, and after independently establishing careers in electronics and aviation they came together to invent the klystron, which became a critical component of radar, telecommunications and other microwave technologies. In 1948 they founded Varian Associates to market the klystron and other inventions; the company became the first to move into Stanford Industrial Park, the birthplace of Silicon Valley. Both brothers were noted for their progressive political views; Russell was a lifelong supporter of the Sierra Club, Sigurd helped found the housing cooperative of Ladera, California, and Varian Associates instituted innovative employee policies that were ahead of their time. In 1950, the Varians were awarded the John Price Wetherill Medal for the development of the klystron, and both were posthumously inducted into the Silicon Valley Engineering Council Hall of Fame in 1993.
Silicon Valley is a region in the southern Bay Area of Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology, innovation and social media. It corresponds roughly to the geographical area of Santa Clara Valley. San Jose is the Valley's largest city, the third largest in California, and the tenth largest in the United States. Other major Silicon Valley cities include Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Cupertino, Santa Clara, Mountain View, and Sunnyvale. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution.
Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century. It was founded largely by the Russian émigrée Helena Blavatsky and draws its beliefs predominantly from Blavatsky's writings. Categorised by scholars of religion as part of the occultist current of Western esotericism, it draws upon both older European philosophies like Neoplatonism and Asian religions like Hinduism and Buddhism.
Halcyon is an unincorporated community of approximately 125 acres in San Luis Obispo County, California, located just beyond the southern border of the city of Arroyo Grande. The Temple group was founded in 1898; Halcyon was founded in 1903 as a Theosophical intentional community and is the home and headquarters of a religious organization, The Temple of the People.
The Varian brothers' parents, John and Agnes Varian, were born and raised in Ireland,and were members of the Theosophical Society in Dublin. They emigrated to the United States in 1894, and settled in Syracuse, New York, where they became involved with a theosophical group headed by William Dower. After Dower moved to Halcyon, California, they joined him in 1914, shortly after Halcyon's founding. It was a utopian community that included a sanatorium for the treatment of liquor, morphine, and opium addiction, with socialist leanings and some communal property. John Varian became a leader of the Temple of the People at Halcyon, worked as a chiropractor and masseur, wrote theosophist poetry and socialist tracts, and pursued an interest in Irish myth and history. Agnes was the first Halcyon storekeeper and postmistress.
John Osborne Varian was an Irish-American poet and amateur musician who was one of the early members of the Temple of the People and a leader within the theosophist utopian community of Halcyon, California. Two of his sons, Russell and Sigurd Varian, became notable inventors and went on to found Varian Associates, one of the first companies in Silicon Valley. Varian died on January 9, 1931 following pneumonia.
The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy. The original organization, after splits and realignments, currently has several successors. Following the death of Blavatsky, competition within the Society between factions emerged, particularly among founding members and the organisation split between the Theosophical Society Adyar (Olcott-Besant) and the Theosophical Society Pasadena (Judge). The former group, headquartered in India, is the most widespread international group holding the name "Theosophical Society" today.
A sanatorium is a medical facility for long-term illness, most typically associated with treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in the late-nineteenth and twentieth century before the discovery of antibiotics. A distinction is sometimes made between "sanitarium" and "sanatorium".
John and Agnes had three sons, Russell, Sigurd and Eric.The family was not wealthy, but noted in the community for being loving, humorous and adventurous. All three boys exhibited an early fascination with electricity, which included pranks such as attaching electrical outlets to bed springs and door knobs to give visitors minor electric shocks. Russell was named in honor of the poet "Æ", George Russell, whom John had befriended in Ireland. Russell was dyslexic, and in his childhood he was considered by many to be "slow", although later events would demonstrate the true extent of his intellect; Sigurd was the more outgoing of the older two siblings.
George William Russell who wrote with the pseudonym Æ, was an Irish writer, editor, critic, poet, painter and Irish nationalist. He was also a writer on mysticism, and a central figure in the group of devotees of theosophy which met in Dublin for many years.
Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads. Often these difficulties are first noticed at school. When someone who previously could read loses their ability, it is known as alexia. The difficulties are involuntary and people with this disorder have a normal desire to learn.
Composer Henry Cowell befriended Russell in 1911,when both were in their teens. A piano sonata that Cowell composed for Russell brought Cowell to the attention of John Varian, who, in 1917, asked Cowell to write the prelude for a stage production of John's Irish mythical poetry cycle, The Building of Banba. This piece, titled The Tides of Manaunaun , became Cowell's most famous and widely performed work.
Henry Dixon Cowell was an American composer, music theorist, pianist, teacher, publisher, and impresario. His contribution to the world of music was summed up by Virgil Thomson, writing in the early 1950s:
Henry Cowell's music covers a wider range in both expression and technique than that of any other living composer. His experiments begun three decades ago in rhythm, in harmony, and in instrumental sonorities were considered then by many to be wild. Today they are the Bible of the young and still, to the conservatives, "advanced."... No other composer of our time has produced a body of works so radical and so normal, so penetrating and so comprehensive. Add to this massive production his long and influential career as a pedagogue, and Henry Cowell's achievement becomes impressive indeed. There is no other quite like it. To be both fecund and right is given to few.
The Tides of Manaunaun is a short piano piece in B♭ minor by American composer Henry Cowell (1897–1965). It premiered publicly in 1917, serving as a prelude to a theatrical production, The Building of Banba. The Tides of Manaunaun is the best known of Cowell's many tone cluster pieces.
Cowell was also a music tutor of Ansel Adams, and the Varian family in turn became friends with Adams,who became friends with Russell and Sigurd through their mutual activity in the Sierra Club. Adams knew the family for more than 30 years, and was a hiking companion of Russell's; the pair made many trips into the Sierras. Adams later used a line from one of John Varian's poems, "...What Majestic Word", as the title of his 1963 Portfolio Four, which he dedicated to Russell's memory. The portfolio, of which only 200 copies were printed, was narrated with the words of John and Russell Varian, and sold as a fundraiser for the Sierra Club.
Ansel Easton Adams was an American landscape photographer and environmentalist known for his black-and-white images of the American West.
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. The Sierra Club primarily operates in the United States; an affiliated organization, Sierra Club Canada, operates in Canada and deals exclusively with Canadian issues.
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin. The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California, although the Carson Range spur lies primarily in Nevada. The Sierra Nevada is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an almost continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica.
Russell earned bachelor's and master's degrees in physics from Stanford University, overcoming his learning disabilities with what was described as hard work and "sheer force of will".Because of his reading and math difficulties, he took six years to graduate, switching from social sciences to physics. His application to the PhD program at Stanford was rejected. He completed his master's degree in 1927, and went to work at Humble Oil, staying there for five months and receiving a patent for a vibrating magnetometer. Later he went to work in the San Francisco area and was introduced to television technology through a job with Philo Farnsworth.
Humble Oil and Refining Co. was founded in 1911 in Humble, Texas. In 1919, a 50% interest in Humble was acquired by Standard Oil of New Jersey which acquired the rest of the company in September 1959 and merged with its parent to become Exxon Company, USA in 1973.
Philo Taylor Farnsworth was an American inventor and television pioneer. He made many contributions that were crucial to the early development of all-electronic television. He is best known for his 1927 invention of the first fully functional all-electronic image pickup device, the "image dissector", as well as the first fully functional and complete all-electronic television system. Farnsworth developed a television system complete with receiver and camera which he produced commercially in the form of the Farnsworth Television and Radio Corporation from 1938 to 1951 in Fort Wayne, Indiana.
Sigurd attended California Polytechnic State University, but, mostly owing to boredom, dropped out and never completed a college degree.Through much of his career, Sigurd was periodically ill because of tuberculosis. After a brief stint working for Southern California Edison Company stringing power lines, he took flying lessons and became a pilot, airplane mechanic, and self-taught engineer. He worked as a barnstormer and later as a pilot for Pan American Airways, at a time when the company developed new routes into Latin America. Sigurd was one of the pilots Pan Am selected for their first flights to Mexico and Central America, and while working as an airline captain, he lived in Mexico from 1929 to 1934. From this experience, he discovered many problems with existing maps, finding, for example, that some Mexican charts showed swamps where there were actually mountains. He also realized how difficult it was to land safely or to detect other planes at night or when it was overcast. As a result, he was very familiar with the inadequacies of existing navigational equipment and became interested in ways to make flying safer.
In the early 1930s, in addition to a strong interest in navigation,Sigurd became concerned about the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany and the political situation in Spain. His experience as a pilot in Central and South America made him particularly aware of the vulnerability of the Panama Canal to enemy attack, as he believed it was relatively simple to fly over a military target at night or in heavy overcast sky in the absence of a defense warning system. Edward Ginzton, who later helped the brothers establish Varian Associates, stated: "[Sigurd] felt that Hitler could easily establish bases in Central America, from which his planes could fly into the United States at night, or at low elevations, and drop bombs, without ever being detected."
Sigurd was interested in all-weather navigation systems,and suggested to Russell that together they could create a radio-based technology using microwaves that could detect airplanes at night or in clouds. Russell agreed, and they both quit their jobs, set up their own lab at Halcyon, and began developing plans for a device that could precisely determine the location and direction of an airplane. They initially attempted to create a radio compass, but could not develop a successful design, partly as a consequence of their isolation. They ultimately sought assistance from Russell's college roommate, William Webster Hansen, who was by then a professor at Stanford. With Hansen's help, they came to the attention of the head of the Stanford physics department, David Webster, who hired them in 1936 to work at the University in exchange for lab space, $100 a year for supplies, and an agreement that Stanford University would have half of the royalties for any patents they obtained.
After several rejected models, Russell devised a way to use velocity modulation to allow electrons to flow in bunches and to control their speed. 1937.The concept of velocity modulation he used had already been described by A. Arsenjewa Heil and Oskar Heil in 1935, though the Varians were unlikely to have known of the work. The brothers and Hansen ultimately created the klystron, the first tube that could generate electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Russell was responsible for the design and Sigurd built the first prototype, which was completed in August
The klystron, a microwave tube,was noticed in 1938 by Sperry Gyroscope, who gave the Varian brothers and Hansen a contract to do further work. The Varians did not know that the British were also working on early radar technology, which by then could detect submarines, but could not be made light enough to use in airplanes. Upon publication of a paper in 1939, news of the klystron quickly influenced the work of US and British researchers working on radar technology. Thereafter, klystron equipment was set up in Boston in 1939, and with it, successful blind-landing tests of airplanes were completed. The Varians moved to the east coast in 1940 to work for Sperry, where wartime development of the microwave tube continued. Though little is known of their work in this period because they were presumably working on classified projects, it appears that they directed Sperry's vacuum tube and radar work during World War II. The US and Britain were able to use this technology to create radar equipment light and compact enough to fit into aircraft, which was credited with helping the Allies win the war.
The Varian brothers and their associates individually left Sperry and returned to the West Coast between 1945 and 1948. ... energy and technical insight in developing ... the klystron". Klystron technology was still being used in 1993 in UHF television, the free-electron laser, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Each brother developed other inventions. Russell gained patents for technology related to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), thermionic tubes, and various radar technologies. Sigurd's inventions, some of which he patented, included a system of pumps, filters, and heaters for his swimming pool, as well as a high-speed drill press. Sigurd also led projects that built models and prototypes to develop Russell's concepts into usable products. Russell was awarded an honorary Doctor of Engineering degree by the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. He was also named alumnus of the year by California State Polytechnic College for inventing the Klystron.After the war, the klystron became an important component in the further development of radar and the microwave industry. It was used in broadcast television and in the development of various telecommunications technologies. In 1950, the Varians were awarded the John Price Wetherill Medal of the Franklin Institute "in recognition of their foresight
Today, the Russell Varian Prize, sponsored by Agilent Technologies (Varian, Inc. prior to 2010), honors the memory of Russell Varian and recognizes "innovative contributions of high and broad impact on state-of-the-art NMR technology", and carries with it a prize of €15,000.It is presented annually at EUROMAR, the annual joint conference of the European magnetic resonance scientific community, including the UK Royal Society of Chemistry NMR group, AMPERE Congress, and the European Experimental NMR Conference (EENC). The American Vacuum Society instituted the Russell and Sigurd Varian Award in 1983 for continuing graduate students to honor the Varian brothers.
Russell and Sigurd founded Varian Associates in 1948, along with Hansen and Ginzton. They initially created the company to commercialize the klystron 20, 1948, and signed by nine directors: Ginzton, who had worked with the Varian brothers since his days as a doctoral student; Hansen, Richard M. Leonard, an attorney; Leonard I. Schiff, then head of the physics department at Stanford; H. Myrl Stearns, Russell, Dorothy, Sigurd and Paul B. Hunter. The company began with six full-time employees: the Varian brothers, Dorothy, Myrl Stearns, Fred Salisbury, and Don Snow. Technical and business assistance came from several members of the faculty at Stanford University, including Ginzton, Marvin Chodorow, Hansen, and Leonard Schiff. Francis Farquhar, an accountant and friend of Russell's from the Sierra Club, later became a director, as did Frederick Terman, Dean of Engineering at Stanford, and David Packard, of Hewlett-Packard. Russell served as the company President and a board member until his death; Sigurd served as Vice president for engineering, and served on the Board of Directors until his death, sometimes serving as Chairman of the Board. After the deaths of both Varian brothers, Ginzton became the company's CEO.and develop other technologies, such as small linear accelerators to generate photons for external-beam radiation therapy. They also were interested in nuclear magnetic resonance technology. Russell's wife, Dorothy, was also active in the development of the company and its operations. The Articles of Incorporation were filed on April
The company was initially headquartered in San Carlos, California, – noted as the "spawning ground of Silicon Valley" – and was the first firm to occupy a site there. Several spin-off corporations developed after the death of the Varian brothers; one branch, Varian, Inc., was acquired by Agilent Technologies in May, 2010.and started with only $22,000 in funding. Russell's insistence that the company be owned by its employees and his refusal to accept outside investors led to problems in raising additional capital. Hansen mortgaged his home for $17,000 to raise additional cash, and the group sought out funds from their friends. Ultimately, however, the company raised $120,000 of necessary capital via an offer of stock to all employees, directors, consultants, and a few sympathetic local investors who shared the company's goals. Military contracts for technology deemed necessary during the Cold War, including some classified projects, also helped the firm succeed. In 1953, Varian Associates moved its headquarters to Palo Alto, California, at Stanford Industrial Park
One of Varian Associates' major contracts in the 1950s was to create a fuse for the atomic bomb. The Varian brothers had initially been supportive of military applications for the klystron and other technologies, on the grounds that they were primarily defensive weapons, but this contract was different. Although politically progressive to the point of having socialist leanings, the Varians considered themselves patriotic at heart and had no sympathy for Soviet Marxism. They also needed military contracts to survive, and relished the technical challenges of this type of work. Nonetheless, as early as 1958, Russell and Sigurd expressed regret for their involvement in developing weapons of mass destruction.
Most of the founders of Varian Associates, including Russell and Sigurd, had progressive political leanings,and the company "pioneered profit-sharing, stock-ownership, insurance, and retirement plans for employees long before these benefits became mandatory." Nearly 50 years later, in 1997, the company was still recognized by Industry Week as one of the best-managed companies in America.
In 1998, the Congressional Record noted the 50th anniversary of the founding of Varian Associates, which then employed 7,000 people at 100 plants in nine countries. It had branched out into health care systems, analytical equipment, and semiconductor manufacturing equipment. The company had been awarded more than 10,000 patents. California's 14th congressional district Representative Anna Eshoo called the company a "jewel in the crown of ... Silicon Valley."
Russell married twice. From his first marriage, he had a son, George Russell Varian, born on April 22, 1943.Russell's second marriage, in 1947, was to Dorothy Hill. Dorothy, born in 1907, attended UC Berkeley in 1924–28, working odd jobs to pay her tuition, and graduated with a degree in economics. After doing graduate work at Berkeley for a year as a teaching fellow in sales management and market analysis, she made a career for herself in marketing and advertising. An outdoors enthusiast, she enjoyed hiking, and met Russell while on a trip riding burros. The couple adopted two children, Susan Aileen, born Jan 29, 1950, and Charles John, born October 28, 1951. Susan completed a B. A. from UC Davis, studied at Arizona State University and Stanford University, and became a fellow of the Hoover Institution.
Russell was a longtime member of the Sierra Club and, as part of the organization's conservation committee, worked on efforts to acquire land to further the conservation efforts of the organization. In addition, Russell and Dorothy worked to preserve Castle Rock.He was also a member of the League for Civic Unity and the ACLU. He liked to sing Irish ballads learned from his father.
Sigurd met and married his wife, Winifred, in Mexico. She was the daughter of the British Consul at Vera Cruz.The couple were among the residents of Ladera, a community near Stanford University, which started as a housing cooperative. They had two children: John O. ("Jack") and Lorna. Lorna married Charles Van Linghe, who became a Palo Alto stockbroker, on December 31, 1955. She died on January 26, 2010.
Russell and Sigurd's brother, Eric Varian, remained in the Halcyon area. He had a career in the central California coast as an electrical contractor,and, beginning in the early 1960s, also assisted the work of his daughter, Sheila Varian, in building a horse ranch, and she became a notable breeder of Arabian horses. Russell's wife Dorothy provided short-term loans that helped support the Varian Arabian horse breeding program in its early years.
Both Russell and Sigurd died unexpectedly. Russell died of a heart condition in 1959 on a hiking trip in Alaska.He had been scouting locations that were being considered for national parks. Dorothy continued the couple's conservation work, invigorating the Sempervirens Club as a trust fund to acquire lands for conservation. Her efforts helped establish Castle Rock State Park in 1968. She wrote a biography of Russell and Sigurd, titled The Inventor and the Pilot: Russell and Sigurd Varian, published in 1983. Dorothy died on July 9, 1992.
On October 18, 1961, Sigurd crashed his private plane into the Pacific Ocean while flying from Guadalajara to Puerto Vallarta, after losing his way in darkness. The plane crashed about a mile offshore and his passenger, George Applegate, managed to swim ashore and survived.Sigurd was buried in Guadalajara. He had lived the last three years of his life at Puerto Vallarta. He left an estate worth over $3 million, with one-fourth going to "The Sigurd F. Varian and Winifred H. Varian Charitable Foundation," a chief beneficiary of which was a hospital in Puerto Vallarta. Winifred died suddenly on July 11, 1962. The couple's daughter Lorna had commented that her mother had been very depressed after Sigurd's death.
The Varian family's interest in the conservation of California's natural heritage has been carried on by Sigurd's son, Jack, owner of the V6 Ranch near Parkfield, California, which consists of more than 17,000 acres in two counties. The ranch is entirely protected by a conservation easement that is part of the California Rangeland Trust's Diablo Range Project.
Sperry Corporation (1910−1986) was a major American equipment and electronics company whose existence spanned more than seven decades of the 20th century. Through a series of mergers it exists today as a part of Unisys, while some other of its former divisions became part of Honeywell, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, and Northrop Grumman.
Agilent Technologies is an American public research, development and manufacturing company established in 1999 as a spin-off from Hewlett-Packard. The resulting IPO of Agilent stock was the largest in the history of Silicon Valley at the time.
A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube, invented in 1937 by American electrical engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian, which is used as an amplifier for high radio frequencies, from UHF up into the microwave range. Low-power klystrons are used as oscillators in terrestrial microwave relay communications links, while high-power klystrons are used as output tubes in UHF television transmitters, satellite communication, radar transmitters, and to generate the drive power for modern particle accelerators.
The traitorous eight was a group of eight employees who left Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1957 to found Fairchild Semiconductor. William Shockley had in 1956 recruited a group of young PhD graduates with the goal to develop and produce new semiconductor devices. While Shockley had received a Nobel Prize in Physics and was an experienced researcher and teacher, his management of the group was authoritarian and unpopular. This was accentuated by the fact that Shockley's research focus wasn’t proving fruitful. After the demand for Shockley to be replaced was rebuffed, the eight left to form their own company.
William Webster Hansen was an American physicist and professor. He was one of the founders of the technology of microwave electronics.
Frederick Emmons Terman was an American professor and academic administrator. He is widely credited as being the father of Silicon Valley.
Varian Medical Systems (VAR) of Palo Alto, California, USA, is a radiation oncology treatments and software maker. Their medical devices include linear accelerators and software for treating cancer and other medical conditions with radiotherapy, radiosurgery, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The company supplies software for managing cancer clinics, radiotherapy centers, and medical oncology practices. Varian is a supplier of tubes and digital detectors for X-ray imaging in medical diagnostics, dentistry, veterinary care, scientific, security, industrial inspection including high-energy X-ray technology for cargo screening. Varian Medical Systems employs more than 7,100 people at manufacturing sites in North America, Europe, and China and approximately 70 sites globally.
Charles Vincent Litton Sr. (1904–1972) was an engineer and inventor from the area now known as Silicon Valley.
Dr Edward Leonard Ginzton was a Ukrainian-American engineer.
Eimac is a trade mark of Eimac Products, part of the Microwave Power Products Division of Communications & Power Industries. It produces power vacuum tubes for radio frequency applications such as broadcast and radar transmitters.
Oskar Heil was a German electrical engineer and inventor. He studied physics, chemistry, mathematics, and music at the Georg-August University of Göttingen and was awarded his PhD in 1933, for his work on molecular spectroscopy.
Varian may refer to:
An ion pump is a type of vacuum pump capable of reaching pressures as low as 10−11 mbar under ideal conditions. An ion pump ionizes gas within the vessel it is attached to and employs a strong electrical potential, typically 3–7 kV, which allows the ions to accelerate into and be captured by a solid electrode and its residue.
Varian Associates was one of the first high-tech companies in Silicon Valley. It was founded in 1948 by Russell H. and Sigurd F. Varian, William Webster Hansen, and Edward Ginzton to sell the klystron, the first vacuum tube which could amplify electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies, and other electromagnetic equipment. Varian Associates split into three companies in 1999: Varian Medical Systems, Varian, Inc. and Varian Semiconductor.
John Robert Woodyard (1904–1981) was an American physicist who made important contributions to the technology of microwave electronics and invented "doping" to improve the performance of semiconductors.
Leonard Isaac Schiff was born in Fall River, Massachusetts on March 29, 1915 and died on January 21, 1971 in Stanford, California. He was a physicist best known for his book Quantum Mechanics, originally published in 1949.
Sir John Turton Randall, was an English physicist and biophysicist, credited with radical improvement of the cavity magnetron, an essential component of centimetric wavelength radar, which was one of the keys to the Allied victory in the Second World War. It is also the key component of microwave ovens.
The Russell Varian Prize was an international scientific prize awarded for a single, high-impact and innovative contribution in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), that laid the foundation for the development of new technologies in the field. It honored the memory of Russell Varian, the pioneer behind the creation of the first commercial NMR spectrometer and the co-founder, in 1948, of Varian Associates, one of the first high-tech companies in Silicon Valley. The prize carried a monetary award of €15,000 and it was awarded annually between the years 2002 and 2015 by a committee of experts in the field. The award ceremony alternated between the European Magnetic Resonance (EUROMAR) Conference and the International Council on Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems (ICMRBS) Conference. Originally, the prize was sponsored by Varian, Inc. and later by Agilent Technologies, after the latter acquired Varian, Inc. in 2010. The prize was discontinued in 2016 after Agilent Technologies closed its NMR division.