|Established||8 February 1724|
Saint Petersburg, Russia
|President|| Alexander Sergeev |
(since September 27, 2017)
|Address||Leninsky prospekt 14, Moscow|
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Russian : Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН)Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research activities and standards for academic disciplines, most frequently in the sciences but also the humanities. Typically the country's learned societies in individual disciplines will liaise with or be co-ordinated by the national academy. National academies play an important organizational role in academic exchanges and collaborations between countries.
Headquartered in Moscow, the Academy (RAS) is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organizationchartered by the Government of Russia. It combines the members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions. Near the central academy building there is a monument to Yuri Gagarin in the square bearing his name.
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.
The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the Prime Minister, the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law "On the Government the Russian Federation".
Monument to Yuri Gagarin is a 42.5-meter high pedestal and statue of Yuri Gagarin, the first person to travel in space. It is located at Leninsky Prospekt in Moscow. The pedestal is designed to be reminiscent of a rocket exhaust. The statue is made of titanium, a metal often used in spacecraft, and weighs 12 tons.
As of November 2017, the Academy included 1008 institutions and other units;in total about 125,000 people were employed of whom 47,000 were scientific researchers.
There are three types of membership in the RAS: full members (academicians), corresponding members, and foreign members. Academicians and corresponding members must be citizens of the Russian Federation when elected. However, some academicians and corresponding members were elected before the collapse of the USSR and are now citizens of other countries. Members of RAS are elected based on their scientific contributions – election to membership is considered very prestigious.In the years 2005–2012, the academy had approximately 500 full and 700 corresponding members. But in 2013, after the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences became incorporated into the RAS, a number of the RAS members accordingly increased.
An academician is a full member of an artistic, literary, engineering or scientific academy. In many countries, it is an honorific title used to denote a full member of an academy that has a strong influence on national scientific life. In systems such as the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the title grants privileges and administrative responsibilities for funding allocation and research priorities. The top three academies that are widely recognized are those from CHINA, USA, and UK. Academicians from these three academies represent the top most excellent technical engineers and scientists.
The last elections to the renewed Russian Academy of Sciences were organized in October 2016. In the beginning of May 2019, the Academy had 1919 living Russian members (full: 845, corresponding: 1074) and 459 foreign members. The next elections will proceed in November 2019.
Since 2015, the Academy also awards, on a competitive basis, the honorary scientific rank of a RAS Professor to the top-level researchers with Russian citizenship. Now there are 605 scientists with this rank.RAS professorship is not a membership type but its holders are considered as possible candidates for membership; so 104 professors were elected already in autumn 2016 and are now titled "RAS professor, corresponding member of the RAS".
Professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences is an academic rank introduced in 2015 by the RAS to be conferred to distinguished Russian scientists from all fields, who are not yet members of the Academy. Research achievements of RAS Professors are supposed to be higher than those of an ordinary university professor but their teaching experience may be relatively modest. Along with its role as an academic rank, “RAS Professor” is an honorary title emphasizing merits of an individual.
The RAS consists of 13 specialized scientific divisions, three territorial branches and 15 regional scientific centers. The Academy has numerous councils, committees, and commissions, all organized for different purposes.
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The Russian Academy of Sciences comprises a large number of research institutions, including:
Member institutions are linked via a dedicated Russian Space Science Internet (RSSI). Started with just three members, The RSSI now has 3,100 members, including 57 from the largest research institutions.
Russian universities and technical institutes are not under the supervision of the RAS (they are subordinated to the Ministry of Education of Russian Federation), but a number of leading universities, such as Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University, Novosibirsk State University, and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, make use of the staff and facilities of many institutes of the RAS (as well as of other research institutions); the MIPT faculty refers to this arrangement as the "Phystech System".
From 1933 to 1992, the main scientific journal of the Soviet Academy of Sciences was the Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR); after 1992, it became simply Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences (Doklady Akademii Nauk).
The Academy is also increasing its presence in the educational area. In 1990 the Higher Chemical College of the Russian Academy of Sciences was founded, a specialized university intended to provide extensive opportunities for students to choose an academic path.
The Academy gives out a number of different prizes, medals and awards among which:
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The Emperor Peter the Great, inspired and advised by Gottfried Leibniz, founded the Academy in Saint Petersburg; the Senate decree of February 8 (January 28 old style), 1724 implemented the establishment.
Originally called The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Russian : Петербургская Академия наук ), the organization went under various names over the years, becoming The Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts (Императорская Академия наук и художеств; 1747–1803), The Imperial Academy of Sciences (Императорская Академия Наук; 1803—1836), and finally, The Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Императорская Санкт-Петербургская Академия Наук, from 1836 and until the end of the empire in 1917).
Foreign scholars invited to work at the academy included the mathematicians Leonhard Euler (1707–1783), Anders Johan Lexell, Christian Goldbach, Georg Bernhard Bilfinger, Nicholas Bernoulli (1695–1726) and Daniel Bernoulli (1700–1782), botanist Johann Georg Gmelin, embryologists Caspar Friedrich Wolff, astronomer and geographer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, physicist Georg Wolfgang Kraft, historian Gerhard Friedrich Müller and English Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne(1732–1811).
Expeditions to explore remote parts of the country had Academy scientists as their leaders or most active participants. These included Vitus Bering's Second Kamchatka Expedition of 1733–1743, expeditions to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from eight locations in Russian Empire, and the expeditions of Peter Simon Pallas (1741–1811) to Siberia.
A separate organization, called the Russian Academy (Russian : Академия Российская), was created in 1783 to work on the study of the Russian language. Presided over by Princess Yekaterina Dashkova (who at the same time was the Director of the Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences, i.e., the country's "main" academy), the Russian Academy was engaged in compiling the six-volume Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language (1789–1794). The Russian Academy was merged into the Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1841.
Shortly after the October Revolution, in December 1917, Sergey Fedorovich Oldenburg, a leading ethnographer and political activist in the Kadet party, met with Vladimir Lenin to discuss the future of the Academy. They agreed that the expertise of the Academy would be applied to addressing questions of state construction, while in return the Soviet government would give the Academy financial and political support.
The most important activities of the Academy in the 1920s included an investigation of the large Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, of the minerals in the Kola Peninsula, and participation in the GOELRO plan targeted electrification of the whole country. In these years, many research institutions were established, and the number of scientists became four times larger than in 1917. In 1925 the Soviet government recognized the Russian Academy of Sciences as the "highest all-Union scientific institution" and renamed it the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
In 1934 the Academy headquarters moved from Leningrad to the capital, Moscow.
The Stalin years are marked with a rapid industrialisation of the Soviet Union for which a great deal of research, mainly in the technical fields, has been done. However, on the other hand, in these very times, many scientists underwent repressions from ideological reasons.
In the years of the Second World War, the Soviet Academy of Sciences made a big contribution to a development of modern weapons – tanks (new series of T-34), airplanes, degaussing the ships (for protection against the naval mines) etc. – and therefore to victory of the USSR over the Nazi Germany. During and after the war, the Academy was involved in the Soviet atomic bomb project; due to its success and other achievements in military techniques, the USSR became one of the superpowers in the Cold War era.
At the end of the 1940s, the Academy consisted of eight divisions (Physico-Mathematical Science, Chemical Sciences, Geological-Geographical Sciences, Biological Science, Technical Science, History and Philosophy, Economics and Law, Literature and Languages); three committees (one for coordinating the scientific work of the Academies of the Republics, one for scientific and technical propaganda, and one for editorial and publications), two commissions (for publishing popular scientific literature, and for museums and archives), a laboratory for scientific photography and cinematography and Academy of Science Press departments external to the divisions.
The Academy of Sciences of the USSR helped to establish national Academies of Sciences in all Soviet republics (with the exception of the Russian SFSR), in many cases delegating prominent scientists to live and work in other republics. In the case of the Ukraine, its academy was formed by the local Ukrainian scientists and prior to occupation of the Ukrainian People's Republic by Bolsheviks. These academies were:
|Ukrainian SSR||Академія наук Української РСР||1918||National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine|
|Byelorussian SSR||Акадэмія Навукаў Беларускай ССР||1929||National Academy of Sciences of Belarus|
|Uzbek SSR||Ўзбекистон ССР Фанлар академияси||1943||Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan|
|Kazakh SSR||Қазақ ССР Ғылым Академиясы||1946||National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan|
|Georgian SSR||საქართველოს სსრ მეცნიერებათა აკადემია||1941||Georgian Academy of Sciences|
|Azerbaijan SSR||Азәрбајҹан ССР Елмләр Академијасы||1945||National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan|
|Lithuanian SSR||Lietuvos TSR Mokslų akademija||1941||Lithuanian Academy of Sciences|
|Moldavian SSR||Академия де Штиинце а РСС Молдовенешть||1946||Academy of Sciences of Moldova|
|Latvian SSR||Latvijas PSR Zinātņu akadēmija||1946||Latvian Academy of Sciences|
|Kirghiz SSR||Кыргыз ССР Илимдер академиясы||1954||National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic|
|Tajik SSR||Академияи Фанҳои РСС Тоҷикистон||1953||Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan|
|Armenian SSR||Հայկական ՍՍՀ գիտությունների ակադեմիա||1943||National Academy of Sciences of Armenia|
|Turkmen SSR||Түркменистан ССР Ылымлар Академиясы||1951||Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan|
|Estonian SSR||Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia||1946||Estonian Academy of Sciences|
Among the most important achievements of the Academy of the second half of the 20th century, there is, first of all, the Soviet space program. In 1957 the first satellite was launched, in 1961 Yury Gagarin became the first person in space, and in 1971 the first space station Salyut 1 began its operation. Substantial discoveries were also made in the nuclear branch and in other fields of physics. Furthermore, the Academy participated in opening new universities or new study programs in the already existed universities, whose best absolvents started their career at the research institutes of the Academy.
Generally, the Soviet period was the most fruitful in the history of the Russian (Soviet, at these times) Academy of Sciences and is now recalled with nostalgy by many Russian scientists.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, by decree of the President of Russia of December 2, 1991, the academy again became the Russian Academy of Sciences,inheriting all facilities of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the territory of the Russian Federation.
The crisis of the 1990s in the post-Soviet Russia and a consequent drastic reduction of the state support for science have forced many scientists to leave Russia for Europe, Israel or the United States. Some excellent university graduates who could have become promising researchers also switched to other activities, predominately in commerce. The Russian Academy practically lost a generation of people born from the mid-1960s to mid-1970s; this age category is now underrepresented in all research institutes.
In the 2000s, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, the government announced a modernization campaign. Nevertheless, according to the Russian Academy of Sciences, total R&D spending in 2013 still hovered about 40% below the pre-crisis 1990 levels.Furthermore, a lack of competition, decayed infrastructure and continuing, though slightly reduced, brain drain play their part.
On June 28, 2013, the Russian Government unexpectedly announced a draft law presuming a dissolution of the RAS and creation of a new "public-governmental" organization with the same name. The buildings and other property of the Academy were supposed to be taken under control of a government-established Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations (FASO Russia). The declared idea was to enable scientists to concentrate exclusively on research activities without worrying about housing-maintenance services or administrative things. The reform was allegedly authored by Mikhail Kovalchuk, brother of Yury Kovalchuk, known as Vladimir Putin's personal banker.
The draft law, which, in its initial form, would have fundamentally changed the system of science organization in Russia, provoked conflicts with the academic circles and strong refutation by many prominent individuals.A large group of the RAS members signalized their intention not to join the new academy if the reform is run as planned in the draft. The world's leading scientists (including Pierre Deligne, Michael Atiyah, Mumford, and others) have written open letters which referred to the planned reform of the RAS as "shocking" and even "criminal". In this situation, the draft was softened in some details, e.g. there remained no words about “dissolution” in the text, — and approved on September 27, 2013.
Since 2013 the academy institutions were managed by the FASO, which was the key item of the reforms. This agency was empowered to “evaluate”, relying on its own criteria, an efficiency of the institutions and rearrange ineffective ones (this point is felt dangerous by many scientists). Furthermore, according to the law, the two other Russian national academies — for Agriculture and for Medicine — were fused to the RAS as its new specialized scientific divisions.
During the years 2014—2017 there occurred no large-scale protest actions, but, in general, a scientific community has not supported the launched reforms and a management style of the FASO. Sometimes the reorganizations were interpreted as nothing else than a redistribution of real estate. In 2017, when the new presidium of the Academy was being elected, the candidates for presidency critically estimated the situation in the Russian science. However the elected RAS president Alexander Sergeev tries to establish working relationships with the state authorities at various levels. De facto, the reform has already been implemented — and at the General Meeting of the RAS in March 2018, Sergeev said that the Academy enters now the post-reform period.One of the next steps will be fixation of the legal status of the RAS, with a correction of the law-2013 so that to somewhat expand the powers of the Academy (the corresponding draft was submitted by Vladimir Putin to the State Duma and finally approved in July 2018).
In May 2018, it was decided to liquidate the FASO as an independent governmental agency but to make it henceforth part of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The latter is created by splitting the Ministry of Education and Science.
The following persons occupied the position of the Academy's President (or, sometimes, Director):
The last presidential elections in the Academy (and also elections of the presidium) were organized on September 25—28, 2017. Initially the event was planned for March 2017, but unexpectedly all candidates retracted their nominations, and the elections were postponed.
Akademgorodok is a part of the Sovetsky District of the city of Novosibirsk, Russia, located 30 km south of the city center and about 10 km west of the Science town Koltsovo. It is the educational and scientific centre of Siberia.
Science and technology in the Soviet Union served as an important part of national politics, practices, and identity. From the time of Lenin until the dissolution of the USSR in the early 1990s, both science and technology were intimately linked to the ideology and practical functioning of the Soviet state, and were pursued along paths both similar and distinct from models in other countries. Many great scientists who worked in Imperial Russia, such as Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, continued to work in the USSR and gave birth to Soviet science.
Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties. This article primarily lists institutions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation rather than those of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union was the highest scientific institution of the Soviet Union from 1925 to 1991, uniting the country's leading scientists, subordinated directly to the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union.
The Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (IPCP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) is the largest Institute of the research center in Chernogolovka. The Institute consists of 10 scientific departments and about 100 laboratories each one held by an independent research groups. The staff of the Institute counts nearly 1500 people, among them more than 100 Professors and 350 PhD.
Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, originally part of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, was established as an independent entity by government decree in December 1993.
The Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, formerly Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences, is a Russian research institution for the study of the countries and cultures of Asia and North Africa. The institute is located in Moscow, and formerly in Saint Petersburg, but in 2007 the Saint Petersburg branch was reorganized into a separate Institute of Oriental Manuscripts.
The Institute of State and Law (ISL) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) is the largest scientific legal center in the Russian Federation. The ISL is part of the Philosophical, Sociological, Psychological, and Law Department of RAS. The ISL has 350 employees, including three Academicians, three Corresponding Members of RAS, nearly one hundred Doctors and more than one hundred Candidates of Legal Science. Academician B. N. Topornin is the Academician-Secretary of the Department and the Director of ISL.
Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies named after M.V. Lomonosov is one of the oldest universities in the country that offer training in a wide range of specialties in the field of chemical technology.
The Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences is an official academy of the Russian Federation specializing in architecture and construction, notably of urban buildings.
Mikhail Mikhaylovich Shultz, was a Soviet/Russian physical chemist, artist. Proceedings of the thermodynamic theory, the thermodynamics of heterogeneous systems, the theory of glasses, chemistry and electrochemistry of glass, membrane electrochemistry, the theory of ion exchange and phase equilibria of multicomponent systems, the theory of glass electrode. The name of the scientist linked the formation of pH-meters and ionometry, production organisation, instrumentation and materials commonly used in medicine, chemical and nuclear industry, aviation rocket and space technology, agriculture and many other areas.
Tomsk Akademgorodok is an estate in the Soviet area of Tomsk, Siberian Federal District, in which are research institutes, and have employees of the Tomsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). Tomsk Akademgorodok is located in the eastern part of the Tomsk and on all sides surrounded by forests. Tomsk Akademgorodok is located on the high right bank of the river Ushaika. Its total area is 200 hectares. Construction of Tomsk Akademgorodok began in 1972. The Grand opening of the first scientific institute in Tomsk, Akademgorodok-the Institute of Atmospheric Optics, was held on January 25, 1975.
Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences—one of the institutes of the Tomsk Research Center of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is located in Tomsk Academic City. The Institute consists of 5 buildings with a total area of 18,487 square meters. The Institute has 15 research laboratories, the center of collective use "Nanotech", the international centre for research on physical mesomechanics, materials, the Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Center "Welding", the Testing Laboratory "Metal-Test", and 2 scientific and technological departments.
The Russian Academy of Natural Sciences is a Russian non-governmental organization, founded on August 31, 1990 in Moscow, USSR. As of 2018 the Academy operates under the Federal Law of August 23, 1996 No. 127-FZ "On Science and State Scientific-Technical Politics". The Russian Academy of Natural Sciences principally aims to unite scholars in different fields to work for the betterment of Russia.
Dr. Dmitri Vitalyevich Trenin, PhD is the director of the Carnegie Moscow Center, a think tank and regional affiliate of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. A former colonel of Russian military intelligence, Trenin served for 21 years in the Soviet Army and Russian Ground Forces, before joining Carnegie in 1994
Academy of Military Science is a Russian non-governmental research interregional public organization. Conducts basic and applied military research, and has headquarters in Moscow.
In some countries, an academy professor is a scientist appointed to function as professor and/or conferred to the official professor rank by the academy of sciences of that country, rather than by any university establishment.
Anatoly Ivanovich Grigoriev is a Soviet Russian physiologist. He is a Doctor of Sciences (1980), Professor at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation (1996). Laureate of the 1989 USSR State Prize and winner of the 2001 State Prize of the Russian Federation.
Sovetsky City District is an administrative district (raion), one of the 10 raions of Novosibirsk, Russia. It is located on the right and left banks of the Ob River. The area of the district is 89,2 km2. Population: 141,911.
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