São Vicente, Cape Verde

Last updated
São Vicente
Native name:
Sonsent

Nickname: Ilha do Porto Grande (island of Porto Grande)
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São Vicente
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São Vicente
Geography
Location Atlantic Ocean
Coordinates 16°51′N24°58′W / 16.850°N 24.967°W / 16.850; -24.967 Coordinates: 16°51′N24°58′W / 16.850°N 24.967°W / 16.850; -24.967
Area226.7 km2 (87.5 sq mi)
Length24.3 km (15.1 mi)
Width16.3 km (10.13 mi)
Highest elevation744 m (2441 ft)
Highest point Monte Verde
Administration
MunicipalitySão Vicente
Largest settlement Mindelo
Demographics
Population81,014 (2015)
Pop. density357/km2 (925/sq mi)
Additional information
Official website www.cmsv.cv

São Vicente (Portuguese for "Saint Vincent") is one of the Barlavento Islands, the northern group within the Cape Verde archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, off the west African coast. It is located between the islands of Santo Antão and Santa Luzia, with the Canal de São Vicente separating it from Santo Antão.

Contents

Geography

The island is roughly rectangular in shape with an area of 226.7 square kilometres (87.5 square miles). [1] From east to west it measures 24.3 kilometres (15.1 miles) and from north to south 16.3 kilometres (10.1 miles). [2] :25 The island, of volcanic origin, is fairly flat. The last volcanic activity is considered to have taken place in the Pleistocene. [3] Although very eroded, some craters still remain, for instance Viana. Its highest point is Monte Verde, located in the eastern part with an altitude of 744 metres (2,441 feet). [4] :23–24 Other mountains include Madeiral (680 m), Caixa (535 m) and Monte Cara (490 m).

92.6% of the island population lives in the urban area of Mindelo, [1] on the Porto Grande Bay, a caldera that is breached by the ocean. [3] A small islet, Ilhéu dos Pássaros, is less than one nautical mile off the coast of Porto Grande Bay. There are a few intermittent streams, including Ribeira do Calhau and Ribeira de Julião.

Climate

São Vicente has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh). The average annual temperature in Mindelo is 23.6 °C (74.5 °F). The island is very dry with only 127 mm (5 in) annual precipitation in Mindelo. Only the higher area of Monte Verde receives more precipitaion. [4]

Climate data for Mindelo (1981-2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)29.2
(84.6)
29.5
(85.1)
30.3
(86.5)
29.5
(85.1)
31.5
(88.7)
30.5
(86.9)
33.6
(92.5)
31.8
(89.2)
32.7
(90.9)
31.5
(88.7)
31.0
(87.8)
30.0
(86.0)
33.6
(92.5)
Average high °C (°F)23.4
(74.1)
23.2
(73.8)
23.9
(75.0)
24.0
(75.2)
24.9
(76.8)
25.4
(77.7)
27.1
(80.8)
28.3
(82.9)
28.8
(83.8)
28.0
(82.4)
26.8
(80.2)
25.2
(77.4)
25.7
(78.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)21.9
(71.4)
21.6
(70.9)
22.0
(71.6)
22.2
(72.0)
22.8
(73.0)
23.8
(74.8)
25.0
(77.0)
26.2
(79.2)
26.5
(79.7)
26.0
(78.8)
25.0
(77.0)
23.3
(73.9)
23.9
(75.0)
Average low °C (°F)19.9
(67.8)
19.7
(67.5)
19.6
(67.3)
20.2
(68.4)
20.9
(69.6)
21.9
(71.4)
22.9
(73.2)
24.1
(75.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.2
(75.6)
23.2
(73.8)
21.7
(71.1)
21.9
(71.4)
Record low °C (°F)16.5
(61.7)
13.5
(56.3)
15.6
(60.1)
15.0
(59.0)
15.0
(59.0)
18.0
(64.4)
17.5
(63.5)
14.5
(58.1)
19.0
(66.2)
18.5
(65.3)
19.0
(66.2)
17.0
(62.6)
13.5
(56.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches)4.8
(0.19)
1.7
(0.07)
0.4
(0.02)
0.4
(0.02)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
2.6
(0.10)
16.3
(0.64)
36.2
(1.43)
14.5
(0.57)
6.3
(0.25)
1.0
(0.04)
84.2
(3.33)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)11000014522218
Average relative humidity (%)66.167.667.268.270.172.972.774.074.272.869.467.370.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 229.4237.3275.9291.0306.9276.0248.0226.3225.0238.7225.0201.52,981
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.48.48.99.79.99.28.07.37.57.77.56.58.2
Source 1: Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofísica [5]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes, precipitation days, and sun) [6]

History

Mindelo in the early 20th century Old postcard SaoVicente1.jpg
Mindelo in the early 20th century

São Vicente was discovered by the Portuguese discoverer Diogo Afonso on 22 January 1462 (Saint Vincent's Day). [4] :17 Due to its lack of water, the island was initially used only as a cattle pasture. When the Municipality of Santo Antão was established in 1732, the island of São Vicente was part of it. [7] At that time, it did not have permanent inhabitants. In 1793 the area of Porto Grande Bay was settled. [8] :34 It was only in 1838, when a coal depot was established at Porto Grande Bay to supply ships on Atlantic routes, that the population started to grow rapidly. From the beginning of the 20th century the port of Mindelo lost its importance for transatlantic navigation. Causes for this were the shift from coal to oil as fuel for ships, the rise of competing ports like Dakar and the Canary Islands and the lack of investment in port infrastructure. [8] :76–80

Municipality

Administratively, the island of São Vicente is covered by one municipality, Concelho de São Vicente. This municipality consists of one freguesia (civil parish), Nossa Senhora da Luz, which also covers the whole island. The municipal seat is the city of Mindelo.

The freguesia is subdivided into the following settlements:

Politics

Since 2004, the Movement for Democracy (MpD) is the ruling party of the municipality. The results of the latest elections, in 2016: [9]

PartyMunicipal CouncilMunicipal Assembly
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
MpD 48.97946.7511
UCID 28.28029.726
PAICV 20.07020.754

Presidents

Population

View of Downtown Mindelo, Baia do Porto Grande and Monte Cara Cabo 2010 Monte Cara.jpg
View of Downtown Mindelo, Baía do Porto Grande and Monte Cara

In the 1830s, São Vicente had an estimated population of 356. [10] The population of São Vicente in the 2010 census was 76,140, making it the second most populous island of Cape Verde after Santiago. [1] The annual population growth is 1.3%. 92.6% of the population live in urban areas, which is the highest proportion of all islands (average for Cape Verde: 61.8%). [1] Life expectancy is 76 years, higher than some other parts of the world. The birth rate is 2.7% and infant mortality rate is 18 per 1000 live births [11] (for comparison 103 in DR Congo, 55 in India, 27 in Turkey, 23 in Brazil, 16 in Russia, 4 in Finland).

The majority of the population is young; 49% of the population is under the age of 25, and 7.4% of the population is over the age of 65. [1] The island has 19,923 households, of which there are an average of 3.8 persons per household, lower than Cape Verde's level of 4.2 persons per household. [1] In 2010 15.1% of the households owned an automobile (Cape Verde: 12.7%). [1]

Population of São Vicente (1940–2015)
YearPopulation
1940 [12]
15,848
1950 [12]
19,576
1960 [12]
20,705
1970 [12]
31,578
1980 [12]
41,594
1990 [12]
51,277
2000 [12]
67,844
2010 [1]
76,140
2015 [2] :36
81,014

Economy

Landscape view of Ilheu dos Passaros, Cape Verde Ilheu dos Passaros.jpg
Landscape view of Ilhéu dos Pássaros, Cape Verde

The economy of the island was always based almost exclusively on commerce and services. Due to lack of rain, agriculture is at a subsistence level. Fishing has some relevance, but conditions prevent it from being more important, not only for the catch—lobster—but also for the associated industries: conserves, drying and salting of fish, and naval construction.

Porto Grande is the main port of Cape Verde, through which passes much of the country's imports. It has a terminal of containers, silos, and refrigeration units that make handling load overflow possible. There is also a modern seawater desalination plant, which provides water for public consumption and for naval shipyards.

In the industrial sector, the island presents an abundance of manpower, even though unskilled, resulting from the exodus of inhabitants of other islands to São Vicente. About 27% of the employed population is unskilled. Highly qualified employees—company executives, public administrators, and managers and directors—make up less than 2% of employees. It is distinguished, however, by a bigger participation of women in decision-making positions than the national average.

According to the 2010 census, the island of São Vicente has the largest unemployment rate of the country—14.8%—while the national average is 10.7%. [1] Unemployment affects women more than men. The industrial park of the island—the Industrial Zone of the Lazareto—concentrates diverse types of manufacturing, essentially due to foreign investment, in the activities of footwear, confections, and fish processing.

The National Center of Workmanship of Mindelo supports local craftsmen in the production and commercialization of ceramic parts, articles made of coconut rinds, and necklaces of shells and rocks.

Many sports are practised in São Vicente, and many have spread to the remaining islands. The island is suitable for windsurfing; the beach of São Pedro is considered one of the best for windsurfing, as shown by the many world-class champions of the sport. Cycling, walking trails and horseback riding are ways to explore the island. São Vicente has an excellent 18-hole golf course. For these reasons, tourism has excellent growth potential on São Vicente and in the rest of the Cape Verde archipelago. Travel between the diverse localities of the island is provided by a system of public transportation operated by five private companies: Transcor.SA, Morabeza Transport, Transport Joy, Friendship, Sotral and Automindelo. However, especially for places farthest from the city of the Mindelo, namely Baía das Gatas, Calhau, and São Pedro, van and bus leasing are the usual forms of transportation.

Education

The literacy rate is 85%, and 98.9% among Cape Verdean youth. 54% of the island's population (those aged between 1 and 12 years old) receive education. Here are the schools and classrooms in São Vicente:

Educational institutions

The island has 35 primary schools, many of which are in Mindelo, there are other schools in Calhau, Salamansa and São Pedro.

There are five state schools, attended by 8,350 pupils during the 2004–05 school season:

  • Liceu Ludjero Lima, with 2,384 students
  • Escola Industrial E Comercial Do Mindelo, with 2,245 students
  • Escola Secundária Jorge Barbosa, with 1,593 students
  • Escola Secundária José Augusto Pinto, with 1,385 students
  • Escola Salesiana, with 743 students

Private schools

  • Académica do Mindelo – unrelated to the football (soccer) club, today partly related
  • Wille
  • Centro Técnico Do Mindelo
  • Cooperativa Ensino Técnico Do Mindelo
  • Cruzeiro

Post-secondary education

  • University of Cape Verde, Faculty of Engineering and Maritime Sciences and School of Business and Governance
  • University of Mindelo – Cape Verde's third university
  • Instituto Superior de Ciências Económicas Empresariais
  • Instituto Superior de Educação [High Educational Institute] (campus), part of the University of Cape Verde
  • Jean Piaget University of Cape Verde (campus)
  • Mindelo Escolas Internacional de Artes (Mindelo International School of Arts)
  • Universidade Lusófona

Other institutions and observatories

Other academic and research institutions include the INDP Instituto Nacional de Desenvolvimento das Pescas and with it the Cape Verde Ocean Observatory CVOO. It also has the CVAO, the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory, associated with the University of York (UK), IFT Liepzig (Germany), Max Planck, Jena (Germany) and the Cape Verdean meteorological institute (INMG).

Language

Other than Portuguese, which is the primary language, Cape Verdean Creole is spoken by the majority of the population. The São Vicente variant is known as Crioulo de São Vicente (in Portuguese) or Kriol d Sonsent (in Creole).

Literature

Notable people

Transportation

The island is served by the international Cesária Évora Airport near São Pedro, in the southwestern part of the island. The port of Mindelo, Porto Grande, is the busiest port of Cape Verde, with ferry services to the islands of Santo Antão, [13] São Nicolau, Santiago and Sal. [14] There is one first class national road on the island: from the airport to Mindelo. Furthermore, there are two second class and five third class national roads. [15]

Mindelo has a network of buses that connects the majority of the suburbs with the city center. Most of the lines are operated by Transcor SV SA.

Culture

When the port was thriving in the late 19th century, in the early 20th century, it was the mainstream of culture in Cape Verde alongside Santiago. Several works, books and poems in the mid 20th century were related to the rise of nationalism and the independence struggle for the country, notably the review Claridade . It is the birthplace of coladeira music. Also a variant of morna is popular.

Sports

The island has its own football league named the São Vicente Island League. There are also competitions for basketball, volleyball, futsal and athletics. There is a golf course about 2 to 3 kilometres (1.2 to 1.9 miles ) south of Mindelo.

Twin towns and sister cities

The municipality of São Vicente is twinned with the following municipalities in Portugal: [16]

Related Research Articles

History of Cape Verde Historic record of the island country Cape Verde

The recorded history of Cape Verde begins with Portuguese discovery in 1456. Possible early references go back around 2000 years.

Praia Capital of Cape Verde

Praia is the capital and largest city of Cape Verde. Located on the southern coast of Santiago island, within the Sotavento Islands group, the city is the seat of the Praia Municipality. Praia is the economic, political, and cultural center of Cape Verde.

Mindelo Settlement in São Vicente, Cape Verde

Mindelo is a port city in the northern part of the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde. Mindelo is also the seat of the parish of Nossa Senhora da Luz, and the municipality of São Vicente. The city is home to 93% of the entire island's population. Mindelo is known for its colourful and animated carnival celebrations, with roots in Portuguese traditions later influenced by the Brazilian culture.

Sergio Frusoni was a poet and promoter of the Cape Verdean Creole language.

Ribeira, Portuguese and Galician for stream or riverside, may refer to the following places:

Santo Antão, Cape Verde Westernmost and largest of the Barlavento islands of Cape Verde

Santo Antão is the westernmost island of Cape Verde. At 785 km2 (303 sq mi), it is the largest of the Barlavento Islands group, and the second largest island of Cape Verde. The nearest island is São Vicente to the southeast, separated by the sea channel Canal de São Vicente. Its population was 38,200 in mid 2019, making it the fourth most populous island of Cape Verde after Santiago, São Vicente and Sal. Its largest city is Porto Novo located on the southern coast.

Santiago, Cape Verde Largest island of Cape Verde

Santiago is the largest island of Cape Verde, its most important agricultural centre and home to half the nation's population. Part of the Sotavento Islands, it lies between the islands of Maio and Fogo. It was the first of the islands to be settled: the town of Ribeira Grande was founded in 1462. Santiago is home to the nation's capital city of Praia.

Porto Grande Bay

Porto Grande Bay, also Mindelo Bay, is a bay on the north coast of the island of São Vicente, Cape Verde. The main city of São Vicente, Mindelo, is situated at the bay. The Porto Grande Bay is a natural harbour. It stretches between the headlands Ponta João Ribeiro in the northeast and Ponta do Morro Branco in the west. To the northwest it opens towards the Canal de São Vicente, the channel between the islands São Vicente and Santo Antão. The small rocky islet Ilhéu dos Pássaros lies north of the bay.

Ribeira Grande, Cape Verde (municipality) Municipality of Cape Verde

Ribeira Grande is a concelho (municipality) of Cape Verde. Situated in the northern part of the island of Santo Antão, it covers one fifth of the island area (166.5 km2), and is home to nearly half of its population. Its seat is the city Ponta do Sol.

Manuel António de Sousa Lopes was a Cape Verdean novelist, poet and essayist. With Baltasar Lopes da Silva and Jorge Barbosa he was a founder of the journal Claridade, which contributed to the rise of Cape Verdean literature. Manuel Lopes wrote in Portuguese, using expressions typical for Cape Verdean Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole. He was one of those responsible for describing world calamities of the droughts that caused several deaths in São Vicente and Santo Antão.

Solpontense Futebol Clube is a football club that currently plays in the Second Division of the Santo Antão Island League South Zone in Cape Verde. It is based in the town of Ponta do Sol in the northern part of the island of Santo Antão and being the country's northernmost football club. Its current manager is João Lopes Rodrígues.

Porto Novo, Cape Verde Settlement in Santo Antão, Cape Verde

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Portuguese Cape Verde

Cape Verde was a colony of the Portuguese Empire from the initial settlement of the Cape Verde Islands in 1462 until the independence of Cape Verde in 1975.

The island of São Vicente in Cape Verde in the westcentral portion of the Barlavento Islands is home to several teams and clubs. The major professional clubs are CS Mindelense, FC Derby, Académica do Mindelo, Batuque FC and Amarante. The island also has a league named the São Vicente Island League, it is the oldest in Cape Verde, first it only had football, later it had basketball, volleyball, athletics and now futsal.

City center of Mindelo Neighborhood in Mindelo, São Vicente Island, Cape Verde

The City center of Mindelo or Morada is the historic center of the Mindelo in the island of São Vicente, Cape Verde. Its population was 1,553 at the 2010 census. It is the place where the island's first settlement was founded in 1793. Many public buildings are situated in the city centre. It lies along the Porto Grande Bay. Adjacent neighbourhoods include Fortinho to the northwest, Alto Miramar to the northeast, Fonte Cônego to the east and Ribeira Bote to the southeast.

1910s – 1920s – 1930s – 1940s – 1950s – 1960s – 1970s – 1980s – 1990s – 2000s

The 2018 Taça Nacional de Cabo Verde is the 6th edition of the Taça Nacional de Cabo Verde, the knockout football competition of Cape Verde. The competition, which is played out in a tournament between the cup winners of the nine islands, returns for the first time since 2012.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2010 Census Summary
  2. 1 2 3 Cabo Verde, Statistical Yearbook 2015, Instituto Nacional de Estatística
  3. 1 2 "Sao Vicente". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution.
  4. 1 2 3 Inventário dos recursos turísticos do município de S. Vicente, Direcção Geral do Turismo
  5. "Normais Climatológicas" (in Portuguese). Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofísica. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  6. "Klimatafel von Mindelo / Sao Vicente / Kapverden (Rep. Kap Verde)" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  7. Evolução histórica do concelho do Porto Novo, Andreza Costa Dias, 2006, p. 12
  8. 1 2 Génese e desenvolvimento da cidade do Mindelo: a preservação de uma identidade, Fred Yanick Fonseca Delgado, 2016
  9. Official results local elections 2016, Boletim Oficial I Série, Número 53, 23 September 2016
  10. Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 14.
  11. "Statistics" . Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Source: Statoids
  13. Ferry to Santo Antão
  14. Cabo Verde Fast Ferry's website
  15. Ilha de São Vicente, Rede rodoviária, Instituto de Estradas
  16. Geminações de Cidades e Vilas