Ségou

Last updated
Ségou
Commune and town
Segou.png
View of Ségou
Mali adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Ségou
Location within Mali
Coordinates: 13°27′N6°16′W / 13.450°N 6.267°W / 13.450; -6.267 Coordinates: 13°27′N6°16′W / 13.450°N 6.267°W / 13.450; -6.267
CountryFlag of Mali.svg  Mali
Region Ségou
Cercle Ségou Cercle
Area
[1]
  Total37 km2 (14 sq mi)
Elevation
294 m (965 ft)
Population
 (2009 census) [2]
  Total130,690
  Density3,500/km2 (9,100/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+0 (GMT)
Tomb of Biton Mamary Coulibaly at Segou-Koro Tombe Biton Coulibaly.jpg
Tomb of Biton Mamary Coulibaly at Ségou-Koro
Entrance to the palace of Ahmadu Tall at Segou-Sikoro in around 1866 Palais d'Ahmadou a Segou.jpg
Entrance to the palace of Ahmadu Tall at Ségou-Sikoro in around 1866

Ségou (Bambara: ߛߋߓߎ tr. Segu) is a town and an urban commune in south-central Mali that lies 235 kilometres (146 mi) northeast of Bamako on the right bank of the River Niger. The town is the capital of the Ségou Cercle and the Ségou Region. With 130,690 inhabitants in 2009, it is the fifth-largest town in Mali.

Contents

The village of Ségou-Koro, 10 km (6.2 mi) upstream of the present town, was established in the 17th century and became the capital of the Bambara Empire.

History

In the middle of the 19th century there were four villages with the name of Ségou spread out over a distance of around 12 km (7.5 mi) along the right bank of the river. They were, starting from the most upstream, Ségou-Koro (Old Ségou), Ségou-Bougou, Ségou-Koura (New Ségou) and Ségou-Sikoro. The present town is on the site of Ségou-Sikoro. [3] [4]

The village of Ségou-Koro prospered after Biton Mamary Coulibaly became king in 1712 and founded the Ségou (or Bamana) Empire. Mungo Park became the first European known to have visited the village in 1796. [5] The empire gradually declined and was conquered by El Hadj Umar Tall's Toucouleur Empire in 1861, [6] then by the French Army Colonel Louis Archinard in 1890. [7]

Origin

Ségou has contested origins. Some claim that the word Ségou come from "Sikoro", meaning to the foot of a shea butter tree. Others argue that it was named after Cheikou, a marabout who founded the city, while still other theories support the claim that Ségou was founded by the Bozo fishermen coming from the north, who established their villages along the Niger River.

The 11th century CE saw an influx of the Soninke people, who were trying to escape from the expansion of the Ghana Empire, with Mandinka populations following. It is believed that Kaladjan Koulibaly, founder of the Bambara Kingdom's Koulibaly dynasty established the first sedentary villages here at his time. The later Diarra dynasty moved the capital of the Bambara Kingdom to Ségou.

Ségou Koro

Ségou Koro is located about ten kilometres from Ségou, on the road to Bamako. Segou Koro was created by the founder of the Bambara dynasty. During the 17th century, Bambara coming from Djenné, led by Kaladjan Koulibaly settled along the Niger River. [8] Danfassari, Koulibaly's son continued his father's work by building his city there. After Koulibaly's death, his eldest grandson Mamari—also known as Biton—ruled the city and made it flourish. Today the town in some ways conserves the tradition and architecture of the ancient city. [9]

Bambara Kingdom

The Bambaras from Djenné with Kaladjan Koulibaly established their nation along the Niger River and founded the town of Ségou-Koro, the capital of the Bambara state. Bortolot (2003) says that Ségou evolved from a simple social structure, characterized by hunting and farming, to a more complex city dominated by a dynasty system.

One of Koulibaly's descendants, Mamary Coulibaly, became the chief of the Bi-Ton and later took the name Biton. Biton spread terror, organised the army, and restructured the association into a city. He expanded the territory from Segou Koro to Timbuktu. Under his rule, the Macina and Djenné trading centers became a part of Ségou. Timbuktu was not part of Ségou. It remained autonomous and paid tribute to Biton.

After Biton's death in 1755, one of the Coulibaly family slaves, Ngolo Diarra, obtained power to control the Bambara kingdom and established the Diarra dynasty. Ngolo Diarra ruled Ségou until the 19th century. He moved the kingdom's capital from Segou-Koro to Ségou-Sikoro, close to the site of the current city. Diarra continued Biton's conquest and extended the kingdom from Guinea to Timbuktu. [9]

Conquest

In March 1861, the Muslim Toucouleur leader, El Hadj Oumar Tall, conquered the town. [6] On his death in 1864, he was succeeded by his son Ahmadu Tall. Ahmadu had to deal with Bambara rebellions and challenges from his brothers but he continued to rule until 1890 when the town fell to French forces led by Colonel Louis Archinard. [10]

Geography

Location

Ségou is situated 235 km from Bamako, on the right bank of the Niger River. The urban commune is bordered to the east by the commune of Pelengana, to the west by the commune of Sébougou and to the south by the commune of Sakoïba.

The commune is subdivided into 15 quartiers: Alamissani, Angoulême, Bagadadji, Bougoufié, Comatex, Dar Salam, Hamdallaye, Médine, Mission Catholique, Missira, Ségou Coura, Sido Soninkoura, Somono, Sokalakono, Bananissabakoro. [11]

Climate

Ségou has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh). The city is irrigated by two important waterways: the Niger and the Bani River. Ségou has two seasons: a rainy season and a dry season. The rainy season starts in May and lasts about five months until September. Ségou's dry season includes a cold period and a period of heat. The average yearly rainfall is about 513 mm. The harmattan is the dominant wind in the dry season and it blows from north to south. The monsoon blowing from south to north-west is more frequent during rainy season (hivernage).

Climate data for Segou, Mali (1961–1990)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)31.9
(89.4)
35.2
(95.4)
37.8
(100.0)
39.3
(102.7)
39.2
(102.6)
36.3
(97.3)
32.6
(90.7)
31.1
(88.0)
32.3
(90.1)
35.3
(95.5)
35.2
(95.4)
32.0
(89.6)
34.8
(94.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)24.2
(75.6)
27.0
(80.6)
29.7
(85.5)
31.7
(89.1)
32.4
(90.3)
30.4
(86.7)
27.7
(81.9)
26.5
(79.7)
27.0
(80.6)
28.2
(82.8)
26.8
(80.2)
24.3
(75.7)
28.0
(82.4)
Average low °C (°F)16.4
(61.5)
19.3
(66.7)
22.3
(72.1)
25.2
(77.4)
26.5
(79.7)
24.9
(76.8)
23.1
(73.6)
22.5
(72.5)
22.4
(72.3)
22.2
(72.0)
19.5
(67.1)
16.9
(62.4)
21.8
(71.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)0.3
(0.01)
0.1
(0.00)
2.7
(0.11)
11.9
(0.47)
32.9
(1.30)
71.9
(2.83)
160.7
(6.33)
210.2
(8.28)
116.1
(4.57)
25.7
(1.01)
1.4
(0.06)
1.0
(0.04)
634.9
(25.00)
Average precipitation days0.20.10.42.04.98.614.117.111.23.30.20.162.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 281.2256.1275.1253.1264.4253.9248.7231.0241.5272.4264.8271.73,113.9
Source: NOAA [12]

Demography

The Ségou Region's population was about 2,338,349 in 2009. With a rural population that is largely nomadic semi-sedentary or sedentary, the population consists of many ethnic groups, such as Bambara, Bozo, Fulani, Soninke, Malinke and Toucouleur.

Bambaras are mostly farmers and are the most numerous ethnic group. Their language is Bambara or Djoula. The Bozos are the second most populous ethnic group. They typically live near the shore of the Niger river, in small towns of small houses. The Bozo economy is based on fishing. Bozo people have a monopoly on the transport system because of their knowledge of the Niger, its shallows and seasonal lakes, and are regarded as the masters of water. The Somono, also fishermen, are not a distinct ethnic group but a mixture of Bambara, Bozo and Soninke. The Malinké, Maninka, and Mandinka are closely related to Bambaras: They share costumes, religious beliefs, and practices with the Bambaras. The Marka, Saracollé or Soninke are merchants and warriors. The Soninke people are great travelers and Muslims, and have largely conserved their traditions.

Art and culture

The Bambaras used to transmit their knowledge by oral tradition, hence much of their art and culture is unknown. Ségou's cultural heritage includes traditional musical instruments, wonderful griots, folkloric groups and the traditional masks and marionettes. The history of the Bambara state's traditional religious practices are ambiguous. They practice animism and fetishism as cultural practices, and also totemic and monism (cult of ancestors). The most famous Ségou handcrafts are based on pottery, weaving (blankets, wrappers and carpets), manufacturing of Bogolan (a distinctive variation of Mud cloth), painting and sculpture. Ségou is also regarded as the capital of Malian pottery with a large pottery district in Kalabougou situated on the left bank. Women make the pottery by hand with the clay coming from the Niger River and bring the finished works to the local Monday market.

Education

The University of Ségou was founded in 2009.

Places of worship

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Muslim mosques. [13] There are also Christian churches and temples : Roman Catholic Diocese of Ségou (Catholic Church), Église Chrétienne Évangélique du Mali (Alliance World Fellowship), Assemblies of God.

Architecture

Ségou has two architectural styles: French Colonial and traditional Sudanese and neo-Sudanese. The Sudanese style influenced public building and important residences. Monuments and great mosques are also built according to this style. Many of Sudano-Sahelian's kings built imposing palaces in the cities over which they ruled and most of these buildings are in red clay. The materials used for building are generally quite poor and many of the buildings need to be restored to maintain their state.

The CMDT cotton processing plant near Segou. Usine de coton CMDT.png
The CMDT cotton processing plant near Ségou.

Economy

Today, Ségou is known for its pottery, its market and its fishing industry. Attractions in the old town of Ségou-Koro included a mosque, Coulibaly's tomb and an ancient tree. In the city center, the main landmark is the water tower.

The most important economic activities are fishing, cattle herding and small scale farming. The main crop is rice pearl millet but sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) and black-eyed peas are also grown. The yields are generally low. [11] There are two factories processing cotton: Compagnie Malienne des Textiles (COMATEX) and Compagnie malienne pour le développement du textile (CMDT). Commerce consists mostly of the small scale exchange and sale of products from the primary sector, sold weekly at the large Sudano-Sahelian market, drawing customers from far outside of the city. The main products sold are vegetables, pottery, cotton, leather, fruit, ovens, cattle and cereals.

The headquarters of the Office du Niger is based in the town. The Office du Niger is a semi-autonomous government agency that administers a large irrigation scheme in the Ségou Region to the north of the Niger River. [14]

Notable residents

Notable people from Ségou include Adame Ba Konare, Fanta Damba, Garan Fabou Kouyate, Mountaga Tall, [15] and Bassekou Kouyate.

Maryse Condé's historical novel Segu tells the city's history from 1797 to its 1860 defeat by El Hajj Oumar Tall's army.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Ségou is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

Bamako Capital of Mali

Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a 2009 population of 1,810,366. In 2006, it was estimated to be the fastest-growing city in Africa and sixth-fastest in the world. It is located on the Niger River, near the rapids that divide the upper and middle Niger valleys in the southwestern part of the country.

Music of Mali music and musical traditions of Mali

The Music of Mali is, like that of most African nations, ethnically diverse, but one influence predominates; that of the ancient Mali Empire of the Mandinka. Mande people make up 50% of the country's population, other ethnic groups include the Fula (17%), Gur-speakers 12%, Songhai people (6%), Tuareg and Moors (10%) and another 5%, including Europeans. Mali is divided into eight regions; Gao, Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Ségou, Sikasso, Tombouctou and Bamako.

Bambara people ethnic group

The Bambara are a Mandé ethnic group native to much of West Africa, primarily southern Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso and Senegal. Today they make up the largest Mandé ethnic group in Mali, with 80% of the population speaking the Bambara language, regardless of ethnicity.

Bla, Mali Commune and town in Ségou Region, Mali

Bla is a small town in Mali's Ségou Region, located 85 kilometers south of Ségou along Mali's main highway. Bla serves as a central location for NGO activity in the region and is a crossroads for transportation going northeast to Mopti and Gao, as well as south to Sikasso, Burkina Faso, and Côte d'Ivoire. Bla is also the main town for the Djonka, a sub-group of the Bamana. The town's population as of 2004 was around 15,000 people.

Bozo people ethnic group

The Bozo are a Mande ethnic group located predominantly along the Niger River in Mali. The name Bozo is thought to derive from Bambara bo-so "straw house"; the people accept it as referring to the whole of the ethnic group but use more specific clan names such as Sorogoye, Hain, and Tieye themselves. They are famous for their fishing and are occasionally referred to as the "masters of the river".

Mopti Region Region of Mali

Mopti is the fifth administrative region of Mali, covering 79,017 km2. Its capital is the city of Mopti. During the 2012 Northern Mali conflict, the frontier between Southern Mali which is controlled by the central government and the rebel-held North ran through Mopti Region.

Mopti town in the Inner Niger Delta region of Mali

Mopti is a town and an urban commune in the Inner Niger Delta region of Mali. The town is the capital of the Mopti Cercle and the Mopti Region. Situated 630 km northeast of Bamako, the town lies at the confluence of the Niger and the Bani Rivers and is linked by an elevated causeway to the town of Sévaré. The urban commune, which includes both Mopti and Sévaré, had a population of 114,296 in the 2009 census.

Ségou Region Region of Mali

Ségou Region is an administrative region in Mali, situated in the centre of the country with an area of 64,821 km2. The region is bordered by Sikasso Region on the south, Tombouctou and Mopti on the east, Burkina Faso to the southeast and the Koulikoro Region to the west. In 2009 it had 2,336,255 inhabitants, making it the second most populous region of Mali. Its administrative capital is the town of Ségou.

Bamana Empire former country

The Bamana Empire was a large West African state based at Ségou, now in Mali. This state was established after the fall of the Mali Empire and the Keita dynasty, as a smaller Bambara Empire founded by other Bambara families related to the Keita clan. It was ruled by the Kulubali or Coulibaly dynasty established c. 1640 by Kaladian Coulibaly also known as Fa Sine or Biton-si-u. The empire existed as a centralized state from 1712 until the 1862 invasion of Toucouleur conqueror, El Hadj Umar Tall.

Omar Saidou Tall West African political leader

Omar Saidou Tall, , born in Futa Tooro, Senegambia, was a West African political leader, Islamic scholar, Tijani Sufi and Toucouleur military commander who founded a brief empire encompassing much of what is now Guinea, Senegal, and Mali.

Toucouleur Empire former country

The Toucouleur Empire (1861–1890) was founded in the mid-nineteenth century by Omar Saidou Tall of the Toucouleur people, in part of present-day Mali.

Massina Empire former country

The Massina Empire was an early nineteenth-century Fulbe Jihad state centered in the Inner Niger Delta area of what is now the Mopti and Ségou Regions of Mali. Its capital was at Hamdullahi.

Bitòn Coulibaly Ruler of the Bambara Empire

Bitòn Coulibaly founded the Bambara Empire in what is now Mali's Ségou Region and Mopti Region.

Ngolo Diarra was the king of the Bambara Empire from 1766 to 1795.

Kaarta Bambara kingdom

Kaarta, or Ka'arta, was a short-lived Bambara kingdom in what is today the western half of Mali.

Goundam Commune and Town in Tombouctou Region, Mali

Goundam is a commune and town in north central Mali, in the Tombouctou Region. It is the capital of Goundam Cercle, one of five subdivisions of the Region. In the 2009 census the commune had a population of 16,253. The main ethnic groups are Songhay, Tuareg and Fulani.

Index of Mali-related articles Wikipedia index

Articles related to Mali include:

The Battle of Ségou was a decisive point in the growth of the Toucouleur Empire (1850-1890), which spread throughout the upper Niger River and Senegal River bassins in the late 19th century. It marked the destruction of the last of the Songhay successor states, the beginning of El Hadj Umar Tall's conflict with fellow Fula Jihad leader of Macina, and a Toucouleur movement to the east under pressure from French Colonial expansion in the Senegambia.

Médine, Mali Village in Kayes Region, Mali

Médine is a village and principal settlement (chef-lieu) of the commune of Hawa Dembaya in the Cercle of Kayes in the Kayes Region of south-western Mali. The village is located 12 km east of Kayes on the left bank of the Sénégal River just downstream of the Félou Falls. The site of the village was historically important as the falls were the furthest point up the Sénégal River from Saint Louis that could be reached by boat. Navigation was only possible after the rainy season when the river was in flood.

Ségou Cercle Cercle in Ségou Region, Mali

Ségou Cercle is an administrative subdivision of the Ségou Region of Mali. The administrative center (chef-lieu) is the town of Ségou.

References

  1. Common and Fundamental Operational Datasets Registry: Mali, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, archived from the original on 2012-01-06. commune_mali.zip (Originally from the Direction Nationale des Collectivités Territoriales, République du Mali)
  2. Resultats Provisoires RGPH 2009 (Région de Ségou) (PDF) (in French), République de Mali: Institut National de la Statistique.
  3. Triaud 1997, p. 121.
  4. Mage 1868, pp.  207-208.
  5. Park 1799, p.  195.
  6. 1 2 Triaud 1997, p. 122.
  7. Kanya-Forstner 2009, p. 181.
  8. Britannica, Ségou, britannica.com, USA, accessed on June 30, 2019
  9. 1 2 Bortolot, A (October 2003). "The bamana ségou state. The metropolitan Museum of Art" . Retrieved May 23, 2007.
  10. Kanya-Forstner 2009, pp. 47-49, 181.
  11. 1 2 Plan de Sécurité Alimentaire Commune Urbaine de Ségou 2008-2012 (PDF) (in French), Commissariat à la Sécurité Alimentaire, République du Mali, USAID-Mali, 2008, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-30, retrieved 2012-07-16.
  12. "Segou Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  13. J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 1793
  14. Schreyger 2002, pp. 68-73.
  15. "Présidentielles: 24 SUR LA LIGNE DE DÉPART" [ permanent dead link ], L'Essor, April 8, 2002 (in French).
  16. "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  17. "Segou, Mali". Sister Cities International . Archived from the original on 2014-03-19. Retrieved 19 March 2014.

Sources

Further reading