S-125 Neva/Pechora

Last updated
S-125 Neva
NATO reporting name: SA-3 Goa
SA-3 EP 2006.JPG
Peruvian Air Force Pechora
Typeshort-range SAM system
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service1961 [1] –present
Used bySee list of present and former operators
Wars Vietnam War, Yom Kippur War, Kosovo War, Iran–Iraq War, Gulf War, Angolan Civil War, Syrian Civil War, 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Tigray conflict
Production history
Designer Almaz Central Design Bureau
Designed1950s
Manufacturer JSC Defense Systems (Pechora-M)
Produced1961–present
VariantsNeva, Pechora, Volna, Neva-M, Neva-M1, Volna-M, Volna-N, Volna-P, Pechora 2, Pechora 2M, Newa SC, Pechora-M

The S-125 Neva/Pechora (Russian : С-125 "Нева"/"Печора", NATO reporting name SA-3 Goa) Soviet surface-to-air missile system was designed by Aleksei Isaev to complement the S-25 and S-75. It has a shorter effective range and lower engagement altitude than either of its predecessors and also flies slower, but due to its two-stage design it is more effective against more maneuverable targets. It is also able to engage lower flying targets than the previous systems, and being more modern it is much more resistant to ECM than the S-75. The 5V24 (V-600) missiles reach around Mach 3 to 3.5 in flight, both stages powered by solid fuel rocket motors. The S-125, like the S-75, uses radio command guidance. The naval version of this system has the NATO reporting name SA-N-1 Goa and original designation M-1 Volna (Russian Волна – wave).

Contents

Operational history

Soviet Union

A pair of S-125 missiles in transit. Pair of S-125 missiles in transit on a truck.jpg
A pair of S-125 missiles in transit.
Abandoned Soviet S-125 missile near Saare, Saaremaa, Estonia. S-125 Neva Pechora Saaremaa.jpg
Abandoned Soviet S-125 missile near Saare, Saaremaa, Estonia.

The S-125 was first deployed between 1961 and 1964 around Moscow, augmenting the S-25 and S-75 sites already ringing the city, as well as in other parts of the USSR. In 1964, an upgraded version of the system, the S-125M "Neva-M" and later S-125M1 "Neva-M1" was developed. The original version was designated SA-3A by the US DoD and the new Neva-M named SA-3B and (naval) SA-N-1B. The Neva-M introduced a redesigned booster and an improved guidance system. The S-125 was not used against U.S. forces in Vietnam, because the Soviets feared that China (after the souring of Sino-Soviet relations in 1960), through which most, if not all of the equipment meant for North Vietnam had to travel, would try to copy the missile.[ citation needed ]

Angola

The FAPA-DAA acquired a significant number of S-125s, and these were encountered during the first strike flown by SAAF Mirage F.1s against targets in Angola ever - in June 1980. While the SAAF reported two aircraft were damaged by SAMs during this action, Angola claimed to have shot down four. [2]

On 7 June 1980, while attacking SWAPO's Tobias Haneko Training Camp during Operation Sceptic (Smokeshell), SAAF Major Frans Pretorius and Captain IC du Plessis, both flying Mirage F.1s, were hit by S-125s. Pretorius's aircraft was hit in a fuel line and he had to perform a deadstick landing at AFB Ondangwa. Du Plessis's aircraft sustained heavier damage and had to divert to Ruacana forward airstrip, where he landed with only the main undercarriage extended. Both aircraft were repaired and returned to service. [3]

Middle East

S-125 on ZIL-131 transporter vehicle (9T911), Batey Ha-Osef Museum Batey HaOsef IMG 0870.JPG
S-125 on ZIL-131 transporter vehicle (9T911), Batey Ha-Osef Museum

The Soviets supplied several S-125s to the Arab states in the late 1960s and 1970s, most notably Egypt and Syria. The S-125 saw extensive action during the War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War. During the latter, the S-125, along with the S-75 Dvina and 2K12 Kub, formed the backbone of the Egyptian air defence network. In Egypt, March–July 1970 Soviet battalions of S-125 17 Shooting (35 missiles) shot down nine Israeli and one Egyptian planes. General Muhammed Ali Hafez (Air defense forces commander in the Egyptian Army) was the first man in the world to reuse the launched missiles in creating new ones . [4] [5] [6] Israel recognized the 5 F-4 Phantoms in 1970 (1 more was W/O [7] ) and in 1973 another 6 [6]

Iraq

Remains of F-16C 87-257 as found by US ground forces in Iraq during Desert Storm. The canopy was recovered by US forces in the 2003 invasion. USAF F16C block 87-0257 remains.jpg
Remains of F-16C 87-257 as found by US ground forces in Iraq during Desert Storm. The canopy was recovered by US forces in the 2003 invasion.

A USAF F-16 (serial 87-257) was shot down on January 19, 1991, during Operation Desert Storm. The aircraft was struck by a S-125 just south of Baghdad. The pilot, Major Jeffrey Scott Tice, ejected safely but became a POW as the ejection took place over Iraq. [8] It was the 8th combat loss and the first daylight raid over Baghdad. [9]

Still photograph from a videotape of an Iraqi surface-to-air missile, believed to be a S-125, launched at a coalition aircraft in July 2001. Defense.gov News Photo 020927-D-0000M-007.jpg
Still photograph from a videotape of an Iraqi surface-to-air missile, believed to be a S-125, launched at a coalition aircraft in July 2001.

On the opening night of Desert Storm, on 17 January 1991, a B-52G was damaged by a missile. Different versions of this engagement are told. It could have been a S-125 or a 2K12 Kub while other versions report a MiG-29 allegedly fired a Vympel R-27R missile and damaged the B-52G. [10] However, the U.S. Air Force disputes these claims, stating the bomber was actually hit by friendly fire, an AGM-88 High-speed, Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) that homed on the fire-control radar of the B-52's tail gun; the jet was subsequently renamed In HARM's Way. [11] Shortly following this incident, General George Lee Butler announced that the gunner position on B-52 crews would be eliminated, and the gun turrets permanently deactivated, commencing on 1 October 1991. [12]

FR Yugoslavia

A Yugoslav Army 250th Air Defense Missile Brigade 3rd battery equipped with S-125 system managed to shoot down an F-117 Nighthawk stealth attack aircraft on March 27, 1999 during the Kosovo War (the only recorded downing of a stealth aircraft) near village Budjanovci, about 45 km from Belgrade. The pilot LT.COL. Darrell Patrick Zelko managed to eject and was later found by US search & rescue forces. It was also used to shoot down a NATO F-16 fighter on May 2 (its pilot; Lt. Col David L. Goldfein, the commander of 555th Fighter Squadron, managed to eject and was later rescued by a combat search-and-rescue (CSAR) mission). [13] [14]

In 2020, American sources state that a second F-117A was targeted and damaged during the campaign, allegedly on 30 April 1999; [15] the aircraft returned to Spangdahlem base, but it supposedly never flew again.[ citation needed ]

During the war, different Yugoslav SAM sites and possibly the S-125 also shot down some NATO UAVs.[ citation needed ]

Syrian Civil War

On 17 March 2015, a US MQ-1 Predator drone was shot down by a Syrian Air Defense Force S-125 missile while on intelligence flight near the coastal town of Latakia. [16]

In December 2016, ISIS forces captured three S-125 launchers after they retook Palmyra from Syrian government troops. [17]

On April 14, 2018, American, British, and French forces launched a barrage of 103 air-to-surface and cruise missiles targeting eight sites in Syria. The Russian military claimed that thirteen S-125 missiles launched in response destroyed five incoming missiles. [18] However, the American Department of Defense stated no Allied missiles were shot down. [19]

2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

During the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict the S-125 system was listed in the active inventory of both sides in different versions. On 17 October 2020, the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense claimed the destruction of an Armenian S-125 system without providing further details. [20] On 22 October 2020, the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense released a video showing the destruction of an Armenian SNR-125 fire control radar for the S-125 system targeted by an Azerbaijani operated IAI Harop loitering munition. [21]

Description

The S-125 is somewhat mobile, an improvement over the S-75 system. The missiles are typically deployed on fixed turrets containing two or four but can be carried ready-to-fire on ZIL trucks in pairs. Reloading the fixed launchers takes a few minutes.

Missile

V-600
S125 Neva 250 brPVO VS, september 01, 2012.jpg
V-600 missiles on the S-125 quadruple launcher.
Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Production history
VariantsV-600, V-601
Specifications (V-601 [22] )
Mass953 kg
Length6.09 m
Diameter375 mm
WarheadFrag-HE
Warhead weight60 kg
Detonation
mechanism
Proximity fuse [23]

Wingspan2.2 m
PropellantSolid propellant rocket motor
Operational
range
35 kilometres (22 mi)
Flight altitude18,000 metres (59,000 ft)
Guidance
system
RF CLOS

The S-125 system uses two different missile versions and variants.

Radars

The launchers are accompanied by a command building or truck and three primary radar systems:

"Flat Face"/"Squat Eye" is mounted on a van ("Squat Eye" on a taller mast for better performance against low-altitude targets also an IFF [Identifies Friend or Foe]), "Low Blow" on a trailer and "Side Net" on a box-bodied trailer.

Variants and upgrades

ZIF-101 launcher of Volna system on the Kashin class destroyer Strogiy. SA-N-1 launcher.jpg
ZIF-101 launcher of Volna system on the Kashin class destroyer Strogiy.

Work on a naval version M-1 Volna (SA-N-1) started in 1956, along with work on a land version. It was first mounted on a rebuilt Kotlin class destroyer (Project 56K) Bravyi and tested in 1962. In the same year, the system was accepted. The basic missile was a V-600 (or 4K90) (range: from 4 to 15 km, altitude: from 0.1 to 10 km). Fire control and guidance is carried out by 4R90 Yatagan radar, with five parabolic antennas on a common head. Only one target can be engaged at a time (or two, for ships fitted with two Volna systems). In case of emergency, Volna could be also used against naval targets, due to short response time.

The first launcher type was the two-missile ZIF-101, with a magazine for 16 missiles. In 1963 an improved two-missile launcher, ZIF-102, with a magazine for 32 missiles, was introduced to new ship classes. In 1967 Volna systems were upgraded to Volna-M (SA-N-1B) with V-601 (4K91) missiles (range: 4–22 km, altitude: 0.1–14 km).

In 1974 - 1976 some systems were modernized to Volna-P standard, with an additional TV target tracking channel and better resistance to jamming. Later, improved V-601M missiles were introduced, with lower minimal attack altitude against aerial targets (system Volna-N).

Some Indian frigates also carry the M-1 Volna system.

Modern upgrades

Two S-125 dual missile launcher trailers. Sa-3.jpg
Two S-125 dual missile launcher trailers.
Newa SC Anakonda 2006 Z3.jpg
Newa SC

Since Russia replaced all of its S-125 sites with SA-10 and SA-12 systems, they decided to upgrade the S-125 systems being removed from service to make them more attractive to export customers.

Early warning radar is replaced by anti-stealth [26] [27] radar Kasta 2E2, target distance at 2.5–32 km, target altitude - 0.02–20 km, missile launchers can be positioned at up to 10 kilometers away from the control center.[ citation needed ] Speed up to 1000 m/s (target), Used rocket 5V27DE, [28] by weight the warhead + 50% range of flight splinters + 350%.[ citation needed ] Probability of hitting the target 1st rocket: at a distance up to 25 km - 0,72-0,99, detection range with the radar cross section = 2 sq meters about 100 km, with RCS = 0.15 sq m - about 50 km, with no interference. When using active jamming - 40 km. [29] ADMS "Pechora-2M" has the ability to interfacing with higher level command post and radar remote using telecode channels. Is equally effective at any time during the day and at night (optical location, daytime and nighttime, and also thermal imager) was awarded a contract to overhaul Egypt's S-125 SAM system. These refurbished weapons have been reintroduced as the S-125 Pechora 2M. [30]

Serbian modifications include terminal/camera homing from radar base.

Cuba also developed a similar upgrade to the Polish one, which was displayed in La Habana in 2006. [31]

There is also a version of the S-125 available from Russia with the warhead replaced with telemetry instrumentation, for use as target drones.

Operators

Map of S-125 operators in blue with former operators in red S-125 newoperators.png
Map of S-125 operators in blue with former operators in red
Simulated Soviet surface to air missile site at Nellis AFB Sa-3 site.jpg
Simulated Soviet surface to air missile site at Nellis AFB

Current operators

Pechora-2M air defence systems of Myanmar Army at the 71st Armed Force Day Parade (2016) MA-SAM-2.jpg
Pechora-2M air defence systems of Myanmar Army at the 71st Armed Force Day Parade (2016)

Former operators

Related Research Articles

S-300 missile system Long-range SAM system

The S-300 is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version. The S-300 system was developed to defend against aircraft and cruise missiles for the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Subsequent variations were developed to intercept ballistic missiles. The S-300 system was first deployed by the Soviet Union in 1979, designed for the air defence of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft. The system is fully automated, though manual observation and operation are also possible. Components may be near the central command post, or as distant as 40 km. Each radar provides target designation for the central command post. The command post compares the data received from the targeting radars up to 80 km apart, filtering false targets, a difficult task at such great distances. The central command post features both active and passive target detection modes.

2K12 Kub Tracked medium-range surface-to-air missile system

The 2K12 "Kub" mobile surface-to-air missile system is a Soviet low to medium-level air defence system designed to protect ground forces from air attack. "2К12" is the GRAU designation of the system.

9K33 Osa Vehicle-launched surface-to-air missile system

The 9K33 Osa is a highly mobile, low-altitude, short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system developed in the Soviet Union in the 1960s and fielded in 1972. Its export version name is Romb.

Buk missile system Russian surface-to-air missile system

The Buk missile system is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, and designed to counter cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.

9K35 Strela-10 Vehicle-mounted SAM system

The 9K35 Strela-10 is a highly mobile, short-range surface-to-air missile system. It is visually aimed, and utilizes optical/infrared-guidance. The system is primarily intended to engage low-altitude threats, such as helicopters. "9K35" is its GRAU designation; its NATO reporting name is SA-13 "Gopher".

MIM-23 Hawk 1960s surface-to-air missile family by Raytheon

The Raytheon MIM-23 HAWK is an American medium-range surface-to-air missile. It was designed to be a much more mobile counterpart to the MIM-14 Nike Hercules, trading off range and altitude capability for a much smaller size and weight. Its low-level performance was greatly improved over Nike through the adoption of new radars and a continuous wave semi-active radar homing guidance system. It entered service with the US Army in 1959.

S-75 Dvina Strategic SAM system

The S-75 is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance. Following its first deployment in 1957 it became one of the most widely deployed air defence systems in history. It scored the first destruction of an enemy aircraft by a surface-to-air missile, with the shooting down of a Taiwanese Martin RB-57D Canberra over China on 7 October 1959 that was hit by a salvo of three V-750 (1D) missiles at an altitude of 20 km (65,600 ft). This success was credited to Chinese fighter aircraft at the time to keep the S-75 program secret.

Egyptian Air Defense Forces Air defense branch of Egypts military

The Egyptian Air Defense Forces or EADF, is the Anti-aircraft warfare branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. It is responsible for protecting the Egyptian airspace against any hostile air attacks. The EADF was established in accordance with the presidential decree issued on 1 February 1968, which provided for the establishment of the Air Defense Forces as the fourth branch, next to the Navy, Egyptian Ground Forces, and Egyptian Air Force, formerly part of the artillery and under the operation command of the Air Force. Egypt has a modern system of air defense armament, characterized by diverse sources between east and west, which is divided between anti-aircraft missiles long, medium and short-range anti-aircraft artillery systems and early warning radars.

Kotlin-class destroyer

Kotlin-class destroyers were Cold War era ships built for the Soviet Navy. The Russian name for this class was Project 56 Spokoinyy. 27 ships were built between 1955 and 1958; they were all decommissioned in the late 1980s. The Kildin class is based on the design of the Kotlins. The Chinese Luda class which is based on the Soviet Neustrashimy class, also borrows some design concepts from the Kotlin class.

S-300VM missile system Mobile surface-to-air missile/anti-ballistic missile system

The S-300VM "Antey-2500" is a Russian anti-ballistic missile system. The system is designed to defeat short- and medium-range ballistic missile, aeroballistic, cruise missiles, fixed-wing aircraft, as well as loitering ECM platforms and precision-guided munitions.

A-135 anti-ballistic missile system Anti-ballistic missile

The A-135 is a Russian anti-ballistic missile system deployed around Moscow to intercept incoming warheads targeting the city or its surrounding areas. The system was designed in the Soviet Union and entered service in 1995. It is a successor to the previous A-35, and complies with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

NPO Almaz

JSC NPO Almaz named after A.A. Raspletin is a Soviet/Russian military R&D enterprise founded in 1947. It is the core of the Almaz-Antey holding. Headquarters – Moscow, Leningradsky av., 80.

The Syrian Air Defense Force (SyADF), officially the Syrian Arab Air Defense Force is an independent command within the Syrian Armed Forces. The SyADF is one of the most powerful and combat-tested air defence forces in the region.

JSC Defense systems is a Russian-Belarusian air defense system manufacturer.

Pechora is a town in the Komi Republic, Russia.

<i>Sovremenny</i>-class destroyer Class of destroyer built for the Soviet Navy

The Sovremenny class, Soviet designation Project 956 Sarych (buzzard), is a class of anti-ship and anti-aircraft guided missile destroyers of the Soviet and later Russian Navy. The ships are named after qualities, with "Sovremenny" translating as "modern" or "contemporary". Most of the ships have been retired from active service and one converted into a museum ship in 2018; as of 2021 two remain in commission with the Russian Navy with several in overhaul. Four modified ships were delivered to the People's Liberation Army Navy, and remain in service.

42S6 Morfey or Morfei with missile 9M338K or RZV-MD based and derived from Tor-M2, is a short range air defense system currently being developed for the Russian Armed Forces. It is a mobile system with a range of 5 km (3 mi). Development has been ongoing since 2007 and it is supposed to be introduced in 2015. It is reported to feature an omnidirectional cupola-type radar with Active electronically scanned array. It is being developed by Almaz-Antey.

S-350E Vityaz 50R6 medium-range SAM system

The 50R6 Vityaz or S-350E is a Russian medium-range surface-to-air missile system developed by GSKB Almaz-Antey. Its purpose is to replace the S-300PS and S-300PT-1A. The system design traces its roots from the joint South Korean/Russian KM-SAM project and uses the same 9M96 missile as the S-400 missile system, which is differs from Korean variant.

Territorial Air Defence Forces

The Territorial Air Defence Force abbreviated as DAT) is an armed service/branch of the People's National Army, the armed forces of Algeria. It is one of the four service branches of the Algerian Armed Forces, along with the army, navy, and air force. It is tasked with the Algerian airspace protection mission. Its current commander is Major-General Amer Amrani.

9M337 Sosna-R Surface to air missile

The 9M337 Sosna-R (Pine) (SA-24) is a Russian radar and laser-guided supersonic two-stage missile. It is used in Sosna-R short range air defense missile system designed to protect military units from air attacks in all types of combat situations, including during march.

References

  1. "S-125 SA-3 GOA". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 2012-08-19. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
  2. [ permanent dead link ]
  3. Lord, Dick (2000). Vlamgat: The Story of the Mirage F1 in the South African Air Force. Covos-Day. ISBN   978-0-620-24116-8.
  4. Зенитные ракетные войска в войнах во Вьетнаме и на Ближнем Востоке (в период 1965—1973 гг.). М.: Воениздат, 1980. С. 215
  5. "Боевое применение зенитной ракетной системы С-125". Военно-патриотический сайт «Отвага» (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2017-07-15. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  6. 1 2 3 4 "ЗРК С-125". pvo.guns.ru. Archived from the original on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  7. Russia vs Israel
  8. "Pilot Tells Terror of Bailout, 46 Days as a POW : Military: Air Force Maj. Tice had his F-16 shot out from under him in a bomb run over Baghdad. After that, it got worse". Los Angeles Times. 1991-03-16. Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  9. "Airframe Details for F-16 #87-0257". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2013-07-07. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  10. Lake 2004, p. 48.
  11. Lake 2004, pp. 47–48.
  12. Condor 1994, p. 44.
  13. Roberts, Chris. "Holloman commander recalls being shot down in Serbia" Archived 2009-03-28 at the Wayback Machine . F-16.net, 7 February 2007. Retrieved: 16 May 2008.
  14. Anon. "F-16 Aircraft Database: F-16 Airframe Details for 88-0550" Archived 2008-10-13 at the Wayback Machine . F-16.net. Retrieved: 16 May 2008.
  15. "Yes, Serbian Air Defenses Did Hit Another F-117 During Operation Allied Force In 1999". The Drive . 1 December 2020.
  16. "air force lost predator was shot down in syria". Airforcetimes.com. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  17. 1 2 "ISIS has three surface-to-air missile launchers in Syria, US officials say". Fox News. 2016-12-15. Archived from the original on 2017-09-15. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  18. "Briefing by Russian Defence Ministry official Major General Igor Konashenkov (April 16, 2018) : Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation". eng.mil.ru. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  19. "Department of Defense Press Briefing by Pentagon Chief Spokesperson". U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  20. https://report.az/en/nagorno-karabakh-conflict/report-informs-referring-to-the-ministry-of-defence-551/
  21. https://izwest.livejournal.com/7669862.html
  22. 1 2 "S-125/Pechora (SA-3 'Goa')". Janes.com. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
  23. Carlo, Kopp (30 June 2009). "Almaz 5V24/5V27/S-125 Neva/Pechora / SA-3 Goa / Зенитный Ракетный Комплекс 5В24/5В27/С-125 Нева/Печора". Ausairpower.net. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  24. ""Печора-2М" стала практически неуязвима для ракет, самонаводящихся по излучению радаров — Сергей Птичкин — Российская газета". Rg.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  25. ARIC. "Пбп "Пвптпойфемшоще Уйуфенщ" - Пуопчобс Ртпйъчпдуфчеообс Урегйбмйъбгйс Ртедртйсфйк Ипмдйозб". Defensys.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-08-27. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  26. "-22". Pvo.guns.ru. Archived from the original on 27 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  27. "Каста-2-2". Vniirt.ru. Archived from the original on 27 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  28. "Таджикистан получил зенитно-ракетный комплекс "Печора-2М"". Arms-expo.ru. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  29. "RusArmy.com - "-2"". Rusarmy.com. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  30. "Unique Surface-To-Air Missile Baffles Foreign Military Diplomats In Egypt". Spacewar.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-05. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  31. Dr C Kopp, Smaiaa, Smieee, Peng. "Legacy Air Defence System Upgrades". Ausairpower.net. Archived from the original on 2014-12-30. Retrieved 2013-08-26.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  32. "Ukrainian SAM upgrade locks on to launch customers". Jane's Defence Weekly. 2010-10-14. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved 2010-11-05.
  33. "SA-3 Goa S-125 Neva Pechora ground to air missile system technical data sheet specifications UK | Russia Russian missile system vehicle UK | Russia Russian army military equipment vehicles UK". Armyrecognition.com. Archived from the original on 2017-07-05. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  34. Army Recognition (23 January 2021). "Myanmar to get Russian Pantsir-S1 air defense systems". Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  35. Tass (23 January 2021). "Russia to supply air defense systems Pantsir-S1 to Myanmar". Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  36. New Defence Order Strategy (23 January 2021). "Myanmar to Obtain Pantsir-S1 & Orlan-10E". Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  37. "Unique surface-to-air missile baffles foreign military diplomats in Egypt". Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Sistema antiaéreo Pechora-2M: Un arma eficaz como el Kalashnikov. Vedomosti" [Anti-Air Pechora-2M system: A weapon as effective as the Kalashnikov. Vedomosti] (in Spanish). RIA. 2008-12-26. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  39. 1 2 3 4 "ОАО "Оборонительные системы" рассчитывает на дальнейшее расширение экспортных поставок модернизированного ЗРК "Печора-2М" | Ракетная техника". rbase.new-factoria.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2017-08-03. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  40. "Белорусско-российские ЗРК "Печора-2М" приняты на вооружение армией Египта". ВПК.name. Archived from the original on 2017-08-04. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  41. "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's | IHS". Articles.janes.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-26. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  42. The Military Balance 2013. P. 164
  43. The International Institute For Strategic Studies IISS The Military Balance 2012. — Nuffield Press, 2012. — С. 349 с.
  44. "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  45. "South Sudan has acquired surface-to-air missiles". Defenceweb.co.za.
  46. сборник, БАСТИОН: военно-технический. "ВООРУЖЕНИЯ, ВОЕННАЯ ТЕХНИКА, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ СБОРНИК, СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ, ИСТОРИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ ОПК, БАСТИОН ВТС, НЕВСКИЙ БАСТИОН, ЖУРНАЛ, СБОРНИК, ВПК, АРМИИ, ВЫСТАВКИ, САЛОНЫ, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ, НОВОСТИ, ПОСЛЕДНИЕ НОВОСТИ, ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, СОБЫТИЯ ФАКТЫ ВПК, НОВОСТИ ОПК, ОБОРОННАЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТЬ, МИНИСТРЕСТВО ОБОРОНЫ, СИЛОВЫХ СТРУКТУР, КРАСНАЯ АРМИЯ, СОВЕТСКАЯ АРМИЯ, РУССКАЯ АРМИЯ, ЗАРУБЕЖНЫЕ ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, ВиВТ, ПВН". bastion-karpenko.ru. Archived from the original on 2017-07-19. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  47. "Ukrainian ministry of Defence". Міністерство оборони України. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  48. "19.04.12 Египетские ЗРК "Печора-2М" - фото - Военный паритет". Militaryparitet.com. Archived from the original on 2017-08-03. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  49. 1 2 "Венесуэльский орешек". ВПК.name. Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  50. "ЦАМТО / Главное / В Венесуэле создан первый позиционный район, где базируется батарея ЗРК "Печора-2М"". Armstrade.org. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  51. Linder, James B.; Gregor, A. James (1981). United States. Dept. of the Air Force. "The Chinese communist Air Force in the "punitive" war against Vietnam". Air University Review. XXXIII (6): 72. GGKEY:8Q7C9Z5UADZ. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  52. https://www.defenceweb.co.za/featured/zambia-showcases-new-military-hardware-during-military-parade/
  53. Archived October 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  54. "PL raketový komplet S-125 NĚVA". Fronta.cz (in Czech). Archived from the original on 2017-08-03. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  55. Sean O'Connor (2008-10-01). "IMINT & Analysis: Hungarian Strategic Air Defense: A Cold War Case Study". Geimint.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on 2013-09-07. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  56. Oryx [@oryxspioenkop] (13 December 2016). "Islamic State just captured the S-125 surface-to-air missile (SAM) site positioned north of T4 airbase…" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  57. "Somalia - Mission, Organization, and Strength". Country-data.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  58. Kopp, Carlo. "Almaz 5V24/5V27/S-125 Neva/Pechora Air Defence System / SA-3 Goa". Air Power Australia. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2017.