Shangwang Shangyung Khaplang
Khaplang at a camp in Myanmar in 2011
Shangwang Shangyung Khaplang
|Died||9 June 2017 77) (aged|
Taga, Kachin, Myanmar
Shangwang Shangyung Khaplang (April 1940 – 9 June 2017)was a Burmese leader of National Socialist Council of Nagaland, an insurgent group that operates to establish Greater Nagaland (or Nagalim), a sovereign state bringing all Naga-inhabited areas of Myanmar and India under one administrative setup.
Khaplang was born in Waktham in April 1940, a village east of Myanmar's Pangsau Pass as the youngest of ten children. Born into Hemi Naga tribe 1,726 kilometres (1,072 mi) long Stilwell Road connecting Ledo in India's Assam to China's Kunming to carry supplies against the Japanese Army, that passed through Waktham. This was said to have "sowed the seeds of insurgency in Khaplang." Khaplang claimed that he first attended a school in Margherita, a town in Assam before joining Baptist Mission School in Myitkyina in Myanmar's Kachin State in 1959, and in 1961 to another missionary school in Kalay before he eventually dropped out.that lived predominantly in Myanmar, his early childhood was shaped by the opening up of isolated Naga communities by the World War II. During the War, the Western Allies built the
Allegedly influenced by the events of the War during his childhood, Khaplang founded the Naga Defence Force (NDF) in 1964 to operate towards a separate sovereign state for the Naga people. In 1965, he co-founded Eastern Naga Revolutionary Council (ENRC) that he later became the vice-chairman and then the chairman of. The two organizations helped Naga nationalist leader Angami Zapu Phizo's Naga National Council (NNC) to travel to China for weapons and training young recruits.Later, the two merged with the NNC and Khaplang became its chairman in 1974. During one of these visits, he met Thuingaleng Muivah, involved then with the NNC. They, along with another leader Isak Chishi Swu subsequently formed a partnership in revolting against the NNC for signing the Shillong Accord of 1975 that accepted the supremacy of the Indian Constitution. They broke away and formed the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) in 1980. The NSCN became very powerful and by 1985, it was running a parallel government in Nagaland, also extending its influence to adjoining districts of the neighbouring Indian States of Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh. It was being called the 'mother of all insurgencies'.
However, in April 1988, the NSCN split into two factions: the NSCN-K led by Khaplang, and the NSCN-IM, led by Swu and Muivah. Khaplang had made unsuccessful assassination attempt on Muivah. By 1989, the NSCN-K had driven out all Indian Naga people from Myanmar and the NSCN-IM shifted base to Thailand. Khaplang's influence in the region spread around this time. In addition to insurgent and anti-establishment activity, he gave space to other separatist outfits such as United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) and I. K. Songbijit's faction of National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB (Songbijit)), Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO), Kangleipak Communist Party and Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup to set up hideouts alongside the NSCN-K's headquarters.While operating mostly in Nagaland, the NSCN-K subsequently made inroads into Changlang and Tirap districts of the neighbouring Arunachal Pradesh and later Assam.
On 28 April 2001, the NSCN-K signed an agreement to one-year ceasefire with the government of India starting the same day. ₹7 lakh was declared by the National Investigation Agency for providing information on Khaplang. In September, the Ministry of Home Affairs declared NSCN-K an 'unlawful organisation' for a period of five years, under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act.Khaplang announced of abrogating the agreement in March 2015. In April, leaders of the ULFA, NDFB (Songbijit), KLO and Khaplang of the NSCN-K assembled in Taga in Myanmar to form the United Liberation Front of Western South East Asia (UNLFW) to achieve "united and total struggle" against the Indian establishment. Khaplang was chosen as the chairman. In June, the UNLFW killed 18 personnel while injuring over a dozen others Indian Army in an ambush in Manipur's Chandel district, the deadliest on the Army since 1983. A bounty of
In his later life, Khaplang began to suffer from diabetes and other age-related ailments. He died of cardiac arrest on 9 June 2017 in Taga, in Myanmar's Naga Self-Administered Zone in Sagaing Region, where the NSCN-K was based during the time.It was reported that he had returned from China after a treatment and was to head to Waktham, his birthplace. Following his death, the then Chief Minister of Nagaland Shurhozelie Liezietsu revealed that "provided issues of substance were discussed", Khaplang was willing "to have dialogue with the government". Liezietsu added that, "It is tragic that such an important Naga leader like Mr Khaplang passed away at a time when the Naga political problem is on the verge of being resolved, and the need for all different Naga political groups to come together to air our views and aspirations to the Government of India in one voice is absolutely imperative."
Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), 1958 is an act of the Parliament of India that grant special powers to the Indian Armed Forces the power to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”. According to The Disturbed Areas Act, 1976 once declared ‘disturbed’, the area has to maintain status quo for a minimum of 3 months. One such Act passed on 11 September 1958 was applicable to the Naga Hills, then part of Assam. In the following decades it spread, one by one, to the other Seven Sister States in India's northeast. Another one passed in 1983 and applicable to Punjab and Chandigarh was withdrawn in 1997, roughly 14 years after it came to force. An Act passed in 1990 was applied to Jammu and Kashmir and has been in force since.
The National Democratic Front of Boroland (NDFB) was an armed separatist outfit which seeks to obtain a sovereign Boroland for the Bodo people. It is designated as a terrorist organisation by the Government of India.
Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed separatist factions operating in India's northeastern states, which are connected to the rest of India by the Siliguri Corridor, a strip of land as narrow as 14.29 miles (23.00 km) wide. Most factions favour a separate nation while others seek regional autonomy. Some groups demand complete independence. Others wanted religious law.
Terrorism in India, according to the Home Ministry, poses a significant threat to the people of India. Compared to other countries, India faces a wide range of terror groups. Terrorism found in India includes Islamic terrorism, separatist terrorism, and left wing terrorism India is one of the countries most impacted by terrorism.
The ethnic conflict in Nagaland, in northeastern India, is an ongoing conflict fought between the ethnic Nagas and the governments of India and Myanmar. Nagaland inhabited by the Nagas is located at the tri-junction border of India on the West and South, north and Myanmar on the East.
The National Socialist Council of Nagaland is a Maoist Naga nationalist separatist group operating mainly in Northeast India, with minor activities in northwest Myanmar (Burma) until 2012. The main goal of the organisation is to establish a sovereign Naga state, "Nagalim", which would consist of all the areas inhabited by the Naga people in Northeast India and Northwest Myanmar. NSCN slogan is Nagaland for Christ. The group is currently fighting for the separation of Nagaland from India.
The Naga National Council (NNC) was a political organization of Naga people, active from the late 1940s to the early 1950s. It evolved out the Naga Hills District Tribal Council, an organization established in 1945 by the Deputy Commissioner of the Naga Hills district. The group was reorganized to form NNC in 1946 at Sanis, with Eno T. Aliba Imti Ao as the President, and other democratically elected Naga representatives as its members. Later, under the leadership of Phizo, the NNC unsuccessfully campaigned for the secession of the Naga territory from India and creation for a sovereign Naga state.
The Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council is a militant organization operating in Meghalaya, India. It claims to represent the Khasi-Jaintia tribal people, and its aim is to free Meghalaya from the alleged domination of the Garos and the outsiders from the Indian mainland. It was proscribed in India on 16 November 2000, but the ban was later lifted, before banning it again in 2019.
Longri Ao (1906–1981), also known by name Longritangchetha, was an indigenenous missionary from the North-Eastern state of India, Nagaland. He was a missionary to the Konyak people and a peacemaker. He is known to have risked his life to restore peace in Nagaland, and to negotiate a Ceasefire agreement between Government of India and underground leaders fighting for Nagaland secession from India.
The Shillong Accord of 1975 was an agreement signed between the Government of India, also referred to as the Federal government, or Union government, or Central government of India, and Nagaland's underground government, also referred to as the Naga Federal government, or Naga guerillas, or Naga rebels, to accept the supremacy of Constitution of India without condition, surrender their arms and renounce their demand for the secession of Nagaland from India.
The Insurgency in Manipur is an ongoing armed conflict between India and a number of separatist rebel groups, taking place in the region of Manipur. The Insurgency in Manipur is part of the wider Insurgency in Northeast India; it combines elements of a national liberation war as well as an ethnic conflict.
The United National Liberation Front of Western South East Asia (UNLFW) is a united front of armed separatist groups in India formed by the United Liberation Front of Assam, the National Socialist Council of Nagaland, the Kamtapur Liberation Organisation, and the National Democratic Front of Boroland. It has claimed responsibility for the ambush of eighteen Indian soldiers in Manipur in one of the deadliest attacks against Indian security forces in over thirty years.
Thuingaleng Muivah is the present General Secretary of the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN).
Nagaland Peace Accord is the accord signed-in on 3 August 2015 by the Government of India and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) to end the insurgency. Government’s Interlocutor for Naga Peace Talks R. N. Ravi signed it on behalf of the Government of India whereas Lt. Isak Chishi Swu, Chairman and Thuingaleng Muivah, General Secretary signed on behalf of the NSCN in presence of the Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
On 9 June 2015, India announced that it had conducted a cross-border operation against insurgents belonging to NSCN-K. According to India, the operation took place in Myanmar and it was in response to ambush of Indian Army convoy of 6 Dogra Regiment in Chandel district of Manipur. Indian officials said that they had crossed the border and inflicted significant casualties against the NSCN-K. According to Indian media reports, around 38 insurgents belonging to NSCN-K were killed during the operation. The operation lasted around 40 minutes.
Isak Chishi Swu was the chairman of the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN). He along with Thuingaleng Muivah and S. S. Khaplang were instrumental in the creation of NSCN on 31 January 1980 after opposing the ‘Shillong Accord’ signed by the then Naga National Council (NNC) with the Indian government. He was unable to attend the historic Naga Framework Agreement signed on 4 August 2015 due to health conditions.
This is a timeline of the Insurgency in Northeast India, an ongoing armed conflict between the separatist rebels and the Indian government.
The hill tribes of Northeast India are hill people, mostly classified as Scheduled Tribes (STs), who live in the Northeast India region. This region has the largest proportion of scheduled tribes in the country.
Apart from cultural contacts with the neighboring Ahoms, the ruler of Assam from 1228, the Nagas had little or no contact with the outside world, including that of greater India, until British colonization and rule of the area in the nineteenth century.