SS-N-3 Shaddock

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Whiskey Twin Cylinder submarine armed with P-5 missiles. Whiskey Twin Cylinder submarine.jpg
Whiskey Twin Cylinder submarine armed with P-5 missiles.

The P-5 "Pyatyorka" (Russian : П-5 «Пятёрка»; "Pyatyorka", "fiver" in English), also known by the NATO codename SS-N-3C Shaddock, is a Cold War era turbojet-powered cruise missile of the Soviet Union, designed by the Chelomey design bureau. The missile entered service in 1959. Pyatyorka is a common name for the missile as the "digit 5", corresponding to the R-7 Semyorka, the digit 7.

Contents

The basic version of the missile was an inertially-guided submarine-launched cruise missile to threaten the US coast. The missile could be armed with either a 1000 kg high explosive or a 200 or 350 kt nuclear warhead. It had a speed of about 0.9 Mach, range of 500 km and CEP of about 3000 m. The later variant had a range of possibly up to 1000 km. The first missiles were installed in Project 644, Whiskey Twin Cylinder and Project 665, Whiskey Long Bin submarines.

Versions of P-5 were later developed equipped with radar homing to be used as anti-ship missiles. The last anti-ship versions were retired from active service about 1990, replaced by the P-500 Bazalt and P-700 Granit.

There were actually three versions of turbojet-powered, cruise missiles that were called "SS-N-3" by Western intelligence sources, with multiple variants. The earliest, P-5 was called SS-N-3c, and later versions SS-N-3a and SS-N-3b. The various Russian designations are believed to be P-5 "Pyatyorka", P-6, P-7, and P-35 Progress. Some sources indicate that missiles 'P-10' and 'P-25' may also have existed.

NATO called the submarine-launched radar-homing versions of the P-6 SS-N-3A 'Shaddock'. These were carried by Echo II- and Juliett-class submarines for targeting US aircraft carriers. The Echo I-class submarines were incapable of accommodating the targeting radar for the anti-ship version, and were not equipped with missiles after the land-attack variant was withdrawn, probably in the mid-1960s when sufficient nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) became available. [1]

Kynda-class cruiser with quadruple P-35 launchers. Cruiser Kynda.jpg
Kynda-class cruiser with quadruple P-35 launchers.

Russian sources indicate that there was only submarine-launched version of P-5. The surface-launched, radar-homing version called P-35 was used by Kynda- and Kresta I-class guided-missile cruisers. The P-7 was possibly a longer-ranged version of the P-5, or a further development of the P-6.

There were also land-based versions of these missiles transported in and launched from an eight-wheel truck (ZIL-135KM) as coastal defense missiles. These were designated SPU-35V "Redut" or NATO "SSC-1 Sepal". [2] Yugoslavia deployed this system on the island of Vis.

Specifications

Deployment

This missile was deployed on the following ships;

The Lake Inari incident

On 28 December 1984 a SS-N-3 missile used as a target by the Soviet Navy strayed over the Finnish border and crashed into Lake Inari. [3] [4] A Finnish early warning radar at Rovaniemi and a close-range radar at Kaamanen picked it up, and two Saab 35 Draken fighters were dispatched, but were unable to find anything. A few days later, a reindeer herder found a plastic cover of the electronics compartment, and unable to identify it, brought it to a Border Guard post. Finnish military analysts recognized it as a MiG component. Indeed, the missile was a modified version fitted with avionics taken from MiG for remote control. The missile had punched itself through the lake ice, thus the crash site was easily identifiable, and the Finnish military soon lifted the missile from the lake for analysis. The likely cause was loss of radio contact between the operator and the missile. Although the cause for the accident was mundane, it came at an unfortunate time, just before an international conference on cruise missiles, and there was much speculation whether it was a Soviet show of force. [5]

Operators

previous
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia
operational
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia - main
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam [6]
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea
P-35 Redut Geum Seong 2 금성-2호 GS-3 (SSC-1b SSN3b Sepal) , P-20
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Flag of Georgia (1990-2004).svg
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria [7]
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria [8]
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria [9]
Utjos (Utes, Sotka, Object 100)
Утёс ( объект 100, Сотка )
Sevastopol Balaklava, Russia (de facto)
Outline Map of Crimea (disputed status).svg
Red pog.svg
Utjos (Utes, Sotka, Object 100)
Coordinates 44°27′05″N33°39′09″E / 44.451389°N 33.6525°E / 44.451389; 33.6525
Typecoastal bunker AShM missile launchers
Site information
OwnerFlag of Russia.svg  Russia VMF Naval Ensign of Russia.svg , Flag of Crimea.svg Crimean Armed Forces Russian Border Guard.svg
OperatorBRaV CmF ВМФ ЧмФ БРВ (Black Sea Fleet Coastal Missile Forces) VMF Naval Ensign of Russia.svg Russia, Flag of border service 2008.svg
Controlled by Flag of Russia.svg VMF VKS Naval Ensign of Russia.svg Flag of Crimea.svg Crimean Navy Russia, Flag of border service 2008.svg Russian Border Guard.svg
Open to
the public
no
Conditionoperational (to be re-operational probably, poxible)
Site history
Built1950 ?, 60' - 80'
Built byFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  URS, Flag of Russia.svg  Russia

Variants

Related Research Articles

Juliett-class submarine

The Project 651, known in the West by its NATO reporting name Juliett class, was a class of Soviet diesel-electric submarines armed with cruise missiles. They were designed in the late 1950s to provide the Soviet Navy with a nuclear strike capability against targets along the east coast of the United States and enemy combatants. The head of the design team was Abram Samuilovich Kassatsier. They carried four nuclear-capable cruise missiles with a range of approximately 300 miles, which could be launched while the submarine was surfaced and moving less than four knots (7 km/h). Once surfaced, the first missile could be launched in about five minutes; subsequent missiles would follow within about ten seconds each. Initially, the missiles were the inertially-guided P-5. When submarine-launched ballistic missiles rendered the P-5s obsolescent, they were replaced with the P-6 designed to attack aircraft carriers. A special 10 m2 target guidance radar was built into the forward edge of the sail structure, which opened by rotating. One boat was eventually fitted with the Kasatka satellite downlink for targeting information to support P-500 4K-80 "Bazalt" anti-ship cruise missiles.

A cruise missile submarine is a submarine that carries and launches cruise missiles as its primary armament. Missiles greatly enhance a vessel's ability to attack surface combatants and strike land targets, and although torpedoes are a more stealthy option, missiles give a much longer stand-off range, as well as the ability to engage multiple targets on different headings at the same time. Many cruise missile submarines retain the capability to deploy nuclear warheads on their missiles, but they are considered distinct from ballistic missile submarines due to the substantial differences between the two weapons systems' characteristics.

P-15 Termit Anti-ship missile

The P-15 Termit is an anti-ship missile developed by the Soviet Union's Raduga design bureau in the 1950s. Its GRAU designation was 4K40, its NATO reporting name was Styx or SS-N-2. China acquired the design in 1958 and created at least four versions: the CSS-N-1 Scrubbrush and CSS-N-2 versions were developed for ship-launched operation, while the CSS-C-2 Silkworm and CSS-C-3 Seersucker were used for coastal defence. Other names for this basic type of missile include: HY-1, SY-1, and FL-1 Flying Dragon. North Korean local produced KN-1 or KN-01, derived from both Silkworm variants and Russian & USSR P-15, Rubezh, P-20 P-22.

The P-700 Granit is a Soviet and Russian naval anti-ship cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M45, its NATO reporting name SS-N-19 Shipwreck. It comes in surface-to-surface and submarine-launched variants, and can also be used against ground targets.

Submarine-launched cruise missile Cruise missile that is launched from a submarine

A submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM) is a cruise missile that is launched from a submarine. Current versions are typically standoff weapons known as land-attack cruise missiles (LACMs), which are used to attack predetermined land targets with conventional or nuclear payloads. Anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) are also used, and some submarine-launched cruise missiles have variants for both functions.

Shaddock may refer to:

Echo-class submarine

The Echo class were nuclear cruise missile submarines of the Soviet Navy built during the 1960s. Their Soviet designation was Project 659 for the first five vessels, and Project 675 for the following twenty-nine. Their NATO reporting names were Echo I and Echo II. All were decommissioned by 1994.

Whiskey-class submarine

Whiskey-class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarines that the Soviet Union built in the early Cold War period.

P-120 Malakhit Anti-shipping missile

The P-120 Malakhit is a Russian medium range anti-ship missile used by corvettes and submarines. Introduced in 1972, it remains in service but has been superseded by the P-270 Moskit.

Kresta I-class cruiser

The Kresta I class, Soviet designation Project 1134 Berkut, was a class of guided missile cruiser built in the Soviet Union for the Soviet Navy. The ships were designed for a surface warfare role, but Soviet priorities were changed to an anti-submarine role and only four ships were built in this configuration. They were followed by the Kresta II class, an anti-submarine warfare variant.

The P-500 Bazalt is a turbojet-powered, supersonic cruise missile used by the Soviet and Russian navies. Its GRAU designation is 4K80 and its NATO reporting name is SS-N-12 Sandbox, its modern version being the P-1000 Vulkan AShM SLCM.

Kynda-class cruiser 1961 guided missile cruiser class of the Soviet Union

The Project 58 missile cruisers, known to NATO as the Kynda class and sometimes referred to as the Grozny class, from the name of the first ship of the series to be constructed, were the first generation of Soviet missile cruisers and represented a considerable advance for the Soviet Navy. Their main role was anti-surface warfare using the SS-N-3b 'Shaddock' missile. The design proved to be top-heavy and was soon succeeded by the larger Kresta I class, but the Kyndas stayed in service until the fall of the Soviet Union.

Kh-35 Air-to-surfaceSurface-to-surface missileCruise missileAnti-ship missile

The Zvezda Kh-35 is a Soviet turbojet subsonic cruise anti-ship missile. The same missile can also be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defence batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran or Bal. It is designed to attack vessels up to 5,000 tonnes.

Metel Anti-Ship Complex Anti-submarine/ship missile

Metel Anti-Ship Complex is a Russian family of anti-submarine missiles. There are different anti-submarine variants ('Metel') for cruisers and frigates, and a later version with a shaped charge ('Rastrub') that can be used against shipping as well as submarines.

P-70 Ametist Anti-shipping missile

The P-70 Ametist was an anti-ship missile carried by Soviet and Indian Project 670 submarines, as well as the Soviet Project 661 Anchar. It was soon succeeded by the P-120 Malakhit (SS-N-9 'Siren').

Soviet cruiser <i>Varyag</i> (1963)

Varyag was the fourth and final ship of the Soviet Navy Project 58 Groznyy-class Guided Missile Cruisers, also known as the Kynda Class.

Object 100

Object-100 Utes (Utyos) or Sotka is a Russian Navy anti-ship missile coastal defense division built in Soviet times, using bunker TEL with a pair of SS-N-3 Shaddock P-35B 4K44B SS-N-3b Shaddock 3M44 Progress, can also launch different ones like P-6 P-35B S-35.

Soviet cruiser <i>Admiral Fokin</i>

Admiral Fokin was the second ship of the Soviet Navy Project 58 Groznyy-class Guided Missile Cruisers, also known as the Kynda Class. Launched on 19 November 1961, the vessel served with the Pacific Fleet during the latter half of the 1960s, through the 1970s into the 1980s, undertaking a tour of the Indian Ocean which included visits to foreign ports. Admiral Fokin was transferred to the Russian Navy after the dissolution of the Soviet Union but was decommissioned on 30 June 1993 and scrapped.

Soviet cruiser <i>Admiral Golovko</i>

Admiral Golovko was the third ship of the Soviet Navy Project 58 Groznyy-class Guided Missile Cruisers, also known as the Kynda Class.

References

  1. Gardiner and Chumbley, pp. 401-402
  2. russianmilitaryphotos (9 May 2012). "The 4K44 Redut Variant SPU-35V Mobile Coastal Defense System".
  3. "Scandinavia Wayward Missile". 14 January 1985. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010 via www.time.com.
  4. Reuters (25 June 1985). "Finns Return Soviet Missile That Strayed in Maneuvers" via NYTimes.com.
  5. Heikki Tiilikainen, Kylmän sodan kujanjuoksu. Gummerus, 2003. ISBN   951-20-6452-9.
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2012-06-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. "Bulgaria - Naval Forces". www.country-data.com.
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2012-07-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. "Algerian National Navy القوات البحرية الجزائرية Algeria naval force ships and equipment description information intelligence data sheet identification naval defence industry military technology pictures photos video frigate, corvette, submarine".