|Owner:||Svenska Lloyd AB|
|Builder:||Antwerp Engineering Co Ltd, Hoboken|
|Out of service:||18 December 1954|
|Fate:||Sank 18 December 1954|
|Class and type:||Cargo ship|
|Tonnage:||1,323 gross register tons (GRT)|
|Length:||236 ft 8 in (72.14 m)|
|Beam:||37 ft 3 in (11.35 m)|
|Depth:||16 ft 2 in (4.93 m)|
|Installed power:||1 triple expansion steam engine|
|Speed:||9.5 knots (17.6 km/h)|
SS Hispania was a Swedish 1,323 GRT triple-expansion engine steamer built in Belgium in 1912. She sank in the Sound of Mull on 18 December 1954 after striking a rock.
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund Strait. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. The capital city is Stockholm. Sweden has a total population of 10.3 million of which 2.5 million have a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi) and the highest urban concentration is in the central and southern half of the country.
A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels. Steamboats sometimes use the prefix designation SS, S.S. or S/S or PS ; however, these designations are most often used for steamships.
The Sound of Mull is a sound between the Inner Hebridean island of Mull and Scotland. It forms part of the Atlantic Ocean.
Hispania was built by the Antwerp Engineering Co Ltd, Hoboken, Antwerp, Belgium.She was yard number 59. Hispania was launched in 1912 and completed in December of that year. She was owned by Svenska Lloyd AB. Hispania was managed by a number of different managers, including H Metcalft, followed by K R Bökman from c1930.
Hoboken is a southern district of the arrondissement and city of Antwerp, in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located at the Scheldt river. The name of the district has its origins in Middle Dutch.
During the Second World War, Hispania was seized by the French authorities. In 1940, she was on a voyage from Kaolack, Senegal via Casablanca, Morocco to Bordeaux, France with a cargo of peanuts. During the voyage, she was attacked and severely damaged. On 2 June 1940, Hispania was detained in Bordeaux. On 8 October 1940, she was seized by the Vichy Government. On 8 November 1940, an application was made to declare her as a war prize. The crew were allowed to return to Sweden in December 1940, except for her captain and a mechanic. On 15 April 1941, Hispania was declared a war prize and ownership passed to the Kriegsmarine. Svenska Lloyd AB objected to this decision. On 8 February 1942, Hispania and Sirius were ordered to sail to Rotterdam under the command of the Kriegsmarine. On 1 November 1942, the Kriegsmarine ceased command of the ship. The next day, a German Schnellboot (fast boat) attack left one dead and two seriously wounded. On 19 December 1942, Hispania was handed back to Svenska Lloyd AB on payment of RM44,017.69. She departed Rotterdam on 1 January 1943, bound for Gothenburg.
Kaolack is a town of 172,305 people on the north bank of the Saloum River and the N1 road in Senegal. It is the capital of the Kaolack Region, which borders The Gambia to the south. Kaolack is an important regional market town and is Senegal's main peanut trading and processing center. As the center of the Ibrahimiyya branch of the Tijaniyyah Sufi order founded by Ibrayima Ñas, it is also a major center of Islamic education. The Leona Niassene mosque (right) in Kaolack is one of the largest and best known in Senegal.
Casablanca is the largest city in Morocco and is located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
On 18 December 1954, Hispania sank after hitting a reef in a storm. Heading to Varberg, Sweden, from Liverpool she attempted to navigate through the Sound of Mull but hit the Sgeir More (Big Rock) and started to list. The order to abandon ship was given and the crew lowered the lifeboats and rowed to shore. Captain Ivan Dahn refused to leave the ship and chose to go down with it.The other twenty crew were saved. At the time, Hispania was carrying a cargo of asbestos, rubber sheeting and steel.
Varberg is a locality and the seat of Varberg Municipality, Halland County, Sweden with 27,602 inhabitants in 2010.
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region.
The Isle of Mull or just Mull is the second-largest island of the Inner Hebrides and lies off the west coast of Scotland in the council area of Argyll and Bute.
The wreck sits, intact and upright, in 85 feet (26 m) of clear water, at Coordinates: . The Hispania can be dived on only during slack water, which is between 1 and 2 hours before high or low water near the Scottish town of Oban. Located in the northern aspects of the Sound of Mull, the Hispania is facing the shore and close to a red channel buoy. The water temperature ranges from 14 °C in summer to as low as 5 °C in winter. In the summer time, a common hazard are the migrating stinging jellyfish that pass over the wreck. Their tentacles often get caught on the shot line and are dangerous to divers.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
Oban is a resort town within the Argyll and Bute council area of Scotland. Despite its small size, it is the largest town between Helensburgh and Fort William. During the tourist season, the town can play host to up to 25,000 people. Oban occupies a setting in the Firth of Lorn. The bay is a near perfect horseshoe, protected by the island of Kerrera; and beyond Kerrera, the Isle of Mull. To the north, is the long low island of Lismore, and the mountains of Morvern and Ardgour.
Sound of Mull Remote Sensing Project (SOMAP) was an underwater survey on the behest of Historic Scotland to catalog all sites in the Sound of Mull. Through research and a through sonar survey, SOMAP was able to determine the status of the SS Hispania. Their findings determined that the ship was salvaged throughout the 1950s by Scarborough Sub-Aqua Club and since then the popularity of diving the wreck has resulted in the removal of all non-ferrous artifacts.No archaeological surveys of the site had been undertaken until SOMAP’s involvement. The ship's horn was salvaged in the 1960s by a member of Scarborough Sub-Aqua Club and is now on display there.
Historic Scotland was an executive agency of the Scottish Office and later the Scottish Government from 1991 to 2015, responsible for safeguarding Scotland's built heritage, and promoting its understanding and enjoyment. Under the terms of a Bill of the Scottish Parliament published on 3 March 2014, Historic Scotland was dissolved and its functions were transferred to Historic Environment Scotland (HES) on 1 October 2015. HES also took over the functions of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland.
Scarborough is a town on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, the town lies between 10–230 feet above sea level, rising steeply northward and westward from the harbour on to limestone cliffs. The older part of the town lies around the harbour and is protected by a rocky headland.
Minor damage was caused by a scallop dredger in 1999 when its fishing gear pulled down one of the masts and caused minor scrape damage.A scour pit caused by currents removing sand and mud from one side of the ship is causing the ship to slowly list into the depression. In November 2002 the wreck of Hispania was purchased by the Puffin Dive Centre, Oban.
Hispania was propelled by a triple expansion steam engine which was built by the North East Marine Engine Co Ltd, Newcastle upon Tyne. It had cylinders of 20 inches (51 cm), 33 inches (84 cm) and 54 inches (140 cm) diameter by 36 inches (91 cm) stroke, developing 175 horsepower (130 kW), giving a speed of 9.5 knots (17.6 km/h).
Official Numbers were a forerunner to IMO Numbers. Hispania had the Swedish Official Number 5396 and used the Code Letter JTCB between 1930 and 1944,and SEWG from 1934.
USS Alameda, was a United States Navy tanker in commission from 1919 to 1922. She was built as the civilian tanker SS Alameda, but transferred to the U.S. Navy after completion in 1919. She was sold for commercial service and operated under the names SS Olean and SS Sweep before she was transferred to the Navy again in World War II as USS Silver Cloud (IX-143).
SS Léopoldville was a 11,509 GRT passenger liner of the Compagnie Belge Maritime du Congo. She was converted for use as a troopship in the Second World War, and on December 24, 1944, while sailing between Southampton and Cherbourg, was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U-486. As a result, approximately 763 American soldiers died, together with 56 of her crew.
Cambridge was built by Joh. C. Tecklenborg in Geestemünde, Germany, in 1916 as the Vogtland. The ship was a twin-screw steel steamer, 524.5 feet in length, 56.7 feet in breadth, 37.3 feet in depth and of 10846 tons.
SS Rondo was a steam cargo ship. She was built by Tampa Shipbuilding & Drydock Company of Florida for the British government under the name War Wonder and was launched in 1917. The First World War ended before she entered service and she entered service for the US Shipping Board as the Lithopolis. She was sold to various Norwegian companies, becoming the Laurie, and finally the Rondo in 1934.
SS Breda was a Dutch cargo-passenger ship sunk in Scotland during World War II.
Persier was a 5,382 GRT cargo ship which was built in 1918 as War Buffalo for the British Shipping Controller. In 1919, she was sold to Belgium and renamed Persier. Between 1934 and 1941 she also held a passenger certificate. She was driven ashore on the Icelandic coast in a storm in February 1941 which put her out of action for two years. Returned to service in February 1943, she served until 11 February 1945, when she was torpedoed and sunk by U-1017 with the loss of 20 crew.
SS Empire Clansman was a 2,065 ton collier which was built in 1942 for the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT). She saw service mainly in British coastal waters during the Second World War, before running aground and being badly damaged in 1945. She was subsequently salvaged and returned to service for several companies after the war, under the names Sheaf Field, Corfield and then Spyros Amrenakis, before being wrecked for a second and final time in 1965.
Lesbian was a 2,352 GRT cargo ship which was built by Swan, Hunter and Wigham Richardson Ltd, Newcastle upon Tyne in 1923 for Ellerman Lines Ltd. She was seized in 1940 by the Vichy French forces.
SS Thesis was a steamship which was wrecked in October 1889 in the Sound of Mull, on Scotland's west coast. She is now a popular dive site with scuba divers.
SS Dia was a 2,905 GRT cargo ship which was built as Empire Beaconsfield in 1943. She was owned by the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and managed by Bank Line Ltd and Constants LTd. Postwar she was sold to her managers and renamed Hawkinge. She later saw service with different owners as Angusbrae, Hispania and Dia. She developed a leak and sank off Savona, Italy on 14 October 1964.
SS Hispania was the name of a number of steamships.
Minna was a 1,544 GRT cargo ship that was built in 1922 by Nylands Verksted, Kristiania, Norway for Swedish owners. In 1934, she was sold and renamed Britt. In 1939, she was captured by the Kriegsmarine and sold to German owners in 1940 and was renamed Leba. In 1945, she was seized by the Allies and passed to the Ministry of War Transport(MoWT). She was renamed Empire Conavon and was sold in 1947 to a British company and was renamed Baltkon. She served until 1959 when she was scrapped.
Theresia L M Russ was a 1,694 GRT cargo ship that was built in 1927 by Neptun AG, Rostock, Germany for Ernst Russ. She was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine for two years during the Second World War. In 1944, she was sunk by bombing at Gotenhafen, German occupied Poland. The ship was raised and repaired in 1945. She was seized by the Allies at Copenhagen and passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and renamed Empire Concrete.
Narva was a 2,044 GRT cargo ship that was built in 1943 as Aletta Noot by Gävle Varvs & Verkstads Nya AB, Gävle, Sweden for German owners. She was seized by the Allies at Flensburg, Germany in May 1945, passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and renamed Empire Confederation. In 1946, she was sold into merchant service and renamed Narva. On 22 December 1957, she foundered whilst going to the aid of another ship in distress.
Wickenburgh was a cargo liner that was built in 1938 as Adler by Lübecker Maschinenbau Gesellschaft, Lübeck for German owners. Requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine in 1940, she was seized by the Allies in Vordingborg, Denmark in May 1945, passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and renamed Empire Coningsby. In 1946, she was allocated to the Dutch Government and renamed Margeca. In 1947, she was sold into merchant service and renamed Wickenburgh. A rebuild in 1953 saw her compound steam engine replaced with a diesel engine, with a reduction in gross register tonnage from 1,494 to 1,420. She was sold to Greek owners in 1963 and renamed Nissos Thassos. A further sale to Panama in 1970 saw her renamed Savilco. She served until 1984, when she was scrapped.
Edenhurst was a cargo ship that was built in 1930 by Furness Shipbuilding Ltd, Haverton Hill-on-Tees for British owners. She was sold in 1937 to Finnish owners and renamed Ilves. In 1939, she was sold to German owners and renamed Glückauf. In 1940 she was sold and renamed Warnow and was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine in that year. She was seized by the Allies in Rendsburg in May 1945, passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and renamed Empire Conleven. In 1946, she was allocated to the Soviet Government and renamed Alexandr Parkhomenko(Александр Пархоменко). The ship was deleted from Lloyd's Register in 1960.
Johannes C Russ was a coaster that was built in 1921 by Stettiner Oderwerke AG, Stettin for German owners. In 1942 she was wrecked off Sweden but was salvaged and returned to service. She was seized by the Allies in May 1945 at Flensburg, passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and renamed Empire Connaught. In 1946, she was allocated to the Soviet Government and renamed Nemirovich Danchenko. She served until 1971, when she was scrapped.
Ganter was a 1,771 GRT cargo ship that was built in 1927 by G Seebeck AG, Bremerhaven, Germany for German owners. She was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine during the Second World War and operated as Transporter RO 29, she was seized by the Allies in May 1945. She was passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and was renamed Empire Consistance, being sold into merchant service in 1948. In 1950, she was sold to the Dutch government and renamed Jan Willem and then sold and renamed Maria in 1951. She was sold to Finnish owners later that year and being renamed Dagny. She served until she was scrapped in 1967.
Kolno was a 2,487 GRT cargo ship that was built in 1936 as Nordcoke by Lübecker Flenderwerke AG, Lübeck, Germany. In 1940, she was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine and was renamed Nordlicht. In 1945, she was seized by the Allies at Hamburg, passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and was renamed Empire Conwear. In 1946, she was passed to the Soviet Union and renamed Armavir. In 1947, she was sold to Poland and renamed Kolno. She served until 1971 when she ran aground off Falsterbo, Sweden, following which she served as a hulk until scrapped in 1983.
The following index is provided as an overview of and topical guide to recreational dive sites: