A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
SS President Coolidge
|Port of registry:||San Francisco|
|Route:||San Francisco – Kobe – Shanghai – Manila|
|Ordered:||26 October 1929|
|Builder:||Newport News Shipbuilding|
|Cost:||US$8,017,690[ citation needed ]|
|Laid down:||22 April 1930|
|Launched:||21 February 1931|
|Sponsored by:||Mrs. Calvin C. Coolidge|
|Completed:||1 October 1931 (delivered)|
|Out of service:||26 October 1942|
|Fate:||Sunk by mines, 26 October 1942|
|Type:||ocean liner, then troopship|
|Beam:||81.0 ft (24.7 m)|
|Depth:||52.0 ft (15.8 m)|
|Installed power:||12 Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers|
|Range:||14,400 mi (23,200 km)[ citation needed ]|
|Troops:||5,000 (number aboard at sinking)|
|Crew:||300 (initial service, passenger ship)|
|Notes:||sister ship: SS President Hoover|
SS President Coolidge was an American luxury ocean liner that was completed in 1931. She was operated by Dollar Steamship Lines until 1938, and then by American President Lines until 1941. She served as a troopship from December 1941 until October 1942, when she was sunk by mines in Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides, part of current-day Vanuatu. President Coolidge had a sister ship, SS President Hoover, completed in 1930 and lost when she ran aground in a typhoon in 1937.
An ocean liner is a passenger ship primarily used as a form of transportation across seas or oceans. Liners may also carry cargo or mail, and may sometimes be used for other purposes.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines. Unlike depth charges, mines are deposited and left to wait until they are triggered by the approach of, or contact with, any vessel. Naval mines can be used offensively, to hamper enemy shipping movements or lock vessels into a harbour; or defensively, to protect friendly vessels and create "safe" zones.
Espiritu Santo is the largest island in the nation of Vanuatu, with an area of 3,955.5 km2 (1,527.2 sq mi) and a population of around 40,000 according to the 2009 census.
Dollar Lines ordered both ships on 26 October 1929.The Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company of Newport News, Virginia built the two ships, completing President Hoover in 1930. The keel for President Coolidge was laid 22 April 1930 and the ship was delivered 1 October 1931. They were the largest merchant ships built in the United States up to that time. Each ship had turbo-electric transmission, with a pair of steam turbo generators generating current that powered propulsion motors on the propeller shafts. Westinghouse built the turbo generators and propulsion motors for President Coolidge but General Electric built the turbo generators and propulsion motors for President Hoover.
Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS), a division of Huntington Ingalls Industries, is the largest industrial employer in Virginia, and sole designer, builder and refueler of United States Navy aircraft carriers and one of two providers of U.S. Navy submarines. Founded as the Chesapeake Dry Dock and Construction Co. in 1886, Newport News Shipbuilding has built more than 800 ships, including both naval and commercial ships. Located in the city of Newport News, its facilities span more than 550 acres (2.2 km2), strategically positioned in one of the great harbors of the East Coast.
Newport News is an independent city in the U.S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 180,719. In 2018, the population was estimated to be 178,626, making it the fifth-most populous city in Virginia.
Turbo-electric transmission uses electric generators to convert the mechanical energy of a turbine into electric energy and electric motors to convert it back into mechanical energy to power the driveshafts.
In the President Coolidge twelve Babcock & Wilcox superheater type water tube boilers provided steam for main and auxiliary power. Main power was generated by two Westinghouse 10,200 kilowatt turbine generator sets that normally each drove two 400 volt Westinghouse 13,200 horsepower synchronous motors directly connected to the two screws. If necessary the linkages were present so both motors and screws could be driven by either one of the two generator sets.
Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises Inc., originally Babcock, Wilcox & Company and then The Babcock & Wilcox Company, is a global leader in advanced energy and environmental technologies and services for the power, renewable and industrial markets. B&W is headquartered in Barberton, Ohio.
Only the boiler feed and main lubricating pumps, driven directly from the steam turbines, were not electrical. Those included everything from cargo winches and other ship's auxiliary machinery to 365 Westinghouse stateroom fans. The 180 ship's auxiliary motors ranged from a tenth horsepower to the 13,250 horsepower main motors. The ship had 67,000 cubic feet (1,897.2 m3) refrigerated cargo space. President Coolidge was initially designed for 350 first class, 150 "special" or intermediate class passengers with space for 1,260 passengers of all classes and a crew of 300.
The ship was launched on 21 February 1931 after Mrs. Calvin C. Coolidge broke a bottle of water that came from a brook on the Coolidge farm in Vermont on the bow.
President Hoover and President Coolidge ran between San Francisco and Manila via Kobe and Shanghai, and some round the World voyages that continued from Manila via Singapore, the Suez Canal, the Mediterranean Sea, New York City, the Panama Canal and thence back to San Francisco.
President Hoover and President Coolidge were aimed at holiday makers seeking sun in the Pacific and Far East. Passenger luxuries included spacious staterooms and lounges, private telephones, two saltwater swimming pools, a barbers' shop, beauty salon, gymnasium and soda fountain.[ citation needed ]President Coolidge broke several speed records on her crossings between Japan and San Francisco.[ citation needed ]
In December 1937 President Hoover ran aground on the Taiwanese coast and was declared a total loss. Dollar Steamship Lines was increasingly in debt, and in June 1938 President Coolidge was arrested for an unpaid debt of $35,000.She was released in bond for a final trans-Pacific voyage, and then Dollar Lines was suspended from operation. In August 1938 the United States Maritime Commission reorganised the company as American President Lines, which then ran the former Dollar Lines fleet until the Second World War.
In March 1939 President Coolidge was the last ship to sight the custom-built Chinese junk Sea Dragon, built and sailed by American explorer Richard Halliburton, before she disappeared in a typhoon some 1,200 miles (1,900 km) west of the Midway Islands.
As relations between Japan and Britain deteriorated in 1940, President Coolidge helped to evacuate US citizens from Hong Kong. As Japanese aggression expanded, President Coolidge took part in evacuations from other parts of east Asia.
In 1941 the threat of war increased and the US War Department began to use President Coolidge for occasional voyages to Honolulu and Manila. In June 1941 President Coolidge became a troopship, reinforcing garrisons in the Pacific. On December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and on December 19 President Coolidge evacuated 125 critically injured naval patients from Hawaii, cared for by three hastily assigned Navy nurses and two Navy doctors from the Philippines that were already among passengers being evacuated from the war zone that had now reached Hawaii.The ship reached San Francisco on 25 December.
On 12 January 1942 the first large convoy, including the large former ocean liners President Coolidge and SS Mariposa, to Australia after Pearl Harbor departed the United States carrying troops, supplies, ammunition and weapons, including P-40 fighters intended for the Philippines and Java with fifty of the planes carried by President Coolidge and Mariposa. Arriving Melbourne on 1 February in President Coolidge, along with supplies and munitions not intended for transshipment beyond Australia, were the officers, known as the "Remember Pearl Harbor" (RPH) Group, selected to form the staff of the US Army Forces in Australia (USAFIA) as the command structure for what was to be the Southwest Pacific Area was evolving.
President Coolidge performed these military duties in her pre-war civilian condition. Only in 1942 was she properly converted into a troopship. Many of her civilian fittings were either removed for safe keeping or boarded over for their protection. Her accommodation was reorganised to provide capacity for 5,000 troops.Guns were mounted on her, she was painted haze gray and the War Shipping Administration assigned her to the US Navy.
After her conversion, President Coolidge resumed service in the South West Pacific theatre. In the spring of 1942, escorted by the cruiser USS St. Louis, she took Manuel Quezon, President of the Philippines from Melbourne to San Francisco.
In her first few months of service President Coolidge's ports of call included Melbourne, Wellington, Auckland, Bora Bora, and Suva. On October 6, she left homeport of San Francisco for New Caledonia and the New Hebrides. Embarked were the 172nd Infantry Combat Team, 43rd Division, and a harbor defense unit intended to protect the airfield at Espiritu Santo that was providing bomber support for forces at Guadalcanal.
A large military base and harbor had been established on Espiritu Santo and the harbor was heavily protected by mines. Information about safe entry into the harbor had been accidentally omitted from President Coolidge's sailing orders, and on her approach to Santo on 26 October, President Coolidge, fearing Japanese submarines and unaware of the mine fields, tried to enter the harbor through the largest and most obvious channel. A mine struck the ship in the engine room, and moments later a second mine hit her near her stern.
Captain Henry Nelson, knowing that he was going to lose the ship, ran her aground and ordered troops to abandon ship. Not believing the ship would sink, troops were told to leave all of their belongings behind under the impression that they would conduct salvage operations over the next few days.
Over the next 90 minutes, 5,340 men from the ship got safely ashore. There was no panic as they disembarked; many even walked ashore. However, the captain's attempts to beach the ship were thwarted by a coral reef. President Coolidge listed heavily on her side, sank stern first, and slid down the slope into the channel.
There were only two casualties in the sinking. [ citation needed ] for the Coolidge. In 2013, Captain Euart's body was reportedly located by a local dive guide and a message was sent to the Australian High Commission, who then passed this onto US authorities in Hawaii. An American recovery team arrived in February 2014, and working with local operators, they found Capt Euart's remains after 73 years with his dog tags and personal items inside deep silt in the bottom of the wreck. Subsequent DNA testing matched with Capt Euart's relatives and his nephew who were advised that US military would perform a full military funeral service and he will be buried with his parents.The first was Fireman Robert Reid, who was working in the engine room and was killed by the first mine blast. The second, Captain Elwood Joseph Euart, 103rd Field Artillery Regiment, had safely got off President Coolidge when he heard that there were still men in the infirmary who could not get out. He returned through one of the sea doors, successfully rescued the men but was then unable to escape himself and went down with the ship. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his heroic actions. A memorial to Captain Euart is on the shore near the access points
Pfc.Joseph A. LaValley was the first of more than 50 Transportation Company men and women at a retreat parade where Lt. Robert D. McCaughley presented him with a citation honoring him for courage and discipline displayed during the sinking of the U.S. Army Transport President Coolidge in the South Pacific.[ citation needed ]
The loss of critical equipment being carried in President Coolidge, forcing redistribution of scarce local stores, combined with loss of the ship when shipping was critically short, delaying deployment of the 25th Division from Hawaii to the theater, complicated logistics during the crisis at Guadalcanal.President Coolidge also held 591 pounds/268 kilos of quinine, at that time the entire stock of quinine held by the US
There were three official inquiries surrounding the cause of the sinking. The first preliminary Court of Inquiry convened 12 November 1942 aboard the destroyer tender USS Whitney on the orders of Admiral Halsey. The Court of Inquiry recommended additional[ citation needed ] charges be laid against Captain Nelson. The matter was referred to a Military Commission which convened in Nouméa, New Caledonia on 8 December 1942. This commission acquitted Captain Nelson of guilt.
From the Commission of Inquiry it emerged that Merchant Marine vessels were not given all available tactical information, most notably regarding the placement of mines. This would have prevented the sinking. This outcome displeased the Navy Department, so Nelson was referred to a US Coast Guard Investigation Board on his return to the United States on 6 February 1943. However, this Investigation Board took no further action.
After the war, items such as the propeller blades, bunker oil, brass casings of shells, electric motors, junction boxes and copper tubing were salvaged from the ship. Earthquakes have since collapsed some sections of the wreck, which now rests on her port side with her bow at a depth of 21 metres (69 ft) and her stern at 73 metres (240 ft).
In 1980 Vanuatu won independence from France and Britain, and on 18 November 1983, the government of the new republic declared that no salvage or recovery of any artifact would be allowed from President Coolidge.
Since then the ship has been used for recreational diving. Divers see a largely intact luxury cruise liner and a military ship. They can swim through numerous holds and decks. There are guns, cannons, Jeeps, helmets, trucks and personal supplies, a beautiful statue of "The Lady" (a porcelain relief of a lady riding a unicorn) chandeliers, and a mosaic tile fountain. Coral grows around, with many creatures such as reef fish, barracuda, lionfish, sea turtles and moray eels.
President Coolidge is perhaps the most accessible shipwreck of her size and type.[ according to whom? ] The wreck is one of the most desirable dives due to relatively shallow site, easy beach access, and visibility. The depths involved mean that, with care and decompression stops, recreational divers can explore large parts of the wreck without specialized equipment. The massive size of the wreck, combined with the gradual downward slope, mean that care must be taken monitoring depth, as the diver's horizontal frame of reference may be skewed, preventing awareness of the continual gradual descent.
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In 1942, ocean liner President Coolidge accidentally struck two allied mines and sank. One of the world’s biggest shipwrecks is now a popular dive destination.
KBs diving off Espiritu Santo. Gear-up, dive areas. General external and internal video and stills in poor light. Drop tanks, trucks, medical supplies, the Lady etc. Moray (Nessie) appearance. Various video and stills in the Deco stop area.