|Reference no.||DE: 56|
|• location||near Zell im Fichtelgebirge|
|near Barby into the Elbe|
|Length||413 km (257 mi)|
|Basin size||24,167 km2 (9,331 sq mi)|
|• average||115 m3/s (4,100 cu ft/s)|
|Progression||Elbe→ North Sea|
|• left||Ilm, Unstrut, Bode|
|• right||White Elster|
|Bridges||Saale bridge, Rudolphstein, |
Old Saale bridge, Jena-Burgau
|Inland ports||Hafen Halle (Saale), Sophienhafen in Halle (Saale)|
|Navigable||From its mouth to Bad Dürrenberg; for Europa ships to Halle-Trotha|
The Saale (German pronunciation: [ˈzaːlə] ), also known as the Saxon Saale (German : Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (German : Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe. It is not to be confused with the smaller Franconian Saale, a right-bank tributary of the Main, or the Saale in Lower Saxony, a tributary of the Leine.
The Saale originates on the slope of the Großer Waldstein mountain near Zell in the Fichtelgebirge in Upper Franconia (Bavaria), at an elevation of 728 metres (2,388 ft). It pursues a winding course in a northern direction, and after passing the manufacturing town of Hof, enters Thuringia. It flows amid well-wooded low mountains of the Thuringian Forest until it reaches the valley of Saalfeld. After leaving Saalfeld the Saale reaches Rudolstadt. Here it receives the waters of the Schwarza, in whose valley lies the ruined castle of Schwarzburg, the ancestral seat of the formerly ruling House of Schwarzburg.
From Saalfeld the Saale enters the limestone hill region north of the Thuringian Forest, and sweeps beneath the barren, conical hills enclosing the university town of Jena. It enters Saxony-Anhalt and passes the spa of Bad Kösen, washes numerous vine-clad hills and, after receiving the deep and navigable Unstrut at Naumburg, flows past Weißenfels, Merseburg, Halle, Bernburg and Calbe. It finally joins the Elbe just above Barby, after traversing a distance of 413 kilometres (257 mi) —shortened 14 kilometres (9 mi) by a bypass from its natural length of 427 kilometres (265 mi).
The Saale is navigable from Naumburg and is also planned connected from Leuna with the White Elster near Leipzig by an unfinished canal. The soil of the lower part of its valley is exceptionally fertile, and produces, amongst other crops, large supplies of sugar beet. Among its tributaries are the White Elster, Southern and Northern Regnitz and Orla on the right bank, and the Ilm, Unstrut, Salza, Wipper and Bode on the left. Its upper course is rapid. Its valley, down to Merseburg, contains many castles which crown the enclosing heights.
Originating in Zell, the Saale flows through – Sparneck – Weißdorf – Seulbitz – Förbau – Schwarzenbach an der Saale – Fattigau – Oberkotzau – Hof – Brunnenthal – Saalenstein – Joditz – Landesgrenze Bayern/Thüringen – Hirschberg – Sparnberg – Rudolphstein – Blankenberg – Blankenstein – Harra – Saaldorf – Saalburg – Poeritzsch – Gräfenwarth – Burgk – Walsburg – Ziegenrück – Neidenberga – Hohenwarte – Eichicht – Kaulsdorf – Fischersdorf – Weischwitz – Reschwitz – Breternitz – Saalfeld – Schwarza – Volkstedt – Rudolstadt – Catharinau – Kolkwitz – Weißen – Uhlstädt – Rückersdorf – Zeutsch – Niederkrossen – Orlamünde – Freienorla – Großeutersdorf – Kleineutersdorf – Kahla – Großpürschütz – Jägersdorf – Rothenstein – Maua – Lobeda – Jena – Zwätzen – Porstendorf – Dornburg – Dorndorf-Steudnitz – Wichmar – Camburg – Tümpling – Großheringen – Kleinheringen – Landesgrenze Thüringen/Sachsen-Anhalt – Stendorf – Saaleck – Bad Kösen – Naumburg – Schellsitz - Schönburg – Eulau – Goseck – Leißling – Lobitzsch – Uichteritz – Markweben – Weißenfels – Dehlitz – Schkortleben – Kleinkorbetha – Großkorbetha – Oebles-Schlechtewitz – Wengelsdorf – Bad Dürrenberg – Kröllwitz – Leuna – Trebnitz – Merseburg – Meuschau – Freiimfelde – Schkopau – Korbetha – Hohenweiden – Rockendorf – Holleben – Halle – Kröllwitz – Lettin – Brachwitz – Schiepzig – Salzmünde – Pfützthal – Döblitz – Zaschwitz – Wettin – Kloschwitz – Rumpin – Dobis – Friedeburg – Zickeritz – Rothenburg – Nelben – Gnölbzig – Trebnitz – Alsleben – Poplitz – Großwirschleben – Plötzkau – Gröna – Neuborna – Bernburg – Dröbel – Nienburg – Wedlitz – Damaschkeplan – Wispitz – Calbe (Saale) – Trabitz – Groß Rosenburg – Werkleitz
Left (from source to mouth):
The name Saale comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *séles ‘marsh’, akin to Welsh hêl, heledd ‘river meadow’, Cornish heyl ‘estuary’, Greek hélos ‘marsh, meadow’, Sanskrit sáras ‘lake, pond’, Sárasvati ‘sacred river’, Old Persian Harauvati ‘Hārūt River; Arachosia’, Avestan Haraxvatī, idem. It may also be related to the Indo-European root *sal, "salt".
The Slavic name of the Saale, Solawa, still found in Sorbian texts, comes from Old High German sol, "salt", and awa, "water".
Saxony-Anhalt (German: Sachsen-Anhalt is a state of Germany, bordering the states of Brandenburg, Saxony, Thuringia and Lower Saxony. It covers an area of 20,447.7 square kilometres and has a population of 2.19 million inhabitants, making it the 8th-largest state in Germany by area and the 11th-largest by population. Its capital is Magdeburg and its largest city is Halle.
The Burgenlandkreis was a district (Kreis) in the south of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Neighboring districts are Merseburg-Querfurt, Weißenfels, Leipziger Land, Aschersleben-Staßfurt, Altenburger Land, Greiz, district-free Gera, Saale-Holzland, Weimarer Land, Sömmerda and the Kyffhäuserkreis.
Weimarer Land is a Kreis (district) in the east of Thuringia, Germany. Neighboring districts are the district Burgenlandkreis in Saxony-Anhalt, the district Saale-Holzland and the district-free city Jena, the district Saalfeld-Rudolstadt, Ilm-Kreis, and the district-free city Erfurt. The district-free city Weimar is completely enclosed by the district.
The Province of Saxony, also known as Prussian Saxony was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and later the Free State of Prussia from 1816 until 1944. Its capital was Magdeburg.
The Unstrut is a river in eastern Germany and a left tributary of the Saale.
Schwarzburg is a municipality in the valley of the Schwarza in the district Saalfeld-Rudolstadt in Thuringia, Germany.
Freyburg is a town in the Burgenlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated on the river Unstrut, 9 km northwest of Hanseatic Naumburg, 63 km from Leipzig and 231 km from Berlin. It is part of the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Unstruttal.
Zeuchfeld is a village and a former municipality in the Burgenlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Since 1 July 2009, it is part of the town Freyburg.
Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria. It is close to Upper Saxon spoken mainly in the state of Saxony, therefore both are also regarded as one Thuringian-Upper Saxon dialect group. Thuringian dialects are among the Central German dialects with the highest number of speakers.
The Helme is river in central Germany that is about 65 kilometres (40 mi) long and which forms a left-hand, western tributary of the Unstrut in the states of Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt.
The Großheringen–Saalfeld railway, also known as the Saalbahn, is a 153 kilometre-long double-track main line in the German state of Thuringia. It connects the Thuringian Railway at Großheringen with the Franconian Forest Railway at (Frankenwaldbahn) at Saalfeld and is part of the north-south main line, Munich–Nuremberg–Halle / Leipzig–Berlin. It is electrified at 15 kV. 16.7 Hz.
The Halle–Bebra railway, also known in German as the Thüringer Bahn, is a 210 kilometre-long railway line from Halle (Saale) via Erfurt and Gerstungen to Bebra, mainly in Thuringia. As far as Gerstungen the line originally belonged to the Thuringian Railway Company. From Gerstungen to Bebra, it was owned by the Frederick William Northern Railway (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Nordbahn), named after the Prussian king, Frederick William IV. It is now a two-track, electrified, standard gauge mainline operated by DB Netze. It was opened between 1846 and 1849 and was the first railway line in Thuringia. All types of trains from Regionalbahn to ICE currently run on the line except Interregio-Express. Four of the six largest cities in Thuringia are located on the line.
The Mitteldeutsche Zeitung is a regional daily newspaper for southern Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Published in Halle with several local versions, the paper is owned by M. DuMont Schauberg, Cologne.
Saaleck Castle is a hill castle near Bad Kösen, now a part of Naumburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
The Naumburg Cathedral and the High Medieval Cultural Landscape of the Rivers Saale and Unstrut is situated at the heart of the Federal Republic of Germany in the State of Saxony-Anhalt. Naumburg Cathedral and the landscpae has been proposed by Germany for inscription in the List of World Heritage. On July 1, 2018, only Naumburg Cathedral was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Saaleck is a village in the former municipality of Bad Kösen, since 2010 part of the town of Naumburg in the district of Burgenlandkreis in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.
Kleinjena is situated 4 kilometres north of Naumburg on a long spur at the foot of the Finne mountain range above the village of Kleinjena, at the heart of Federal Republic of Germany in the State of Saxony-Anhalt. It has been proposed by Germany for inscription in the List of World Heritage. The World Heritage nomination is representative for the processes that shaped the continent during the High Middle Ages between 1000 and 1300: Christianization, the so-called "Landesausbau" and the dynamics of cultural exchange and transfer characteristic for this very period.