Saale

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Saale
Petersgrat bei Hof Bayern.jpg
Saale (riviere).png
The Saale has its source in the Fichtel Mountains in northeastern Franconia (Bavaria) and flows into the Elbe at Barby, Saxony-Anhalt.
Location
Country Germany
States
Reference no.DE: 56
Physical characteristics
Source 
  locationnear Zell im Fichtelgebirge
  coordinates 50°07′14″N11°49′50″E / 50.12056°N 11.83056°E / 50.12056; 11.83056 Coordinates: 50°07′14″N11°49′50″E / 50.12056°N 11.83056°E / 50.12056; 11.83056
  elevation728 m above  sea level (NN)
Mouth  
  location
near Barby into the Elbe
  coordinates
51°57′17″N11°54′50″E / 51.95472°N 11.91389°E / 51.95472; 11.91389
  elevation
49.5 m above  sea level (NN)
Length413 km (257 mi) [1]
Basin size24,167 km2 (9,331 sq mi) [1]
Discharge 
  average115 m3/s (4,100 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Progression ElbeNorth Sea
Landmarks
Tributaries 
  left Ilm, Unstrut, Bode
  right White Elster
BridgesSaale bridge, Rudolphstein,
Old Saale bridge, Jena-Burgau
Inland ports Hafen Halle (Saale), Sophienhafen in Halle (Saale)
NavigableFrom its mouth to Bad Dürrenberg; for Europa ships to Halle-Trotha [2]

The Saale (German pronunciation: [ˈzaːlə] ), also known as the Saxon Saale (German : Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (German : Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe. It is not to be confused with the smaller Franconian Saale, a right-bank tributary of the Main, or the Saale in Lower Saxony, a tributary of the Leine.

Contents

The Saale valley near Hof Petersgrat bei Hof Bayern.jpg
The Saale valley near Hof

Course

Saale in Bad Kosen Bad Kosen Saalewehr und Alte Muhle (01).jpg
Saale in Bad Kösen

The Saale originates on the slope of the Großer Waldstein mountain near Zell in the Fichtelgebirge in Upper Franconia (Bavaria), at an elevation of 728 metres (2,388 ft). It pursues a winding course in a northern direction, and after passing the manufacturing town of Hof, enters Thuringia. It flows amid well-wooded low mountains of the Thuringian Forest until it reaches the valley of Saalfeld. After leaving Saalfeld the Saale reaches Rudolstadt. Here it receives the waters of the Schwarza, in whose valley lies the ruined castle of Schwarzburg, the ancestral seat of the formerly ruling House of Schwarzburg.

From Saalfeld the Saale enters the limestone hill region north of the Thuringian Forest, and sweeps beneath the barren, conical hills enclosing the university town of Jena. It enters Saxony-Anhalt and passes the spa of Bad Kösen, washes numerous vine-clad hills and, after receiving the deep and navigable Unstrut at Naumburg, flows past Weißenfels, Merseburg, Halle, Bernburg and Calbe. It finally joins the Elbe just above Barby, after traversing a distance of 413 kilometres (257 mi) [1] —shortened 14 kilometres (9 mi) by a bypass from its natural length of 427 kilometres (265 mi).

The Saale is navigable from Naumburg and is also planned connected from Leuna with the White Elster near Leipzig by an unfinished canal. The soil of the lower part of its valley is exceptionally fertile, and produces, amongst other crops, large supplies of sugar beet. Among its tributaries are the White Elster, Southern and Northern Regnitz and Orla on the right bank, and the Ilm, Unstrut, Salza, Wipper and Bode on the left. Its upper course is rapid. Its valley, down to Merseburg, contains many castles which crown the enclosing heights.

Geography

Originating in Zell, the Saale flows through – SparneckWeißdorf – Seulbitz – Förbau – Schwarzenbach an der Saale – Fattigau – OberkotzauHof – Brunnenthal – Saalenstein – Joditz – Landesgrenze Bayern/Thüringen – HirschbergSparnberg – Rudolphstein – BlankenbergBlankensteinHarra – Saaldorf – Saalburg – Poeritzsch – GräfenwarthBurgk – Walsburg – Ziegenrück – Neidenberga – HohenwarteEichichtKaulsdorf – Fischersdorf – Weischwitz – Reschwitz – BreternitzSaalfeldSchwarzaVolkstedtRudolstadt – Catharinau – Kolkwitz – Weißen – Uhlstädt – Rückersdorf – Zeutsch – Niederkrossen – OrlamündeFreienorlaGroßeutersdorfKleineutersdorfKahlaGroßpürschütz – Jägersdorf – Rothenstein – Maua – LobedaJena – Zwätzen – Porstendorf – DornburgDorndorf-SteudnitzWichmarCamburg – Tümpling – Großheringen – Kleinheringen – Landesgrenze Thüringen/Sachsen-Anhalt – Stendorf – SaaleckBad KösenNaumburg – Schellsitz - Schönburg – Eulau – GoseckLeißling – Lobitzsch – Uichteritz – Markweben – Weißenfels – Dehlitz – Schkortleben – Kleinkorbetha – GroßkorbethaOebles-SchlechtewitzWengelsdorfBad Dürrenberg – Kröllwitz – Leuna – Trebnitz – Merseburg – Meuschau – Freiimfelde – Schkopau – Korbetha – Hohenweiden – Rockendorf – HollebenHalle – Kröllwitz – Lettin – Brachwitz – Schiepzig – Salzmünde – Pfützthal – Döblitz – Zaschwitz – WettinKloschwitz – Rumpin – Dobis – Friedeburg – Zickeritz – Rothenburg – Nelben – Gnölbzig – Trebnitz – AlslebenPoplitz – Großwirschleben – PlötzkauGrönaNeubornaBernburgDröbelNienburgWedlitz – Damaschkeplan – Wispitz – Calbe (Saale)TrabitzGroß Rosenburg – Werkleitz

Tributaries

Left (from source to mouth):

Right:

Etymology

The name Saale comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *séles ‘marsh’, akin to Welsh hêl, heledd ‘river meadow’, Cornish heyl ‘estuary’, Greek hélos ‘marsh, meadow’, Sanskrit sáras ‘lake, pond’, Sárasvati ‘sacred river’, Old Persian HarauvatiHārūt River; Arachosia’, Avestan Haraxvatī, idem. It may also be related to the Indo-European root *sal, "salt". [3]

The Slavic name of the Saale, Solawa, still found in Sorbian texts, comes from Old High German sol, "salt", and awa, "water". [4]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Unstrut

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Michael Bergemann (2015-07-01). "Gesamtliste der Fließgewässer im Elbeeinzugsgebiet" (PDF; 791 kB) (in German). Arbeitsgemeinschaft für die Reinhaltung der Elbe. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  2. Federal Water and Navigation Authority
  3. Thomas V. Gamkrelidze; Vjaceslav V. Ivanov (15 December 2010). Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A Reconstruction and Historical Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture. Part I: The Text. Part II: Bibliography, Indexes. Walter de Gruyter. p. 581. ISBN   978-3-11-081503-0.
  4. Georg Jacob (1894). Die Ortsnamen des Herzogthums Meiningen. Kesselring. p. 55.

Sources