Saale

Last updated
Saale
Petersgrat bei Hof Bayern.jpg
The Saale valley near Hof
Location
CountryFlag of Germany.svg  Germany
States Bavaria, Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt
Reference no.DE: 56
Physical characteristics
Source 
 - locationnear Zell im Fichtelgebirge
 - coordinates 50°07′14″N11°49′50″E / 50.12056°N 11.83056°E / 50.12056; 11.83056 Coordinates: 50°07′14″N11°49′50″E / 50.12056°N 11.83056°E / 50.12056; 11.83056
 - elevation728 m above  sea level (NN)
Mouth  
 - location
near Barby into the Elbe
 - coordinates
51°57′17″N11°54′50″E / 51.95472°N 11.91389°E / 51.95472; 11.91389
 - elevation
49.5 m above  sea level (NN)
Length413 km (257 mi) [1]
Basin size24,167 km2 (9,331 sq mi) [1]
Discharge 
 - average115 m3/s (4,100 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Progression ElbeNorth Sea
Landmarks
Tributaries 
 - left Ilm, Unstrut, Bode
 - right White Elster
BridgesSaale bridge, Rudolphstein,
Old Saale bridge, Jena-Burgau
Inland ports Hafen Halle (Saale), Sophienhafen in Halle (Saale)
NavigableFrom its mouth to Bad Dürrenberg; for Europa ships to Halle-Trotha [2]

The Saale (German pronunciation: [ˈzaːlə] ), also known as the Saxon Saale (German : Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (German : Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe. It is not to be confused with the smaller Franconian Saale, a right-bank tributary of the Main, or the Saale in Lower Saxony, a tributary of the Leine.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Tributary stream or river that flows into a main stem river or lake

A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean.

Contents

Course

Saale in Bad Kosen Bad Kosen Saalewehr und Alte Muhle (01).jpg
Saale in Bad Kösen

The Saale originates on the slope of the Großer Waldstein mountain near Zell in the Fichtelgebirge in Upper Franconia (Bavaria), at an elevation of 728 metres (2,388 ft). It pursues a winding course in a northern direction, and after passing the manufacturing town of Hof, enters Thuringia. It flows amid well-wooded low mountains of the Thuringian Forest until it reaches the valley of Saalfeld. After leaving Saalfeld the Saale reaches Rudolstadt. Here it receives the waters of the Schwarza, in whose valley lies the ruined castle of Schwarzburg, the ancestral seat of the formerly ruling House of Schwarzburg.

Großer Waldstein mountain in Germany

The Großer Waldstein is part of the Waldstein range in the Fichtel Mountains of Germany. It is known primarily for its rock formations caused by spheroidal weathering, its ruined castles and the only remaining bear trap (Bärenfang) in the region.

Zell im Fichtelgebirge Place in Bavaria, Germany

Zell im Fichtelgebirge, formerly Zell is a market town in the district of Hof in Bavaria in Germany.

Upper Franconia Regierungsbezirk in Bavaria, Germany

Upper Franconia is a Regierungsbezirk of the state of Bavaria, southern Germany. It forms part of the historically significant region of Franconia, all now part of the German Federal State of Bayern (Bavaria).

From Saalfeld the Saale enters the limestone hill region north of the Thuringian Forest, and sweeps beneath the barren, conical hills enclosing the university town of Jena. It enters Saxony-Anhalt and passes the spa of Bad Kösen, washes numerous vine-clad hills and, after receiving the deep and navigable Unstrut at Naumburg, flows past Weißenfels, Merseburg, Halle, Bernburg and Calbe. It finally joins the Elbe just above Barby, after traversing a distance of 413 kilometres (257 mi) [1] —shortened 14 kilometres (9 mi) by a bypass from its natural length of 427 kilometres (265 mi).

University of Jena university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany

Friedrich Schiller University Jena is a public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany.

Jena Place in Thuringia, Germany

Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia. Together with the nearby cities of Erfurt and Weimar, it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of about 110,000. Jena is a centre of education and research; the Friedrich Schiller University was founded in 1558 and had 18,000 students in 2017 and the Ernst-Abbe-Fachhochschule Jena counts another 5,000 students. Furthermore, there are many institutes of the leading German research societies.

Saxony-Anhalt State in Germany

Saxony-Anhalt is a state of Germany.

The Saale is navigable from Naumburg and is also planned connected from Leuna with the White Elster near Leipzig by an unfinished canal. The soil of the lower part of its valley is exceptionally fertile, and produces, amongst other crops, large supplies of sugar beet. Among its tributaries are the White Elster, Regnitz and Orla on the right bank, and the Ilm, Unstrut, Salza, Wipper and Bode on the left. Its upper course is rapid. Its valley, down to Merseburg, contains many castles which crown the enclosing heights.

Leuna Place in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Leuna is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, south of Merseburg and Halle.

White Elster river

The White Elster is a 257-kilometre (160 mi) long river in central Europe, right tributary of the Saale. Its source is in the westernmost part of the Czech Republic, near Aš. After a few kilometres, it flows into eastern Germany. In Germany, it flows through the states of Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. The White Elster flows through the cities of Plauen, Greiz, Gera, Zeitz, Pegau and Leipzig. It flows into the river Saale in Halle.

Leipzig Place in Saxony, Germany

Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 581,980 inhabitants as of 2017 it is Germany's tenth most populous city. Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain.

Geography

Originating in Zell, the Saale flows through – SparneckWeißdorf – Seulbitz – Förbau – Schwarzenbach an der Saale – Fattigau – OberkotzauHof – Brunnenthal – Saalenstein – Joditz – Landesgrenze Bayern/Thüringen – HirschbergSparnberg – Rudolphstein – BlankenbergBlankensteinHarra – Saaldorf – Saalburg – Poeritzsch – GräfenwarthBurgk – Walsburg – Ziegenrück – Neidenberga – HohenwarteEichichtKaulsdorf – Fischersdorf – Weischwitz – Reschwitz – BreternitzSaalfeldSchwarzaVolkstedtRudolstadt – Catharinau – Kolkwitz – Weißen – Uhlstädt – Rückersdorf – Zeutsch – Niederkrossen – OrlamündeFreienorlaGroßeutersdorfKleineutersdorfKahlaGroßpürschütz – Jägersdorf – Rothenstein – Maua – LobedaJena – Zwätzen – Porstendorf – DornburgDorndorf-SteudnitzWichmarCamburg – Tümpling – Großheringen – Kleinheringen – Landesgrenze Thüringen/Sachsen-Anhalt – Stendorf – SaaleckBad KösenNaumburg – Schellsitz - Schönburg – Eulau – GoseckLeißling – Lobitzsch – Uichteritz – Markweben – Weißenfels – Dehlitz – Schkortleben – Kleinkorbetha – GroßkorbethaOebles-SchlechtewitzWengelsdorfBad Dürrenberg – Kröllwitz – Leuna – Trebnitz – Merseburg – Meuschau – Freiimfelde – Schkopau – Korbetha – Hohenweiden – Rockendorf – HollebenHalle – Kröllwitz – Lettin – Brachwitz – Schiepzig – Salzmünde – Pfützthal – Döblitz – Zaschwitz – WettinKloschwitz – Rumpin – Dobis – Friedeburg – Zickeritz – Rothenburg – Nelben – Gnölbzig – Trebnitz – AlslebenPoplitz – Großwirschleben – PlötzkauGrönaNeubornaBernburgDröbelNienburgWedlitz – Damaschkeplan – Wispitz – Calbe (Saale)TrabitzGroß Rosenburg – Werkleitz

Sparneck Place in Bavaria, Germany

Sparneck is a municipality in Upper Franconia in the district of Hof in Bavaria in Germany.

Weißdorf Place in Bavaria, Germany

Weißdorf is a municipality in Upper Franconia in the district of Hof in Bavaria in Germany.

Schwarzenbach an der Saale Place in Bavaria, Germany

Schwarzenbach an der Saale is a town in the district of Hof, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated on the river Saale, 11 km south of Hof. Within the town is the Gedenkstätte Langer Gang, a memorial to the Nazi victims of the Helmbrechts concentration camp, which was near Schwarzenbach an der Saale, and particularly of the victims of the death march from Helmbrechts concentration camp to Volary.

Tributaries

Left (from source to mouth):

Right:

Etymology

The name Saale comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *séles ‘marsh’, akin to Welsh hêl, heledd ‘river meadow’, Cornish heyl ‘estuary’, Greek hélos ‘marsh, meadow’, Sanskrit sáras ‘lake, pond’, Sárasvati ‘sacred river’, Old Persian HarauvatiHārūt River; Arachosia’, Avestan Haraxvatī ‘id’. It may also be related to the Indo-European root *sal, "salt". [3]

Proto-Indo-European language proto-language (last common ancestor) of the Indo-European language family

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

Welsh language Brythonic language spoken natively in Wales

Welsh or y Gymraeg is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages. It is spoken natively in Wales, by some in England, and in Y Wladfa. Historically, it has also been known in English as "Cambrian", "Cambric" and "Cymric".

Cornish is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century. It is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language that is native to Cornwall in south-west England. A revival began in the early 20th century. Some have expressed the opinion that the language is an important part of Cornish identity, culture and heritage. Cornish is currently a recognised minority language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. It has a growing number of second language speakers. A few parents are inspired to create new first language speakers, by teaching their children the language from birth.

Its Slavic name, Solawa, still found in Sorbian texts comes from Old High German sol, "salt", and awa, "water". [4]

See also


Related Research Articles

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Saale-Holzland-Kreis District in Thuringia, Germany

Saale-Holzland is a Kreis (district) in the east of Thuringia, Germany. Neighboring districts are the district Burgenlandkreis in Saxony-Anhalt, the district-free city Gera, the districts Greiz, Saale-Orla, Saalfeld-Rudolstadt, Weimarer Land and the district-free city Jena.

Weimarer Land District in Thuringia, Germany

Weimarer Land is a Kreis (district) in the east of Thuringia, Germany. Neighboring districts are the district Burgenlandkreis in Saxony-Anhalt, the district Saale-Holzland and the district-free city Jena, the district Saalfeld-Rudolstadt, Ilm-Kreis, and the district-free city Erfurt. The district-free city Weimar is completely enclosed by the district.

Province of Saxony province of Prussia

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Unstrut river in Germany

The Unstrut is a river in eastern Germany and a left tributary of the Saale.

Bad Kösen Stadtteil of Naumburg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Bad Kösen  is a spa town on the Saale river in the small wine-growing region of Saale-Unstrut, Germany. It is a former municipality in the Burgenlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt. Bad Kösen has a population of around 5,300. Since 1 January 2010, it has been a Stadtteil (part) of the town of Naumburg.

Freyburg, Germany Place in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Freyburg is a town in the Burgenlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated on the river Unstrut, 9 km northwest of Hanseatic Naumburg, 63 km from Leipzig and 231 km from Berlin. It is part of the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Unstruttal.

Bad Dürrenberg Place in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Bad Dürrenberg is a spa town in the Saalekreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated on the river Saale, approx. 8 km southeast of Merseburg. It is known for its graduation tower, the largest one in Germany.

Thuringian dialect dialect

Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria. It is close to Upper Saxon spoken mainly in the state of Saxony, therefore both are also regarded as one Thuringian-Upper Saxon dialect group. Thuringian dialects are among the Central German dialects with the highest number of speakers.

In the NUTS codes of Germany (DE), the three levels are:

Großheringen–Saalfeld railway railway line in Germany

The Großheringen–Saalfeld railway, also known as the Saalbahn, is a 153 kilometre-long double-track main line in the German state of Thuringia. It connects the Thuringian Railway at Großheringen with the Franconian Forest Railway at (Frankenwaldbahn) at Saalfeld and is part of the north-south main line, Munich–Nuremberg–Halle / Leipzig–Berlin. It is electrified at 15 kV. 16.7 Hz.

The Halle–Bebra railway, also known in German as the Thüringer Bahn, is a 210 kilometre-long railway line from Halle (Saale) via Erfurt and Gerstungen to Bebra, mainly in Thuringia. As far as Gerstungen the line originally belonged to the Thuringian Railway Company. From Gerstungen to Bebra, it was owned by the Frederick William Northern Railway (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Nordbahn), named after the Prussian king, Frederick William IV. It is now a two-track, electrified, standard gauge mainline operated by DB Netze. It was opened between 1846 and 1849 and was the first railway line in Thuringia. All types of trains from Regionalbahn to ICE currently run on the line except Interregio-Express. Four of the six largest cities in Thuringia are located on the line.

Naumburg (Saale) Hauptbahnhof railway station in Naumburg (Saale), Germany

Naumburg (Saale) Hauptbahnhof is located in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt and is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 3 station. The station is part of the zone of the Mitteldeutscher Verkehrsverbund and is the main station of the Burgenlandkreis (district).

Saaleck Castle castle

Saaleck Castle is a hill castle near Bad Kösen, now a part of Naumburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

Naumburg Cathedral and the High Medieval Cultural Landscape of the Rivers Saale and Unstrut

The Naumburg Cathedral and the High Medieval Cultural Landscape of the Rivers Saale and Unstrut is situated at the heart of the Federal Republic of Germany in the State of Saxony-Anhalt. Naumburg Cathedral and the landscpae has been proposed by Germany for inscription in the List of World Heritage. On July 1, 2018, only Naumburg Cathedral was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Saaleck (Naumburg) Ortsteil of Naumburg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Saaleck is a village in the former municipality of Bad Kösen, since 2010 part of the town of Naumburg in the district of Burgenlandkreis in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Michael Bergemann (2015-07-01). "Gesamtliste der Fließgewässer im Elbeeinzugsgebiet" (PDF; 791 kB) (in German). Arbeitsgemeinschaft für die Reinhaltung der Elbe. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  2. Federal Water and Navigation Authority
  3. Thomas V. Gamkrelidze; Vjaceslav V. Ivanov (15 December 2010). Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A Reconstruction and Historical Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture. Part I: The Text. Part II: Bibliography, Indexes. Walter de Gruyter. p. 581. ISBN   978-3-11-081503-0.
  4. Georg Jacob (1894). Die Ortsnamen des Herzogthums Meiningen. Kesselring. p. 55.

Sources