Sabine River (Texas–Louisiana)

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Sabine River
Río Sabine (Spanish)
Fleuve Sabine (French)
Sabine River at Logansport, LA IMG 0950.JPG
Sabine River at Logansport, Louisiana
Wpdms nasa topo sabine river.jpg
Sabine River (right) and Neches River (left)
Relief map of Texas.png
Red pog.svg
Location of the mouth of the Sabine River in Texas
Location
Country United States
State Texas, Louisiana
Physical characteristics
SourceIron Bridge Dam
 - location Lake Tawakoni, Van Zandt County, Texas
 - coordinates 32°48′29″N95°55′14″W / 32.80806°N 95.92056°W / 32.80806; -95.92056 [1]
 - elevation423 ft (129 m) [2]
Mouth Sabine Lake
 - location
TexasLouisiana border, near Orange, Orange County, Texas
and Cameron Parish, Louisiana
 - coordinates
29°59′08″N93°47′26″W / 29.98556°N 93.79056°W / 29.98556; -93.79056 Coordinates: 29°59′08″N93°47′26″W / 29.98556°N 93.79056°W / 29.98556; -93.79056 [1]
 - elevation
0 ft (0 m) [1]
Length510 mi (820 km) [3]
Basin size9,756 sq mi (25,270 km2) [4]
Discharge 
 - average8,400 cu ft/s (240 m3/s) [4]

The Sabine River ( /səˈbn/ ) is a river, 510 miles (820 km) long, [5] in the Southern U.S. states of Texas and Louisiana. [3] In its lower course, it forms part of the boundary between the two states and empties into Sabine Lake, an estuary of the Gulf of Mexico. Over the first half of the 19th century, the river formed part of the SpanishAmerican, Mexican–American, and Texan–American international boundaries. The upper reaches of the river flow through the prairie country of northeast Texas. Along much of its lower reaches, it flows through the pine forests along the Texas–Louisiana border, and the bayou country near the Gulf Coast.

River Natural flowing watercourse

A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn" in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague.

Southern United States Cultural region of the United States

The southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the western United States, with the midwestern United States and northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Contents

The river drains an area of 9,756 square miles (25,270 km2), [4] of which 7,426 square miles (19,230 km2) are in Texas and 2,330 square miles (6,000 km2) in Louisiana. [6] It flows through an area of abundant rainfall and discharges the largest volume of any river in Texas. [6] The name Sabine (Sp: Río de Sabinas) comes from the Spanish word for cypress, in reference to the extensive growth of bald cypresses along the lower river. The river flows through an important petroleum-producing region, and the lower river near the Gulf is among the most industrialized areas of the southeastern United States. The river was often described as the dividing line between the Old South and the New Southwest.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Cupressaceae family of plants

Cupressaceae is a conifer family, the cypress family, with worldwide distribution. The family includes 27–30 genera, which include the junipers and redwoods, with about 130–140 species in total. They are monoecious, subdioecious or (rarely) dioecious trees and shrubs up to 116 m (381 ft) tall. The bark of mature trees is commonly orange- to red- brown and of stringy texture, often flaking or peeling in vertical strips, but smooth, scaly or hard and square-cracked in some species.

Petroleum naturally occurring flammable liquid

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.

Description

The Sabine just south of U.S. Route 80 near Big Sandy, Texas Sabine River near Big Sandy, TX IMG 5294.JPG
The Sabine just south of U.S. Route 80 near Big Sandy, Texas
The Sabine forms the Louisiana/Texas boundary at Toledo Bend Reservoir west of Many, Louisiana. Sabine River at Toledo Bend IMG 7524.JPG
The Sabine forms the Louisiana/Texas boundary at Toledo Bend Reservoir west of Many, Louisiana.
The Sabine River in Orange, Texas SabineRiver.jpg
The Sabine River in Orange, Texas

The Sabine rises in northeast Texas by the union of three branches: the Cowleech Fork, Caddo Fork, and South Fork. The Cowleech Fork rises in northwestern Hunt County and flows southeast for 49.2 miles (79.2 km). [5] The Caddo Fork, shown as "Caddo Creek" on federal maps, rises in two tributary forks, the East Caddo Fork and the West Caddo Fork, in northwestern Hunt County. The South Fork rises in the southwestern corner of Hunt County and flows east for 28.3 miles (45.5 km), [5] joining the Caddo Fork and Cowleech Fork in southeastern Hunt County. The confluence of the forks is now submerged in the Lake Tawakoni reservoir. The combined river flows southeast across northeast Texas and is joined by a fourth branch, Lake Fork Creek, 70.0 miles (112.7 km) downstream from the reservoir. [5]

Hunt County, Texas County in the United States

Hunt County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 86,129. The 2017 Census Bureau estimate for Hunt County's population is 93,872. Its county seat is Greenville. The county is named for Memucan Hunt, Jr., the first Republic of Texas Minister to the United States from 1837 to 1838 and the third Texas Secretary of the Navy from 1838 to 1839.

Lake Tawakoni

Lake Tawakoni is a 37,879-acre (15,329 ha) reservoir located in Northeast Texas, approximately 48 miles (77 km) south east of Princeton, Texas. It lies within three Texas counties, Hunt, Rains, and Van Zandt. It is used for water supply and recreation. It is under the Sabine River Authority of Texas and the original headwaters of the Sabine are converged under the lake surface.

Lake Fork Creek is a 78.4-mile-long (126.2 km) river in Hunt, Rains, and Wood counties in Texas. It is a major tributary of the Sabine River, and has as its major tributaries Dry Creek, Glade Creek, Caney Creek, Little Caney Creek, Rainwater Creek, and Birch Creek.

In northeast Texas, the river flows past Mineola, Gladewater, Big Sandy, and Longview, the largest city on the river, to southwest of Shreveport at the 32nd parallel north, where it establishes the Texas-Louisiana boundary. It flows south, forming the state line for the remainder of its course. It is impounded 10 miles (16 km) west of Leesville, Louisiana, to form the 70-mile-long (110 km) Toledo Bend Reservoir, with the Sabine National Forest along its western bank. South of the reservoir, it passes through the bayou country, surrounded by wetlands, as well as widespread industrial areas near the Gulf Coast. Approximately 10 miles (16 km) south of Orange, it meets the Neches River from the west to form the 17-mile-long (27 km) and 7-mile-wide (11 km) Sabine Lake, which drains through Sabine Pass to the Gulf of Mexico. The city of Port Arthur, Texas, sits along the western shore of Sabine Lake

Mineola, Texas City in Texas, United States

Mineola is a city in Wood County, Texas, United States. It lies at the junction of U.S. highways 69 and 80, eighty miles east of Dallas in southwestern Wood County. The population was 4,515 at the 2010 census.

Gladewater, Texas City in Texas, United States

Gladewater is a city in Gregg and Upshur counties in the U.S. state of Texas. The population was 6,441 at the 2010 census. U.S. Route 80 traverses the city.

Big Sandy, Texas Town in Texas, United States

Big Sandy is a town in Upshur County, Texas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town's population was 1,343. A lake of the same name is cut nearly in half by U.S. Highway 80, the main thoroughfare of Big Sandy. It lies directly west of the larger cities of Gladewater and Longview.

History

Archeological evidence indicates the valley of the river has been inhabited for as long as 12,000 years by indigenous peoples. Starting in the eighth century, the Caddo inhabited the area, building extensive earthwork mounds in complexes expressing their cosmology. The Caddo culture flourished until the late 13th century. Descendants of the Caddo were living along the river when the first European explorers arrived in the 16th century.

Caddo confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes

The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes. Their ancestors historically inhabited much of what is now East Texas, Louisiana, and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma. They were descendants of the Caddoan Mississippian culture that constructed huge earthwork mounds at several sites in this territory. In the early 19th century, Caddo people were forced to a reservation in Texas; they were removed to Indian Territory in 1859.

Mound Artificial heaped pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris

A mound is a heaped pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris. Most commonly, mounds are earthen formations such as hills and mountains, particularly if they appear artificial. A mound may be any rounded area of topographically higher elevation on any surface. Artificial mounds have been created for a variety of reasons throughout history, including ceremonial, burial (tumulus), and commemorative purposes.

The river was named in 1716 by Spanish explorer Domingo Ramón, and appeared as Río de Sabinas on a 1721 map. The river was used by French traders, and at various times, the river was claimed by both Spain and France. After the acquisition by Spain of the French territory of Louisiana in 1763, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War, the capital of the Spanish province of Texas was established on the east side of the river, near present-day Robeline, Louisiana.

Domingo Jesús Ramón Menargues is a retired long-distance runner from Spain, known for winning the bronze medal in the men's 3000 m steeplechase event at the 1982 European Championships in Athens, Greece. He represented his native country in two Summer Olympics. Ramón set his personal best (8:15.74) in the event on July 21, 1980 at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. He was twice a competitor at the World Championships in Athletics.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Spanish Empire world empire from the 16th to the 19th century

The Spanish Empire, historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies". It also included territories in Europe, Africa and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Portuguese Empire. It was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets".

After acquiring the French territory west of the Mississippi River in the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the United States started to exert control in this area. It was at war with Native Americans in Louisiana along the Sabine River from 1836 to 1837, in the period when it was trying to remove the Indians to Indian Territory from the Southeast. [7]

River transportation

The Sabine River was too deep to ford, and proved to be navigable. Early travelers and settlers would have to swim the river on horseback and cattle would have to be driven into the river to swim across. Ferries were later put into service. By the 1840s, steamboats were travelling from Logansport to Sabine Lake.

Ferries

Recorded ferry use began 1794, when Louis Chabinan (Sharben), his wife Margarite LaFleur, and their four children settled on the east bank of the Sabine River on land purchased from Vicinte Michele. Chabinan built a ferry landing on the river called Paso del Chaland. Louisiana State Highway 6 (La 6) and Texas State Highway 21 now meet near here, at the site of the present-day Pendleton Bridge. In 1796, Chabinan was drowned after being kicked by a horse and falling into the Sabine.

Michel Crow married his widow and ran the ferry, until he sold it to James Gaines circa 1819; it was renamed Gaines Ferry. This ferry was in service until 1937, when it was replaced by the Pendleton Bridge, built during the Great Depression. Crow also operated a ferry he had started upriver, a 120-foot crossing started in 1796. It linked what became known as Carter's Ferry Road, now Texas FM 276. Carter's ferry was 25 miles from San Augustine and 15 miles from Many, Louisiana. Crow sold the ferry to Carter, who became the namesake. Farther north, and just above Bayou Lanan, was Williamson Ferry. [8] Other ferries on the Sabine River:

  • Burr's ferry (Hickman's Ferry)
  • Hadden's ferry (Bevil's crossing) [9]
  • Ballew's ferry
  • Sabinetown (Sabine Town) ferry [10]
  • Gaines Ferry: (Chabinan then Pendleton; Sabinetown, Tx 4.9 miles SSE) [11]
  • Carter's ferry: (Located SSE of La 191 after crossing hwy 1215; still known as Carter's Ferry Road) [12]
  • Chamber's ferry: (2.5 miles SSE of East Hamilton and 11.6 miles NNW of Sabinetown) [13]
  • Cline's ferry: (Bivens 10.3 miles S)
  • Gilcrease Ferry: (Sabinetown 2.4 miles WNW, same location as Godwin's Ferry [14]
  • Darnell Ferry: (East Hamilton, Tx. 1.9 miles SW) [15]
  • Thompson's ferry: [16]
  • Loftin ferry (Circa 1894): On the Sabine just west of Evans, Louisiana, that is a few miles north of Burr's ferry. [17]

The main Sabine River crossings were the El Camino Real (King's Highway) from Natchitoches, or "Upper Route" from Shreveport; and the "Lower" Route, from Opelousas called "The Old Beef Trail". It was used to drive thousands of cattle from Texas to Alexandria, Louisiana, for shipment to cities such as New Orleans. Hickman Ferry was a shipping point for areas as far west as Burkeville. Sabine River ports from Sabine Pass in river mileage were "Belgrade", 171 miles; "Stark's Landing" 191 miles; "Loftin Ferry", and "Bayou Lanacoco" 220 miles; "Hickman's Ferry" 252 miles; "Burnham's Landing" 261 miles; and "Burr's Ferry" 281 miles. [18]

Border dispute

The area's geography remained one of the least understood in the region. Various Spanish maps had errors in the naming of the Sabine and Neches, and sometimes showed them flowing independently into the Gulf of Mexico. After the Louisiana Purchase by the United States in 1803, a dispute over the boundary between the U.S. and Spain led to an agreement on November 6, 1806, negotiated by Gen.James Wilkinson [19] and Lt. Col. Simón de Herrera, [20] to establish a neutral territory on both sides of the river. Neither country would put military troops or civil police there.

The indefinite boundary was resolved by the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, which established the Sabine River as the boundary from the Gulf to the 32nd parallel. The Spanish delay in the ratification of the treaty, and Mexico gaining independence in 1821, reignited the boundary dispute. The United States, at the insistence of Anthony Butler, [21] claimed for a while that the names of the Sabine and Neches had been reversed, thus they claimed that the treaty established the boundary at the Neches. The first Anglo-American settlers began arriving in the region in the 1820s, soon outnumbering the Mexicans by ten to one. After the independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico in 1836, the boundary between the U.S. and Texas was firmly established at the Sabine in accordance with the Adams-Onis Treaty. The river served as the western boundary of the United States until it annexed Texas in 1845.

Riverboats

In 1843, Capt. John Clemmons made the first trip up the Sabine in the steamboat Sabine. Steamboats carried passengers, as well as commodities such as cotton, from as far north as Logansport, Louisiana, down to Sabine Pass.

The pirate Jean Lafitte made many trips up the Sabine and reportedly started the colony of Shacklefoot on the Texas side of the Sabine River, south of Carter's ferry up Bayou Patroon. [22] [23]

During the American Civil War, on September 8, 1863, a small Confederate force thwarted a Union invasion of Texas at the Second Battle of Sabine Pass, fought at the mouth of the river.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the middle course of the river was an area of widespread logging. The discovery of petroleum at nearby Spindletop led to the river basin becoming the scene of widespread oil drilling. The lower river became heavily industrialized, developed with many oil refineries and chemical plants. Such alteration to the wetlands resulted in a degradation of the water quality. Since the late 20th century, there have been federal, state, and local efforts to restore the quality of the river. In addition, draining of wetlands and dredging of bayous has caused decline in the acreage of wetlands, resulting in coastal erosion, and making the area much more vulnerable to hurricane damage.

The lower river, south of Orange to Sabine Lake, forms part of the Intracoastal Waterway, carrying barge traffic and some pleasure boats.

As a young man, Captain Bill McDonald of the Texas Rangers operated a small store at Brown's Bluff (modern-day Elderville) on the Sabine in Gregg County, Texas. [24]

Toledo Bend reservoir

Hadden's Ferry was the site of the ground-breaking ceremony held on October 5, 1961, for the 181,600-acre Toledo Bend Reservoir. Dedicated October 11, 1969, the reservoir is the largest man-made lake in the South. Flooding of lands along the Sabine River behind the dam inundated all the ferry sites within its boundary. [25]

Sabine River Diversion Canal

The 1970 Louisiana Legislature passed Acts 90 and 117, creating the Sabine River Diversion Canal, for the purpose of supplying fresh river water to businesses in Lake Charles, Sulphur, Westlake, and what was Mossville (now the Sasol complex), as well as to farmers along the canal, with a total capacity of 216,000,000 US gallons (820,000,000 l; 180,000,000 imp gal) a day. The canal was completed by the Louisiana Department of Public Works in 1981. [26] The canal is 35 miles (56 km) long, with about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) of underground pipe, and begins on the Old Sabine River 2.5 miles (4.0 km) north of Niblett's Bluff. Pump station #1 is located 2 miles east of the river. The canal continues running east, piped under roadways such as Louisiana Highway 109 north of Vinton, the Edgerly Big Woods road, and Highway 388, which runs to Dequincy.

Just east of Louisiana Highway 27, the canal forks to the south, running around southern Sulphur. The canal is piped under Louisiana Highway 108, at pumping station #4, providing river water to the business area known as City Service in Westlake, and companies such as Equistar, which has a daily contract for 734,400 gallons a day. Other customers and their gallons of use per day are the city of Westlake (8,640,000 gallons), Air Liquide (129,600), Air Products (1,728,000), CITGO (20,160,000), Phillips 66 (3,600,000), The Axiall subsidiary Eagle US 2 LLC (20,160,000), Entergy (21,600,000), Lake Charles Co-Gen (14,400,000), Louisiana Pigment (3,038,400) that produces Titanium White, another LyondellBasell company (720,000), and Matheson Tri-Gas (175,680).

The main canal continues east, crossing under Highway 27 and joined by the Houston River canal at pumping station #2, continuing to old Mossville. There it tees to the left, providing water to the Krause and Managan canal supplying the Nelson Industrial Steam Company (Nisco), which supplies steam and electricity to area businesses. [27] The right tee of the canal terminates at pumping station #3 on what was 8th street in Mossville, now the Sasol complex, providing 46,080,000 gallons of river water for a total daily contract use of 141,166,000 gallons of river water a day. [28]

In literature and music

January 2010 oil spill

Up to 450,000 gallons (about 11,000 bls) of crude oil spilled over the Sabine River when the tanker Eagle Otome, which was carrying the shipment, struck two chemical-carrying barges due to loss of engine power on January 24, 2010, at 10 am local time. [29]

2016 flooding

Severe flooding during the first week of March 2016 was the result of record rainfalls in northern Louisiana and the Sabine River basin, of 18 to more than 24 inches. Toledo Bend Reservoir is considered at "full pool" at 172 ft; before the rains started, it was at 171.5 ft. On March 10, the level reached a record 174.36 ft, and 9 of the 11 gates were opened to 22 ft (two gates were out of commission for repairs). Lake Tawakoni, east of Dallas on the Sabine River, was 2 feet above full pool and Lake Fork Reservoir was 1 1/2 feet above full pool.

When the reservoir level dropped to 173.69 ft, 9 gates were in operation at 20 ft. The previous record level of 173.93 ft was on May 18, 1989. At that time, the spillway gates were opened to 9 ft. The maximum height is 28 ft and with nine 9 gates open, the discharge rate is over 190,000 ft3 per second, which is equivalent to the flow over Niagara Falls. [30] The peak water flow from the dam was nearly 208,000 ft3 per second for 31 hours, equating to 1.5 million gallons per second. [31] Catastrophic flooding was predicted to be from 2 to 5 ft above record floods of 1884 and 1889.

Aftermath

During peak flooding, Deweyville, Texas was surrounded by water, accessible only by air or boat. The flood stage is 24 ft, but reached 33.24 ft on March 10, 2016, which was 9.24 ft above flood stage. [32]

A group of Texas residents who suffered damage in the flooding met March 17, 2016, to discuss a class-action suit against the Sabine River Authority (SRA), based on their belief that it had mismanaged water release. The issue is under review by counsel. [33]

According to local ABC affiliate KBMT-TV, SRA spokesperson Ann Galassi stated that the SRA has guidelines it has to follow and those cannot be altered based on weather forecasts. She said that the guidelines are designed to protect the infrastructure of the dam. After the record flood event, the regulatory commission could possibly review the guidelines, and she said that the SRA would welcome that. [34] The SRA of Texas states, "The Authority was created as a conservation and reclamation district with responsibilities to control, store, preserve, and distribute the waters of the Sabine River and its tributary streams for useful purposes." The site also states, "Toledo Bend Project-since its inception and original development over 50 years ago-has never been a flood-control facility. Rather, the project is regulated, as set forth in the project license, to accommodate a number of public benefits, including water supply, recreation, and hydropower production.". [35]

See also

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The Stanislaus River is a tributary of the San Joaquin River in north-central California in the United States. The main stem of the river is 96 miles (154 km) long, and measured to its furthest headwaters it is about 150 miles (240 km) long. Originating as three forks in the high Sierra Nevada, the river flows generally southwest through the agricultural San Joaquin Valley to join the San Joaquin south of Manteca, draining parts of five California counties. The Stanislaus is known for its swift rapids and scenic canyons in the upper reaches, and is heavily used for irrigation, hydroelectricity and domestic water supply.

Yuba River river in the United States of America

The Yuba River is a tributary of the Feather River in the Sierra Nevada and eastern Sacramento Valley, in the U.S. state of California. The main stem of the river is about 40 miles (64 km) long, and its headwaters are split into three major forks. The Yuba River proper is formed at the confluence of the North Yuba and Middle Yuba Rivers, with the South Yuba joining a short distance downstream. Measured to the head of the North Yuba River, the Yuba River is just over 100 miles (160 km) long.

Texas Irrigation Canals

There are many irrigation canals in Texas. The majority of large canal networks are in the Rio Grande Valley and the Gulf Coast, though smaller systems are located throughout the state. Canals provide water to dry climates to irrigate crops.

Wichita River river in the United States of America

The Wichita River, part of the Red River watershed, lies in north-central Texas. Rising in northeastern Knox County at the confluence of its North and South Forks, the river flows 90 miles (140 km) northeast across Baylor, Archer, Wichita, and Clay counties before joining the Red River just west of Byers Bend in northern Clay County.

Burr Ferry, Louisiana Unincorporated community in Louisiana, United States

Burr Ferry is an unincorporated community at the junction of LA 8 and LA 111 south, in Vernon Parish, Louisiana, United States. The community is two miles from the site of the old Burr's Ferry on the Sabine River, at the Texas line. The Sabine River, at this location, is the site of two listings on the National Register of Historic Places; Burr's Ferry Bridge, and Burr's Ferry Earthworks.

Course of the Colorado River

The Colorado River is a major river of the western United States and northwest Mexico in North America. Its headwaters are in the Rocky Mountains where La Poudre Pass Lake is its source. Located in north central Colorado it flows southwest through the Colorado Plateau country of western Colorado, southeastern Utah and northwestern Arizona where it flows through the Grand Canyon. It turns south near Las Vegas, Nevada, forming the Arizona–Nevada border in Lake Mead and the Arizona–California border a few miles below Davis Dam between Laughlin, Nevada and Needles, California California before entering Mexico in the Colorado Desert. Most of its waters are diverted into the Imperial Valley of Southern California. In Mexico its course forms the boundary between Sonora and Baja California before entering the Gulf of California. This article describes most of the major features along the river.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "Sabine River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey (USGS). June 4, 1980. Retrieved April 15, 2011.
  2. Source elevation derived from Google Earth search using GNIS source coordinates.
  3. 1 2 Benke and Cushing, p. 208
  4. 1 2 3 Benke and Cushing, p. 224
  5. 1 2 3 4 U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map, accessed June 20, 2011
  6. 1 2 Long, Christopher. "Sabine River". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
  7. American State Papers, House of Representatives, 24th Congress, 1st Session, Military Affairs. Washington, D.C.: Gales & Seaton, 1861. Volume 6, pp. 416-427, accessible online at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsp&fileName=021/llsp021.db&Page=416.
  8. Map of Carter and Williamson ferries; Fold 3- Retrieved 2013-08-01
  9. Hadden's ferry; Hometown locator- Retrieved 2013-08-01
  10. Sabinetown ferry; Hometown locator- Retrieved 2013-08-01
  11. Hometown locator; Pendleton (Gaines) Ferry- Retrieved 2013-08-01
  12. Carter's ferry; Hometown locator- Retrieved 2013-08-01
  13. Chamber's ferry; Hometown locator- Retrieved 2013-08-01
  14. Gilcrease ferry; Hometown locator- Retrieved 2013-08-01
  15. Darnell Ferry; Hometown locator- Retrieved 2013-08-01
  16. Thompson's ferry; Hometown locator- Retrieved 2013-08-01, Coords; 31.4941, -93.7218
  17. 1846 - Birth of William N. Loftin, Loftin ferry; Lutheransonline.com- Retrieved 2013-08-02
  18. Ferry distance; Lutherans online- Retrieved 2013-08-01
  19. James Wilkinson; Texas State Historical Association -Retrieved 2013-07-31
  20. Simón de Herrera; Texas State Historical Association- Retrieved 2013-07-31
  21. Miller, Edward L. (2004). New Orleans and the Texas Revolution. Texas A&M University Press. p. 46.
  22. Colony of Shacklefoot; texasescape.com- Retrieved 2013-08-02
  23. Shacklefoot; Toledo-bend.com- Retrieved 2013-08-02
  24. "The Handbook of Texas: Elderville, Texas". tshaonline.org. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
  25. Toledo Bend Reservoir- Retrieved 2013-08-01
  26. - Retrieved 2016-07-21
  27. Nelson Industrial Steam Co- Retrieved 2016-07-22
  28. Sabine River Authority
  29. Hewitt, Paige; Schiller, Dane (January 24, 2010). "Vessels' Collision Sparks Massive Oil Spill". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 15, 2011.
  30. toledobend.com; reservoir levels- Retrieved 2016-04-09
  31. weather.com; Sabine River flooding- Posted 2016-03-17; Retrieved 2016-04-09
  32. Weather.com; Deweyville flood level- Posted 2016-04-07; Retrieved 2016-04-09
  33. 12newsnow.com; "Flood victims threaten to sue", 12 News Now, 16 March 2016; Retrieved 2016-04-09
  34. KJAS.com- Posted 2016-03-18; Retrieved 2016-04-09
  35. Sabine River Authority of Texas- Posted 2016-04-06; Retrieved 2016-04-09

Further reading