Sadegh Khalkhali

Last updated

Sadegh Khalkhali
Sadegh Khalkhali Portrait.jpg
Head of Islamic Revolutionary Court
In office
24 February 1979 1 March 1980
Appointed by Ruhollah Khomeini
Succeeded by Hossein Mousavi Tabrizi
Member of the Parliament of Iran
In office
28 May 1980 28 May 1992
Constituency Qom
Majority106,647 (54.8%)
Member of the Assembly of Experts
In office
15 August 1983 21 February 1991
Constituency Tehran Province [1]
Majority1,048,284 (32.87%)
Personal details
Mohammed-Sadeq Sadeqi Givi

(1926-07-27)27 July 1926
Givi, Khalkhal, Ardabil Province, Iran
Died26 November 2003(2003-11-26) (aged 77)
Tehran, Iran
Political party
Alma mater Qom Seminary
Occupation Judge

Mohammed Sadeq Givi Khalkhali (27 July 1926 – 26 November 2003) [2] (Persian : Sādeq Xalxāli) was a Shia cleric of the Islamic Republic of Iran who is said to have "brought to his job as Chief Justice of the revolutionary courts a relish for summary execution" that earned him a reputation as Iran's "hanging judge". [3] A farmer's son from Iranian Azeri origins was born in Givi, Azerbaijani S.S.R., U.S.S.R. [now in Azerbaijan] [4] . He is also reported to have born in Kivi, Khalkhal, in the Khalkhal County, Iran (ergo his name). [5] Khalkhali has been described as "a small, rotund man with a pointed beard, kindly smile, and a high-pitched giggle." [3]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian and Tajiki Persian. It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan, as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.

Shia Islam Denomination of Islam which holds that Muhammad designated Ali as his successor and leader (imam), whose adherents form the majority of the population in Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain

Shia Islam is one of the two main branches of Islam. It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam (leader) after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident of Saqifah. This view primarily contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr, who they claim was appointed caliph by a small group of Muslims at Saqifah, to be the first rightful caliph after the Prophet.

Summary execution Execution immediately after being accused of a crime, without a fair trial

A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial. Executions as the result of summary justice are sometimes included, but the term generally refers to capture, accusation, and execution all conducted simultaneously or within a very short period of time, and without any trial at all. Under international law, refusal to accept lawful surrender in combat and instead killing the person surrendering is also categorized as a summary execution.


Career and activities

Khalkhali is known to have been one of Khomeini's circle of disciples as far back as 1955 [6] and is reported to have reconstructed the former secret society of Islamic assassins known as the Fadayan-e Islam after its suppression, [7] but was not a well-known figure to the public prior to the Islamic Revolution.

Iranian Revolution overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.

On 24 February 1979, Khalkhali was chosen by Ruhollah Khomeini to be the Sharia ruler (Persian : حاکم شرع) or head the newly established Revolutionary Courts, and to make Islamic rulings. In the early days of the revolution he sentenced to death "hundreds of former government officials" on charges such as "spreading corruption on earth" and "warring against God." [8] Most of the condemned did not have access to a lawyer or a jury. Following the Iranian Revolution in 1979, Reza Shah's mausoleum was destroyed under the direction of Khalkhali, which was sanctioned by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini [9]

Ruhollah Khomeini 20th-century Iranian religious leader and politician, founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, also known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and cleric. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of the 2,500 year old Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

Sharia, Islamic law or Sharia law is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations. The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim fundamentalists and modernists.

Mofsed-e-filarz is the title of capital crimes in the Islamic Republic of Iran, that has been translated in English language sources variously as "spreading corruption on Earth", "spreading corruption that threatens social and political well-being", "corrupt of the earth; one who is charged with spreading corruption," "gross offenders of the moral order", and "enemies of God on Earth."

Khalkhali is known for ordering the executions of Amir Abbas Hoveida, [10] the Shah's longtime prime minister, and Nematollah Nassiri, a former head of SAVAK. According to one report, after sentencing Hoveida to death

Nematollah Nassiri Iranian politician

Nematollah Nassiri was the director of SAVAK, the Iranian intelligence agency during the rule of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and later the Ambassador of Iran in Pakistan. He was one of the 438 individuals who were arrested and executed in 1979 following the Iranian Revolution.

SAVAK Secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty

SAVAK was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty. It was established by Mohammad Reza Shah with the help of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Israeli MOSSAD. SAVAK operated from 1957 until the Iranian Revolution of 1979, when the prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar ordered its dissolution during the outbreak of Iranian Revolution. SAVAK has been described as Iran's "most hated and feared institution" prior to the revolution of 1979 because of its practice of torturing and executing opponents of the Pahlavi regime. At its peak, the organization had as many as 60,000 agents serving in its ranks according to one source, and another source by Gholam Reza Afkhami estimates SAVAK staffing at between 4,000 and 6,000.

pleas for clemency poured in from all over the world and it was said that Khalkhali was told by telephone to stay the execution. Khalkhali replied that he would go and see what was happening. He then went to Hoveyda and either shot him himself or instructed a minion to do the deed. "I'm sorry," he told the person at the other end of the telephone, "the sentence has already been carried out." [3]

Another version of the story has Khalkhali saying that while presiding over Hoveida's execution he made sure communication links between Qasr Prison and the outside world were severed, "to prevent any last-minute intercession on his behalf by Mehdi Bazargan, the provisional prime minister." [11]

Mehdi Bazargan Iranian politician

Mehdi Bazargan was an Iranian scholar, academic, long-time pro-democracy activist and head of Iran's interim government, making him Iran's first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. He resigned his position as prime minister in November 1979, in protest at the US Embassy takeover and as an acknowledgement of his government's failure in preventing it.

By trying Hoveida, Khalkhali effectively undermined the position of the provisional prime minister of the Islamic Revolution, the moderate Mehdi Bazargan, who disapproved of the Islamic Revolutionary Court and sought to establish the Revolution's reputation for justice and moderation.

Khalkhali was known for his antipathy towards pre-Islamic Iran. In 1979 he wrote a book "branding king Cyrus the Great a tyrant, a liar, and a homosexual" and "called for the destruction of the Tomb of Cyrus and remains of the two-thousand-year-old Persian palace in Shiraz, Fars Province, the Persepolis." [12] According to an interview by Elaine Sciolino of Shiraz-based Ayatollah Majdeddin Mahallati, Khalkhali came to Persepolis with "a band of thugs" and gave an angry speech demanding that "the faithful torch the silk-lined tent city and the grandstand that the Shah had built," but was driven off by stone-throwing local residents. [13]

At the height of the Iran hostage crisis in 1980 following the failure of the American rescue mission Operation Eagle Claw and crash of U.S. helicopters killing their crews, Khalkhali appeared on television "ordering the bags containing the dismembered limbs of the dead servicemen to be split open so that the blackened remains could be picked over and photographed," to the anger of American viewers. [3]

Khalkhali, in his positions in the Islamic Revolutionary government, made it his mission to eliminate the community of Bahá'ís in Iran (the largest non-Muslim religious minority). Bahá'ís were stripped of any civil and human rights they had previously been permitted and more than 200 executed or killed in the early years of the Islamic Republic. All Bahá'í properties were seized, including its holiest site, the House of the Báb in Shiraz, which was turned over by the government to Khalkhali for the activities of the Fada'iyan-i-Islam. [14] [15] The site was subsequently razed, along with the entire neighborhood, for the construction of a mosque and a new road. In addition to presiding over the Islamic Revolutionary Court that brought about the execution of dozens of members of elected Bahá'í Councils, Khalkhali murdered a Bahá'í, Muhammad Muvahhed, who disappeared in 1980 into the revolutionary prison system. It was later reported that Khalkhali personally went to Muvahhed's cell, demanded that he recant his faith and become a Muslim. When Muvahhed refused, Khalkhali covered his face with a pillow and shot him in the head. [16]

Khalkhali later investigated and ordered the execution of many activists for federalism in Kurdistan and Turkmen Sahra, [3] At the height of its activity, Khalkhali's revolutionary court sentenced to death "up to 60 Kurds a day." [3] Following that, in August 1980 he was asked by President Banisadr to take charge of trying and sentencing drug dealers, and sentenced hundreds to death. [17] One of the complaints of the revolution's leader and Khalkhali's superior, the Ayatollah Khomeini against the regime they had overthrown was that the Shah's far more limited number of executions of drug traffickers had been "inhuman." [18]

In December 1980 his influence waned when he was forced to resign from the revolutionary courts because of his failure to account for $14 million seized through drug raids, confiscations, and fines, although some believe this as much the doing of President Bani-Sadr and the powerful head of the Islamic Republic Party Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti "working behind the scenes" to remove a source of bad publicity for the revolution, as a matter of outright corruption. [18] [19]

In an interview, Khalkhali personally confirmed ordering more than 100 executions[ citation needed ], although many sources believe that by the time of his death he had sent 8,000 men and women to their deaths. In some cases he was the executioner[ citation needed ], where he executed his victims using machine guns[ citation needed ]. In an interview with the French newspaper Le Figaro he is quoted as saying, "If my victims were to come back on earth, I would execute them again, without exceptions." [3]

Khalkhali was elected as representative for Qom in Islamic Consultative Assembly for two terms, serving for "more than a decade." In 1992, however, he was one of 39 incumbents from the Third Majles and 1000 or so candidates rejected that winter and spring by the Council of Guardians, which vets candidates. The reason given was a failure to show a "practical commitment to Islam and to the Islamic government," but it was thought by some to be a purge of radical critics of the conservatives in power. [20]

Khalkhali sided with reformists after the election of President Mohammad Khatami in 1997, although he was never really accepted by the movement. [21]

Later years and death

Khalkhali retired to Qom, where he taught Islamic seminarians.

He died in 2003, at the age of 77, of cancer and heart disease. [22] [23] [24] At the time of his death, the speaker of Parliament, Mehdi Karoubi, praised the judge's performance in the early days of the revolution. [21] [25]

Personal life

Khalkhali was married and had a son and two daughters. His daughter, Fatemeh Sadeqi, though born in a restrictive Islamic environment, has attended university, attained Ph.D. and is now known for her secular views. [26] She was the author of “Why We Say No to Forced Hijab” — a widely circulated 2008 essay. [27]

Electoral history

1979 Constitutional Experts 122,2174.818thLost [28]
1980 Parliament 123,13678.91stWon [29]
1982 Assembly of Experts 1,048,28432.8715thWent to run-off
Assembly of Experts run offNo Data Available1stWon
1984 Parliament Increase2.svg 144,160Decrease2.svg 67.11stWon [30]
1988 Parliament Decrease2.svg 106,647Decrease2.svg 54.81stWon [31]
1990 Assembly of Experts N/ADisqualified [32]
1992 Parliament N/ADisqualified [33]

Related Research Articles

Ebrahim Yazdi Iranian politician and activist

Ebrahim Yazdi was an Iranian politician, pharmacist, and diplomat who served as deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs in the interim government of Mehdi Bazargan, until his resignation in November 1979, in protest at the Iran hostage crisis. From 1995 until 2017, he headed the Freedom Movement of Iran. Yazdi was also a trained cancer researcher.

Amir-Abbas Hoveyda Iranian politician

Amir-Abbas Hoveyda was an Iranian economist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran from 27 January 1965 to 7 August 1977. He was prime minister for 13 years and is the longest serving prime minister in Iran's history. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance in Mansur's cabinet. After the Iranian Revolution, he was tried by the newly established Revolutionary Court for "waging war against God" and "spreading corruption on earth" and executed.

1980 Iranian presidential election 1st Iranian presidential election

The First Iranian presidential election was held on January 25, 1980, one year after the Iranian Revolution when the Council of Islamic Revolution was in power.

Persecution of Bahá'ís occurs in various countries, especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated, and one of the largest Bahá'í populations in the world is located. The origins of the persecution stem from a variety of Bahá'í teachings which are inconsistent with traditional Islamic beliefs, including the finality of Muhammad's prophethood, and the placement of Bahá'ís outside the Islamic faith. Thus, Bahá'ís are seen as apostates from Islam, and, according to some Islamists, must choose between repentance and death.

Fatima Masumeh Shrine sanctuary in Iran

The Shrine of Fatima Masumeh is located in Qom, which is considered by Shia Muslims to be the second most sacred city in Iran after Mashhad.

Fadaiyan-e Islam

Fadā'iyān-e Islam is a Shiʿite fundamentalist group in Iran with a strong activist political orientation. The group was founded in 1946, and registered as a political party in 1989.

Islamic Revolutionary Court is a special system of courts in the Islamic Republic of Iran designed to try those suspected of crimes such as smuggling, blaspheming, inciting violence or trying to overthrow the Islamic government. The court started its work after the 1979 Iranian Revolution.

Refah School

Cultural Foundation of Refah (formerly Refah School was an elementary school for girls in Tehran, Iran. It gained historical significance in the 1979 Iranian Revolution when it was the temporary headquarters of the revolutionists lead by Ruhollah Khomeini. It was also used for the Islamic Revolutionary Court and the execution of officials of the second Pahlavi Regime on its rooftop before being transformed into what is being currently used as, a cultural and educational institution.

Reza Shahs mausoleum Iranian national heritage site

Reza Shah's Mausoleum, located in Ray south of Tehran, was the burial ground of His Imperial Majesty Reza Shah Pahlavi (1878-1944), the penultimate Shahanshah (Emperor) of Iran. It was built close to Shah-Abdol-Azim shrine.

Baháí Faith in Iran

The Bahá'í Faith in Iran is the country's second-largest religion after Islam and the birthplace of the three central figures of the religion – The Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá. The early history of the religion in Iran covers the lives of these individuals, their families and their earliest prominent followers: the Letters of the Living, the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh and later some of the Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá and Hands of the Cause. In the 19th century conversions from Judaism and Zoroastrianism are well documented - indeed such a change of status removing legal and social protections.

Casualties of the Iranian Revolution

Observers differ on how many people died during the Iranian Revolution. The number of casualties suffered by protesters and revolutionaries at the hands of the Shah's monarchy during the revolution is either close to 60,000, or around 2,000, depending on whether the estimates used are those of Islamic government or from historians in Western countries. The number of protesters and political prisoners killed by the new theocratic republic after the fall of the Shah is estimated by human rights groups to be several thousand.

The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution. After the Shah of Iran and his regime were overthrown by revolutionaries in February 1979, Iran was in a "revolutionary crisis mode" from this time until 1982 or 1983. Its economy and the apparatus of government collapsed. Military and security forces were in disarray.

Hojatoleslam Hadi Ghaffari is a member of the central council of Imam assembly forces and the president of the Al-Hadi Institute in Iran. He was accused to have murdered the ex-Prime Minister Amir-Abbas Hoveida during the sham trials by Sadeq Khalkhali on April 7, 1979. He was also in charge of supervising Hezbollah of Iran.

Mirza Sayyed Mohammad Tabatabai Iranian activist

Mohammad Tabatabai was one of the leaders of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution who played an important role in the establishment of democracy and rule of law in Iran. He was the son of Sayyed Sādegh Tabātabā'i, one of the influential clerics during the reign of Naser ad-Din Shah Qajar. His paternal grandfather, Sayyed Mehdi Tabātabā'i, was a reputed clergy in Hamedan. He is the father of Sayyed Sādegh Tabātabā'i editor of Ruznāmeh-ye Majles, the Majles newspaper.

Interim Government of Iran government of Iran from February to November 1979

The Interim Government of Iran was the first government established in Iran after the Iranian Revolution, and the first nominal republic established in Iran after 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. The regime was headed by Mehdi Bazargan, one of the members of the Freedom Movement of Iran, and formed on the order of Ruhollah Khomeini on 4 February 1979. From 4 February to 11 February, Bazargan and Shapour Bakhtiar, the Shah's last Prime Minister, both claimed to be the legitimate prime minister; Bakhtiar fled on 11 February. Mehdi Bazargan was the prime minister of the interim government and introduced a seven-member cabinet on 14 February 1979. Ebrahim Yazdi was elected as the Foreign Minister.

1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran

The 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran erupted in mid-March 1979, some two months after the completion of the Iranian Revolution. It subsequently became the largest among the nationwide uprisings in Iran against the new state and one of the most intense Kurdish rebellions in modern Iran. Initially, Kurdish movements were trying to align with the new government of Iran, seeking to emphasize their Muslim identity and seek common ground with other Iranians. KDPI even briefly branded itself as non-"separatist" organization, allegedly criticizing those calling for independence, but nevertheless calling for political autonomy. However, relations between some Kurdish organizations and the Iranian government quickly deteriorated, and though Shi'a Kurds and some tribal leaders turned towards the new Shi'a Islamic State, Sunni Kurdish leftists continued the nationalist project in their enclave in Kurdistan Province.

Mehdi Rahimi was an Iranian lieutenant general. He was executed following the 1979 revolution in Iran.

Sadeq Tabatabaei Iranian politician

Sadeq Tabatabaei was an Iranian writer, journalist, TV host, university professor at the University of Tehran and politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister from 1979 to 1980. He was also Deputy Minister of the Interior and oversaw the referendum on establishing an Islamic Republic in March 1979. He was Iran's Ambassador to West Germany from 1982 until 1986.

Mahmoud Jafarian politician

Mahmoud Jafarian was a high-ranking Iranian politician under the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. He served simultaneously as deputy director for National Iranian Radio and Television (NIRT), managing director of Pars News Agency, and Vice President of the Rastakhiz Party.


  1. "1982 Assembly of Experts Election", The Iran Social Science Data Portal, Princeton University, retrieved 10 August 2015
  2. Sadegh Khalkhali
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ayatollah Sadegh Khalkhali The Daily Telegraph 28 November 2003
  4. "Sadeq Khalkhali (Iranian judge) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  5. Ayatollah Sadeq Khalkhali. Obituary in The Guardian, 1 Dec 2003
  6. Taheri, Amir, Spirit of Allah : Khomeini and the Islamic Revolution , Adler and Adler c1985, p. 113
  7. Taheri, Spirit of Allah, (1985), p. 187
  8. Molavi, Afshin, The Soul of Iran, Norton and Co., (2005) p. 9
  9. Jubin M. Goodarzi (4 June 2006). Syria and Iran: Diplomatic Alliance and Power Politics in the Middle East. I.B.Tauris. p. 296. ISBN   978-1-84511-127-4 . Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  10. Hoveyda’s Tragic Fate
  11. Tortured Confessions: Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian, (University of California Press, 1999), p. 127
  12. Molavi, Afshan, The Soul of Iran, Norton, (2005), p. 14
  13. Sciolino, Elaine, Persian Mirrors, Touchstone, (2000), p. 168
  14. Martin, Douglas (1984). The Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran, 1844-1984. Bahá'í Studies no.12/13. Ottawa, ON: Association for Bahá'í Studies. pp. 43–44. ISBN   978-0-920904-13-8.
  15. Kazemzadeh, Firuz (Summer 2000). "The Baha'is in Iran: Twenty Years of Repression". Social Research. 67 (2): 542. JSTOR   40971483.
  16. Vahman, Fereydun (2019). 175 Years of Persecution: A History of the Babis & Baha'is of Iran. London: Oneworld. pp. 170–171. ISBN   978-1-78607-586-4.
  17. Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution, New York, Basic Books, (1984), p. 111
  18. 1 2 Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p. 111
  19. Qaddafi Meets an Ayatollah The New York Times, 2 January 1992
  20. Brumberg, Daniel, Reinventing Khomeini : The Struggle for Reform in Iran, University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 175
  21. 1 2 Fathi, Nazila (29 November 2003). "Sadegh Khalkhali, 77, a Judge In Iran Who Executed Hundreds". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  22. Obituary from The Economist
  23. Obituary The Daily Telegraph
  24. Obituary The Guardian (gives his full name as Mohammed Sadeq Givi Khalkhali)
  25. صبا, صادق (29 November 2003). اصلاح طلبان و در گذشت خلخالی (in Persian). BBCPersian. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  26. Afshari, Reza (4 November 2010). "Human Rights, Relevance of Culture and Irrelevance of Cultural Relativism". Rooz online. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2014.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  27. Goldstein, Dana (17 June 2009). "IRAN AND THE VEIL". The American Prospect. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  28. Ervand Abrahamian (1989), "To The Masses", Radical Islam: the Iranian Mojahedin, Society and culture in the modern Middle East, 3, I.B.Tauris, p. 195, Table 6, ISBN   9781850430773
  29. "Getting to Know the Representatives in the Majles" (PDF), Iranian Parliament , The Iran Social Science Data Portal, p. 79
  30. "Getting to Know the Representatives in the Majles" (PDF), Iranian Parliament , The Iran Social Science Data Portal, p. 206
  31. "Getting to Know the Representatives in the Majles" (PDF), Iranian Parliament , The Iran Social Science Data Portal, p. 317
  32. "پنج دوره خبرگان؛ رد صلاحیت‌ها" (in Persian). BBC Persian. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  33. Farzin Sarabi (subscription required) (1994). "The Post-Khomeini Era in Iran: The Elections of the Fourth Islamic Majlis". Middle East Journal. Middle East Institute. 48 (1): 96–97. JSTOR   4328663.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Further reading

V. S. Naipaul interviews Khalkhali in two of his better-known books