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|Coordinates: 38°01′06″N138°22′06″E / 38.01833°N 138.36833°E Coordinates: 38°01′06″N138°22′06″E / 38.01833°N 138.36833°E|
|First official recorded||135 AD|
|As city settled for Ryōtsu||November 3, 1954|
|As merger with neighbor town and current city's name date||March 1, 1954|
|• Mayor||Koichiro Takano|
|• Total||855.69 km2 (330.38 sq mi)|
(March 1, 2022)
|• Density||58/km2 (150/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)|
|Address||232 Chigusa, Sado-shi, Niigata-ken|
Sado (佐渡市, Sado-shi) is a city located on Sado Island (佐渡島, Sado-shima/Sado-ga-shima) in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Since 2004, the city has comprised the entire island, although not all of its total area is urbanized. Sado is the sixth largest island of Japan in area following the four main islands and Okinawa Island (excluding the Northern Territories). As of March 1, 2022, the city has an estimated population of 49,897 and a population density of 58.3 persons per square kilometre. The total area is 855.69 km2.
The large number of pottery artifacts found near Ogi in the South of the island demonstrate that Sado was populated as early as the Jōmon period.
The Nihon Shoki mentions that Mishihase people visited the island in 544 (although it is unknown whether Tungusic people effectively came).
The island formed a distinct province, the Sado Province, separate from the Echigo province on Honshū, at the beginning of the 8th century. At first, the province was a single gun (district), but was later divided into three gun: Sawata, Hamochi and Kamo.
In 1185, the designated representative Shugo for Sado, Osaragi, appointed Honma Yoshihisa as his shugodai (delegate) for the province.
The rule of the Honma clan on Sado lasted until Uesugi Kagekatsu took control of the island in 1589. After the defeat of the Uesugi at Sekigahara, and the discovery of gold on the island, the shogunate took direct control of the island.
The island was for a short time an independent prefecture, called the Aikawa prefecture, between 1871 and 1876, during the Meiji era. It then became a part of Niigata Prefecture, which it is still as of today.
At the end of the 19th century, there were three districts (郡), seven towns (町), and 51 villages (村). During the 20th century, a series of mergers steadily reduced the number of political local authorities, following the recent trend in Japan to cut the costs of having separately run local administrations. The current city (市) covering the whole island was established on March 1, 2004 from a merger of all remaining municipalities on the island: the city of Ryōtsu: the towns of Aikawa, Kanai, Sawata, Hatano, Mano, Hamochi and Ogi; and the villages of Niibo, and Akadomari (all from Sado District).
When direct control from mainland Japan started around the 8th century, the island's remoteness meant that it soon became a place of banishment for difficult or inconvenient Japanese figures. Exile to remote locations such as Sado was a very serious punishment, second only to the death penalty, and people were not expected to return.
The earliest known dissident to be condemned to exile on Sadogashima was a poet, Hozumi no Asomi Oyu (穂積朝臣老). He was sent to the island in 722, reportedly for having criticized the emperor.
The former Emperor Juntoku was sent to Sado after his role in the Jōkyū War of 1221. The disgraced emperor survived twenty years on the island before his death; and because he was sent to Sado, this emperor is known posthumously as Sado-no-in (佐渡院). He is buried in the Mano Goryo mausoleum on the west coast. 
The Buddhist monk Nichiren lived on Sado close to the present village Niibo in Kuninaka Plain from 1271 to 1274. In the 17th century, Konpon Ji Temple was built at the place where he lived. At the end of his exile, Nichiren lived at the place where Myosho Ji temple was built later. He used to meditate at the place where Jisso Ji Temple can be visited today. In addition, Nipponzan Myohoji, a modern Nichiren Buddhist order, established a Peace Pagoda in the city to help in inspiring people toward world peace.
The Noh dramatist Zeami Motokiyo was exiled on unspecified charges in 1434.
The last banishment in Sado took place in 1700, almost a millennium after the first.
Sado experienced a sudden economic boom during the Edo period when gold was found in 1601 at Aikawa (相川). A major source of revenue for the Tokugawa shogunate, the mines were worked in very severe conditions.
A manpower shortage led to a second wave of "exiles" coming to Sado, although this time it was not imposed as a sentence for a committed crime. By sending homeless people (the number of whom was growing in Japanese cities at the time) to Sado from the 18th century, the Shogunate hoped to kill two birds with one stone. The homeless were sent as water collectors and worked in extremely hard conditions, with a short life expectancy. The Sado mine at its peak in the Edo era produced around 400 kg of gold a year (as well as some silver). The small settlement of Aikawa quickly reached a population of around 100,000. The mine closed in 1989.
In feudal Japan, when the Nishimawari naval route was opened in 1672, Ogi (in the South of the Island) became a main stop on this major naval route in the Sea of Japan between the Kansai area and northern areas of the archipelago.
Exiles and shipping in old times both had a major influence on Sado's cultural background. The island is for instance dotted with Noh theaters, and the local Japanese dialect and accent are different from those of Niigata.
A few months after World War II, on 18 January 1946, a Douglas Dakota (C-47) Sister Ann in British RAF service made an emergency landing on the island.  The locals helped in the recovery and building a runway for it to depart, the story of which was made into a film named Tobe! Dakota (Fly, Dakota, Fly!)  with the film's Dakota made into an island exhibit.  The story of the events leading up to the crash were also made into a film, The Night My Number Came Up .
The island consists of two parallel mountain ranges running roughly southwest–northeast, enclosing a central plain. The Ōsado (大佐渡) range, in the north, is slightly higher, with peaks of Mount Kinpoku (金北山), the highest point of the island at 1,172 metres (3,845 ft), Mount Kongō, Mount Myōken, and Mount Donden. Kosado (小佐渡) range in the south faces the Honshu coast. The highest point in Kosado is Ōjiyama (大地山) at 645 m.
The plain in between is called Kuninaka (国中) and is the most populated area. The Kuninaka plain opens on its eastern side onto Ryōtsu Bay (両津湾), and on its western side onto Mano Bay (真野湾), where the longest river, Kokufugawa (国府川, also read Konogawa) reaches the sea.
The island has a symmetrical shape. Lake Kamo (加茂湖), on the eastern side of Kuninaka, is filled with salt water, and is a growing place for oysters.
Sado has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with potentially hot, humid summers and cold winters. Precipitation is quite heavy throughout the year.
|Climate data for Aikawa, Sado, Niigata, 1991−2020 normals, extremes 1911−present|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.5|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||1.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.5|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||131.1|
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||28|
|Average rainy days (≥ 3 mm)||19.7||15.3||14.0||10.3||9.7||9.0||10.9||8.7||10.4||12.3||16.6||20.9||157.8|
|Average snowy days (≥ 1 cm)||7.1||6.8||1.4||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||2.5||17.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||69||68||66||67||72||78||81||77||73||69||68||69||71|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||46.2||69.2||133.1||177.0||200.7||178.4||161.2||207.8||157.0||147.5||95.8||50.6||1,624.5|
|Source: Japan Meteorological Agency  |
Per Japanese census data,  the population of Sado peaked around 1950 and has declined by about two-thirds since.
As of May 1, 2017, the island has an estimated population of 55,474. The island of Sado has seen a steady decline in population since 1950 when the population was 125,597. Similar trends have been common in other remote locations of Japan since World War II as younger generations have moved to more urban areas. As of October 1, 2008, 36.3% of the island population is over 65 years old, which is a larger ratio than the national average. Over 65 is the only increasing age demographic. The island is now less populated than it was in the 18th and 19th century. There is no university, and the options for post high school studies, short of leaving and going to the mainland, are limited to a few specialty schools.
Agriculture and fishing are major sources of income for Sado. According to the 2000 national census, 22.3% of the workforce was employed in the primary sector and 25% in the secondary sector. Fishing is mainly based in Ryotsu and Aikawa.
Tourism boomed in the beginning of the 1990s and peaked at over 1.2 million yearly visitors, but visitor numbers decreased over the 1990s. In the mid-2000s, the number of visitors was closer to 650,000 per year.
Sado is known for a number of Japanese bamboo weaving artists and artisans who are renowned throughout the country.   
Its rich history and relaxed rural atmosphere make Sado one of the major tourist destinations in Niigata Prefecture. The island has several temples and historical ruins, and offers possibilities for various outdoor activities, as well as fresh local food.
Sado is famous as the major breeding area for the Japanese crested ibis. The last known Japan-born Japanese crested ibis died in captivity in 2003 on the island. Currently, birds from China are being bred in a captive program in a facility in Niibo area, and have been released since 2008. The first hatchings in the wild were observed in April 2012. The ibis is a major symbol of the Island and can be found on several tourist items. As of June 2022, approximately 480 crested ibis have been observed making a radical comeback for their species, thanks to conservation efforts. 
There are many small local traditional festivals, and since 1988 a major yearly arts festival, called the Earth Celebration, has been run by the taiko group Kodo. The group lives on the island, touring eight months a year, and in August they invite international artists to collaborate with them at their festival on Sado. Tickets are limited for the three-day weekend event. In recent years, Kodo has made a solo performance on the Friday evening; the festival's invited act plays Saturday night; and Sunday concludes with a joint performance with Kodo and guests.
The Sado tourism industry suffered direct (though limited) as well as indirect damage from the 2004 Chūetsu earthquake, as access routes inside Niigata Prefecture were cut.
Sado has a large variety of sights to offer.
Sado Steam Ship operates two routes connecting to the mainland.
Transit bus network all over the island is operated by Niigata Kotsu Kanko Bus.
Kyokushin Airways, operating the airline to Niigata, ceased its operations in September 2008. New Japan Aviation operated 3 or 4 flights (propeller plane) daily to Sado Airport, but as of April 2014, service to the airport has been suspended indefinitely. 
Niigata Prefecture is a prefecture in the Chūbu region of Honshu of Japan. Niigata Prefecture has a population of 2,227,496 and is the fifth-largest prefecture of Japan by geographic area at 12,584.18 km2 (4,858.78 sq mi). Niigata Prefecture borders Toyama Prefecture and Nagano Prefecture to the southwest, Gunma Prefecture to the south, Fukushima Prefecture to the east, and Yamagata Prefecture to the northeast.
Ryōtsu was a city located in Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.
Sado can refer to:
Sado Province was a province of Japan until 1871; since then, it has been a part of Niigata Prefecture. It was sometimes called Sashū (佐州) or Toshū (渡州). It lies on the eponymous Sado Island, off the coast of Niigata Prefecture.
Sado Island is an island located in the eastern part of the Sea of Japan, under the jurisdiction of Sado City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan, with a coastline of 262.7 kilometres (163.2 mi). In October 2017, Sado Island had a population of 55,212 people. Sado Island covers an area of 854.76 km2 (330.02 sq mi), and is the second largest island after Okinawa Island outside of the four main islands of Japan, excluding the disputed Southern Kurils. The shortest distance between Sado Island and Honshu is 32 km (20 mi). The highest peak on Sado Island is Mount Kinpoku, with an elevation of 1,172 m (3,845 ft).
Sado was a district located in Niigata Prefecture, Japan existing from 1896 by 2004.
In Island of Exiles is a 2007 detective novel by I. J. Parker. The story follows Sugawara Akitada, who is assigned by two shadowy officials to investigate the fatal poisoning on penal colony on Sado Island of the exiled and disgraced Prince Okisada. The suspect is the son of the local governor, the officials thought he might have been framed as part of a treasonous plot. Akitada is forced to carry out an undercover investigation, taking on the guise of a convict sentenced to exile on the island. It becomes a perilous task, as the convicts on the island were treated "cheaper than dirt", expendable slaves to work the mines.
Sawata was a town located in Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.
Ogi was a town located in Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.
National Route 350 is a national highway of Japan that traverses the prefecture of Niigata in a southwest–northeast routing. It connects the city of Jōetsu in southern Niigata Prefecture to the prefecture's capital city, Niigata, to the north along the Sea of Japan coastline; however the highway mainly functions as the main highway on Sado Island. It has a total length of 51.9 kilometers (32.2 mi) on land, but a total length of 163.2 kilometers (101.4 mi) with the distance traveled by the Sado Steam Ship across the Sea of Japan factored in.
Miage-nyūdō is a type of yōkai told about on Sado Island. They are a type of mikoshi-nyūdō.
Sado Okesa is a Japanese folk song that originated in Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture.
Sado Airport is a public aerodrome located in Sado, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.
Watatsu Shrine is a Shinto shrine in the Hamochiiioka neighborhood of the city of Sado, Niigata. It is the ichinomiya of former Sado Province. The main festival of the shrine is held annually on the April 23.
The Sado gold mine is a generic term for gold and silver mines which were once located the island of Sado in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Among these mines, the Aikawa Gold and Silver Mine was the largest and was in operation until the modern era. The Sado Gold and Silver Mine was inscribed on Japan's World Heritage Tentative List under the title "The Sado Complex of Heritage Mines, Primarily Gold Mines" in 2010.
New Japan Aviation, also known as Shinnikkō (新日航) or NJA, is a Japanese aviation services company that operates scheduled air service between Niigata and Sado Island, as well as flight training and other services from its headquarters at Kagoshima Airport.
Sado Steam Ship Co., Ltd. is a marine transportation company based in Sado, Niigata, Japan, founded as Sado Shosen on February 3, 1913. And, in 1932, this company was esablished by merging three ferry companies that Sado Shosen, Etsusa Shosen and Niigata Kisen into Sado Kisen as a joint public-private venture for the first time in Japan. On March 31, 2022, a 66.54% of this company's shares are transferred to Michinori Holdings. Now, this company belongs to Michinori Holdings.
The Sado Kokubun-ji (佐渡国分寺) is a Shingon sect Buddhist temple located in the city of Sado, Niigata, Japan. Its honzon is Yakushi Nyōrai. It is the successor to the Nara period kokubunji National Temples established by Emperor Shōmu for the purpose of promoting Buddhism as the national religion of Japan and standardising control of the Yamato rule to the provinces. The archaeological site with the ruins of the ancient temple grounds for the provincial temple was designated as a National Historic Site in 1929.
The Shimokō ruins is an archaeological site with the ruins of what appears to be a Heian period government administrative complex located in the Takeda neighborhood of the city of Sado, Niigata prefecture in the northern Hokuriku region of Japan.The site has been protected as a National Historic Site from 1976.