Erzurum, Ottoman Empire
|Died||14 January 1891|
Sadullah Pasha (1838 – 14 January 1891) was an Ottoman statesmanin the late Tanzimat period. He is most notable as the Ottoman ambassador to Berlin following the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.
Sadullah Pasha was born in 1838 in Erzurum,as the son of Assad Muhlis Pasha. After completing his primary education he learned Arabic, Persian and French. He also took private lessons on French and Eastern literature.
In 1853, he began to work for the state. First, he worked at the "Financial Wage Cattle". In 1856, he worked in the Translation Office. In 1866 he was appointed to the "Mezahib Kalemi". In 1868, he was made the "Chief of the Ministry of State Education". In 1870, he was made "Principal State Attache". From April 4, 1876 to May 30, 1876, he served as the Trade and Agriculture Minister.
He along with Saffet Pasha was a representative of the Ottoman Empire at the Congress of Berlin,to determine the territories of the states in the Balkan peninsula following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. The delegation in which he took part was successful in changing the San Stefano peace terms in favour of the Ottoman Empire (Treaty of Berlin).
He wrote the poem "The Nineteenth Century," which was much-cited at the time.
Sadullah Pasha committed suicide in Vienna in 1891.
Abdulaziz was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdulmejid I in 1861.
The Treaty of Berlin was signed on 13 July 1878. In the aftermath of the Russian victory against the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the major powers restructured the map of the Balkan region. They reversed some of the extreme gains claimed by Russia in the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, but the Ottomans lost their major holdings in Europe. It was one of three major peace agreements in the period after the 1815 Congress of Vienna. It was the final act of the Congress of Berlin and included Great Britain and Ireland, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Germany's Otto von Bismarck was the chairman and dominant personality.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro. Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism. Additional factors included Russian goals of recovering territorial losses endured during the Crimean War of 1853–56, re-establishing itself in the Black Sea and supporting the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.
The League of Prizren, officially the League for the Defense of the Rights of the Albanian Nation, was an Albanian political organization officially founded on June 10, 1878 in the old town of Prizren, in the Kosova Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire, and suppressed in 1881.
The Herzegovina uprising was an uprising led by ethnic Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, firstly and predominantly in Herzegovina, from where it spread into Bosnia and Raška. It broke out in the summer of 1875, and lasted in some regions up to the beginning of 1878. It was followed by the Bulgarian Uprising of 1876, and coincided with Serbian-Turkish wars (1876-1878), all of those events being part of the Great Eastern Crisis (1875-1878).
The 1878 Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on 3 March [O.S. 19 February] 1878 by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Saffet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. The treaty ended the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78.
Ismail Enver Pasha was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. He became the main leader of the Ottoman Empire in both the Balkan Wars (1912–13) and in World War I (1914–18). In the course of his career he was known by increasingly elevated titles as he rose through military ranks, including Enver Efendi, Enver Bey, and finally Enver Pasha, "pasha" being the honorary title Ottoman military officers gained on promotion to the rank of Mirliva.
In diplomatic history, the "Eastern Question" refers to the strategic competition and political considerations of the European Great Powers in light of the political and economic instability in the Ottoman Empire from the late 18th to early 20th centuries. Characterized as the "sick man of Europe", the relative weakening of the empire's military strength in the second half of the eighteenth century threatened to undermine the fragile balance of power system largely shaped by the Concert of Europe. The Eastern Question encompassed myriad interrelated elements: Ottoman military defeats, Ottoman institutional insolvency, the ongoing Ottoman political and economic modernization programme, the rise of ethno-religious nationalism in its provinces, and Great Power rivalries.
Mahmud Nedim Pasha was an Ottoman statesman of ethnic Georgian background, who served as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire between 1871–1872 and 1875–1876.
The Young Ottomans were a secret society established in 1865 by a group of Ottoman Turkish intellectuals who were dissatisfied with the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire, which they believed did not go far enough. Young Ottomans sought to transform Ottoman society by preserving the empire and modernizing along the European tradition of adopting a constitutional government. Though the Young Ottomans were frequently in disagreement ideologically, they all agreed that the new constitutional government should continue to be somewhat rooted in Islam to emphasize "the continuing and essential validity of Islam as the basis of Ottoman political culture" and syncretized Islamic ideals with liberalism and parliamentary democracy. The Young Ottomans sought to revitalize the empire by incorporating certain European models of government, while still retaining the Islamic foundations of the empire. Among the prominent members of this society were writers and publicists such as İbrahim Şinasi, Namık Kemal, Ali Suavi, Ziya Pasha, and Agah Efendi.
Süleyman Hüsnü Pasha was an Ottoman field marshal, who participated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.
The Vilayet of the Danube or Danubian Vilayet was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire from 1864 to 1878. In the late 19th century it reportedly had an area of 34,120 square miles (88,400 km2).
Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1819–1893) was an Ottoman statesman, who held the office of Grand Vizier in the beginning of Abdul Hamid II's reign between 5 February 1877 and 11 January 1878. He resigned from that post after the Ottoman chances on winning the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) had decreased. He furthermore served numerous administrative positions in the Ottoman Empire including minister of foreign affairs in 1856, then ambassador to Berlin in 1876, and to Vienna from 1879 to 1882. He also served as a military engineer and as Minister of Interior from 1883 to 1885. In 1876-1877, he represented the Ottoman Government at the Constantinople Conference.
The First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî, written by members of the Young Ottomans, that began on 23 December 1876 and lasted until 14 February 1878. These Young Ottomans were dissatisfied by the Tanzimat and instead pushed for a constitutional government similar to that in Europe. The constitutional period started with the dethroning of Sultan Abdulaziz. Abdul Hamid II took his place as Sultan. The era ended with the suspension of the Ottoman Parliament and the constitution by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, with which he restored his own absolute monarchy.
The term "Armenian Question", as used in European history, became commonplace among diplomatic circles and in the popular press after the Congress of Berlin in 1878. As with the Eastern Question, it refers to Europe's involvement with the Armenian subjects of the Ottoman Empire, beginning with the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.
Mehmed Esad Saffet Pasha, also known as Saffet Pasha was an Ottoman statesman, diplomat and reformer, who served as the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Abdul Hamid II. He was a representative of the Ottoman Empire, alongside Sadullah Pasha at the Congress of Berlin.
The 1876–77 Constantinople Conference of the Great Powers was held in Constantinople from 23 December 1876 until 20 January 1877. Following the beginning of the Herzegovinian Uprising in 1875 and the April Uprising in April 1876, the Great Powers agreed on a project for political reforms both in Bosnia and in the Ottoman territories with a majority Bulgarian population.
Gabriel (Kapriel) Efendi Noradunkyan was an Ottoman Armenian statesman and bureaucrat. He served as the Minister of Trade in 1908 and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Ottoman Empire from July 22, 1912 to January 23, 1913 during the reign of Mehmed V and the prime ministership of Ahmed Muhtar Pasha and Kâmil Pasha.
The Great Eastern Crisis of 1875–78 began in the Ottoman Empire's territories on the Balkan peninsula in 1875, with the outbreak of several uprisings and wars that resulted in the meddling of international powers, and was ended with the Treaty of Berlin in July 1878.
Ahmet Rüstem Bey (1862–1934), born Alfred Bilinski, was an Ottoman diplomat who served as last Ottoman ambassador to the United States in 1914. Despite neither of his parents being ethnically Turkish, he himself was an ardent Turkish nationalist. He was "exceptionally high-strung and outspoken" and had a "propensity to challenge people to duels". Prior to his appointment as ambassador, he had already served twice in the United States capital, both times leaving in a hurry.
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