Saedinenie Snowfield

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Location of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands. Livingston-Island-location-map.png
Location of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.
Saedinenie Snowfield from Miziya Peak, with Teres Ridge in the background. Saedinenie.jpg
Saedinenie Snowfield from Miziya Peak, with Teres Ridge in the background.
The Tangra 2004/05 survey bivouac on Saedinenie Snowfield, by Leslie Hill. Saedinenie-Bivouac.jpg
The Tangra 2004/05 survey bivouac on Saedinenie Snowfield, by Leslie Hill.
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island Livingston-Island-Map-2010-15.png
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island

Saedinenie Snowfield (Bulgarian : ледник Съединение, romanized: lednik Saedinenie, IPA:  [ˈlɛdnik sɐɛdiˈnɛniɛ] ) on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated southwest of Rose Valley Glacier, west of Panega Glacier, northwest of Kaliakra Glacier, north of lower Perunika Glacier and east-northeast of Tundzha Glacier. It is bounded by Teres Ridge to the west, the glacial divide between the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait to the south, Gleaner Heights, Elhovo Gap and Leslie Hill to the southeast, and Leslie Gap and Vidin Heights to the east. The snowfield extends 4.7 km inland and 15.5 km in southwest-northeast direction, and drains into Hero Bay between Melta Point and Slab Point.

Bulgarian language South Slavic language

Bulgarian is a South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria. It is the language of Bulgarians.

Romanization of Bulgarian transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet

Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names and place names in foreign-language contexts, or for informal writing of Bulgarian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by Bulgarian authorities is found, for instance, in identity documents and in road signage. Several different standards of transliteration exist, one of which was chosen and made mandatory for common use by the Bulgarian authorities in a law of 2009.

Livingston Island Island of the South Shetland Islands

Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.

Contents

A survey bivouac in eastern Saedinenie Snowfield near Leslie Hill was occupied 24–28 December 2004.

The feature was named after the Bulgarian town of Saedinenie ('Reunification'), in association with the 120th anniversary of the Reunification of the Principality of Bulgaria and the province of Eastern Rumelia in 1885. This is one of the Bulgarian names bestowed on hitherto nameless geographical features by the Tangra 2004/05 Expedition.

Saedinenie, Plovdiv Province Town in Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Saedinenie is a town in the Plovdiv Province, central Bulgaria. As of 2006 it has 6 302 inhabitants. There is a new electronics plant there with 540 employees.

Principality of Bulgaria principality on the Balkan Peninsula between 1878 and 1908

The Principality of Bulgaria was a de facto independent, and de jure vassal state under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. It was established by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.

Eastern Rumelia autonomous territory in the Ottoman Empire from 1878-1885

Eastern Rumelia was an autonomous territory in the Ottoman Empire, created in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin and de facto ended in 1885, when it was united with the principality of Bulgaria, also under Ottoman suzerainty. It continued to be an Ottoman province de jure until 1908, when Bulgaria declared independence.

Location

The snowfield is centred at 62°32′36″S60°13′38″W / 62.54333°S 60.22722°W / -62.54333; -60.22722 Coordinates: 62°32′36″S60°13′38″W / 62.54333°S 60.22722°W / -62.54333; -60.22722 (Bulgarian topographic survey Tangra 2004/05 and mapping in 2005 and 2009).

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Tangra 2004/05 Bulgarian geographical expedition to Antarctica

The Tangra 2004/05 Expedition was commissioned by the Antarctic Place-names Commission at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, managed by the Manfred Wörner Foundation, and supported by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute, the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian Posts, Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, Peregrine Shipping (Australia), and Petrol Ltd, TNT, Mtel, Bulstrad, Polytours, B. Bekyarov and B. Chernev (Bulgaria).

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Boyana Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Boyana Glacier in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands in Antarctica is situated southeast of Macy Glacier and west-southwest of Srebarna Glacier. It is bounded by Vazov Rock on the west, St. Naum Peak, Starosel Gate, Silistra Knoll and Kotel Gap on the north, and Christoff Cliff on the east. The glacier extends 3 km in east-west direction and 1.6 km in north-south direction, and flows southeastward into the Bransfield Strait between Vazov Point and Aytos Point.

Debelt Glacier glacier in Antarctica

The Debelt Glacier on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated southeast of Rose Valley Glacier and northeast of Panega Glacier. It drains the southeastern slopes of Vidin Heights and flows into Moon Bay between Edinburgh Hill and Helis Nunatak. The glacier extends three km in an east-west direction, and 1.5 km in north-south direction.

Gurev Gap

Gurev Gap is a flat ice-covered saddle of elevation 450 m extending 3 km in south-north direction between Hemus Peak and Gleaner Heights in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Kaliakra Glacier to the east, and Saedinenie Snowfield and Perunika Glacier to the west. It is part of the overland route from the St. Kliment Ohridski Base via the Balkan Snowfield, Rezen Saddle and Perunika Glacier to Varna Peninsula. The saddle was first trekked on 24 December 2004 by the Tangra 2004/05 Survey team from Camp Academia, and was named for Vasil Gurev, physicist at St. Kliment Ohridski in 1994/95 and subsequent seasons.

Kaliakra Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Kaliakra Glacier is a glacier in northeastern Livingston Island, Antarctica extending 3.8 nautical miles in east-west direction and 4.3 nautical miles in north-south direction, and situated southeast of Saedinenie Snowfield, southwest of Panega Glacier, north of Struma Glacier and upper Huron Glacier, and northeast of Perunika Glacier. It is bounded by Melnik Ridge and Bowles Ridge to the south, by Hemus Peak, Gurev Gap, Gleaner Heights, Elhovo Gap, Leslie Hill, Leslie Gap and Radnevo Peak to the west, and Miziya Peak and Samuel Peak to the north. The glacier drains eastwards into Moon Bay south of Perperek Knoll and north of Sindel Point.

Magura Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Magura Glacier on the southeast side of Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is located to the north of M'Kean Point, northeast of Srebarna Glacier, south of Iskar Glacier and southwest of Dobrudzha Glacier. It is bounded by Great Needle Peak to the west, Vitosha Saddle, Vihren Peak and Helmet Peak to the northwest, Plovdiv Peak and Shishman Peak to the north, and Devin Saddle and Kuber Peak to the northeast. The glacier extends 3.5 km in southwest-northeast direction and 1.9 km in northwest-southeast direction, and flows southeastward into Bransfield Strait.

Miziya Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Miziya Peak is the 604 m summit of Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak overlooks Kaliakra Glacier to the south, and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest.

Panega Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Panega Glacier on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated southeast of the northeastern portion of Saedinenie Snowfield, south of Rose Valley Glacier, southwest of Debelt Glacier and north of lower Kaliakra Glacier. It drains the southeast slopes of Vidin Heights and flows into Moon Bay between Helis Nunatak and Perperek Knoll. The glacier extends 2 nautical miles in the southeast-northwest direction, and 1.6 nautical miles in the southwest-northeast direction. It is named after Zlatna Panega River in northern Bulgaria.

Passy Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Passy Peak is a peak of elevation 510 m in Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Panega Glacier to the southeast, Rose Valley Glacier to the northeast, and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest. The peak is named after Solomon Passy in appreciation of his role in organizing the Bulgarian Antarctic campaigns and the upgrade of St. Kliment Ohridski base in 1993-96.

Perunika Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Perunika Glacier is an 8 km long and 3 km wide (average) roughly crescent-shaped glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated east of Pimpirev Glacier, south of Saedinenie Snowfield, southwest of Kaliakra Glacier, west of Huron Glacier, and north of Balkan Snowfield and the head of Huntress Glacier.

Pimpirev Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Pimpirev Glacier on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated south of the glacial divide between the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait, southeast of Tundzha Glacier, southwest of Saedinenie Snowfield, west of Perunika Glacier and east-northeast of Kamchiya Glacier. The feature extends 5.5 km in a southeast-northwest direction, and 1.8 km in northwest-southeast direction. The glacier drains southeastwards towards Pimpirev Beach, mostly terminating on the shore, and on several occasions penetrating the South Bay waters east-northeast of Ereby Point.

Radnevo Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Radnevo Peak is a peak of elevation 481 m forming the southwest extremity of Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Kaliakra Glacier to the southeast and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest. Linked to Leslie Hill by Leslie Gap. The peak is named after the town of Radnevo in Southeastern Bulgaria.

Rose Valley Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Rose Valley Glacier is a glacier on Varna Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated northeast of Saedinenie Snowfield, northwest of Debelt Glacier and north of Panega Glacier. It extends 5.2 km in southeast-northwest direction and 3.7 km in southwest-northeast direction, and drains the northeast slopes of Vidin Heights to flow into Lister Cove and McFarlane Strait between Pomorie Point and Inott Point.

Struma Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Struma Glacier is a glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated south of lower Kaliakra Glacier and north of Huron Glacier. Bounded by Melnik Ridge to the north, Yankov Gap to the west and Bowles Ridge to the south, it is 4.8 km long and 1.5 km wide, and flows eastwards into Moon Bay south of Sindel Point and north of Elemag Point.

Teres Ridge

Teres Ridge is a ridge of elevation 330 m extending 2 km in north-south direction and 1.2 km in east-west direction near Siddins Point on the Hero Bay coast of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica surmounting Tundzha Glacier to the southwest and Saedinenie Snowfield to the southeast and east. Ice-free northeastern and northern slopes.

Tundzha Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Tundzha Glacier is a glacier on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated east-southeast of Berkovitsa Glacier, west of Saedinenie Snowfield, northwest of Pimpirev Glacier, north of Kamchiya Glacier and east-northeast of Verila Glacier. It is bounded by Snow Peak to the west, Teres Ridge to the east and the glacial divide between the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait to the south. The glacier extends 7.5 nautical miles in east-west direction and 2.4 nautical miles in the north-south direction, and drains northwards into Hero Bay between Avitohol Point and Siddins Point.

Vidin Heights

Vidin Heights are predominantly ice-covered heights rising to 604 m on Varna Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The feature is approximately 8 km long from the north end of Leslie Gap east-northeastwards to Inott Point and 9.6 km north-northeastwards to Sayer Nunatak. The summit, Miziya Peak, is located 9.25 km north by east of Mount Bowles, 4.24 km north-northeast of Leslie Hill, 9.47 km south of Williams Point and 7.52 km west of Edinburgh Hill. The heights feature also Samuel Peak 1.9 km east-southeast of Miziya Peak, and Sharp Peak at their east-northeast extremity. The heights surmount Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest, Rose Valley Glacier to the northeast, Debelt Glacier and Panega Glacier to the southeast, and Kaliakra Glacier to the south.

Zemen Knoll

Zemen Knoll is a peak of 453 m in the Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The knoll overlooks Kaliakra Glacier to the southeast, and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest and west. The feature is named after the town of Zemen in Western Bulgaria.

Zograf Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Zograf Peak rises to 1,011 m (3,317 ft) at the northeastern extremity of the Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous and partly ice-free northern slopes. The peak surmounts Huron Glacier to the north and Shipka Valley to the east, and is accessible via the saddle of elevation 975 m linking it to the north rib of Lyaskovets Peak. The peak is linked to the northeast by Lozen Saddle to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak.

Gleaner Heights

The Gleaner Heights are a series of elevations extending for 2 km (1.2 mi) southwest from Leslie Hill in the eastern part of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. They are separated from Leslie Hill by Elhovo Gap, and from Hemus Peak off the northwest extremity of Bowles Ridge by Gurev Gap. The feature is heavily glaciated, with a small rock exposure on its northwest slopes. Gleaner Heights surmount Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest, Kaliakra Glacier to the east and Perunika Glacier to the southwest. The first ascent was by the Bulgarian Doychin Vasilev from Camp Academia on 25 December 2004, as part of Tangra 2004/05 survey.

Zhelyava Hill

Zhelyava Hill is the ice-covered hill of elevation 237 m in the north part of Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is overlooking Williams Point to the north, Rose Valley Glacier to the southeast and Saedinenie Snowfield to the southwest.

References

Antarctic Place-names Commission

The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.


This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.