Safwat Hegazi (sometimes written Safwat Hijazi; Arabic : صفوت حجازى, IPA: [ˈsˤɑfwɑt ħeˈɡæːzi] ) (born 1963) is an Egyptian imam and television preacher who is on the list of "Individuals banned from the UK for stirring up hatred". A supporter of Mohamed Morsi, he was arrested after the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état.
Imam is an Islamic leadership position.
Mohamed Morsi is an Egyptian politician who served as the fifth President of Egypt, from 30 June 2012 to 3 July 2013, when General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi removed Morsi from office in the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état after the June 2013 Egyptian protests.
The 2013 Egyptian coup d'état took place on 3 July 2013. Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi led a coalition to remove the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution of 2012. The move came after the military's ultimatum for the government to "resolve its differences" with protesters during widespread national protests. The military arrested Morsi and Muslim Brotherhood leaders, and declared Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court (Egypt) Adly Mansour as the interim president of Egypt. The announcement was followed by demonstrations and clashes between supporters and opponents of the move throughout Egypt. The military's action was supported by the Grand Sheikh of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, the Coptic Orthodox Pope Tawadros II and opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei.
Safwat Hegazy is a graduate of the Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.
Cairo University is Egypt's premier public university. Its main campus is in Giza, immediately across the Nile from Cairo. It was founded on 21 December 1908; however, after being housed in various parts of Cairo, its faculties, beginning with the Faculty of Arts, were established on its current main campus in Giza in October 1929. It is the second oldest institution of higher education in Egypt after Al Azhar University, notwithstanding the pre-existing higher professional schools that later became constituent colleges of the university. It was founded and funded as the Egyptian University by a committee of private citizens with royal patronage in 1908 and became a state institution under King Fuad I in 1925. In 1940, four years following his death, the University was renamed King Fuad I University in his honor. It was renamed a second time after the Egyptian revolution of 1952. The University currently enrolls approximately 155,000 students in 22 faculties. It counts three Nobel Laureates among its graduates and is one of the 50 largest institutions of higher education in the world by enrollment.
Hegazy was investigated in Egypt in 2006 for issuing a fatwā calling for the death of visiting Israeli officials. He later withdrew the fatwa.Safwat Hegazy has had several court cases brought against him for allegedly insulting women who do not wear the "niqab" full face cover for women; one court case was dropped when he and his lawyers settled out of court.
On December 3, 2008 Hegazy encouraged attacks on Israeli Jews, saying: “Dispatch those sons of apes and pigs to the Hellfire on the wings of Qassam rockets.”
In 2009 he declared in a television interview that Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and the Baha'i Faith were not religions but were "man-made schools of thought". He said Baha'is were a current danger and fought alongside Zionists in 1948.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana.
Zoroastrianism, or Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest religions that remains active. It is a monotheistic faith, centered in a dualistic cosmology of good and evil and an eschatology predicting the ultimate destruction of evil. Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster, it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda, as its Supreme Being. Major features of Zoroastrianism, such as messianism, judgment after death, heaven and hell, and free will have influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism, Gnosticism, Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism.
The government of the United Kingdom declared in 2009 that he is considered to be engaging in unacceptable behaviour by glorifying terrorist violence.
In an address that aired Al-Nas TV on July 11, 2010, Safwat advised parents that "our children sit in front of the computer and the playstation, and play games that will never lead them to wage Jihad."
In 2012, Safwat launched MB candidate Mohamed Morsi's campaign. In his speech to a crowd of hundreds of thousands of Egyptians, Safwat emphasized that Morsi will lead Egypt's campaign to restore the "United States of the Arabs" or "Caliphate" with Jerusalem as its capital, and urged listeners to "awake Jews from their slumber" and chanted that they would march as martyrs toward Jerusalem.During the June 2013 protests against Morsi, Hegazy threatened opposition protesters saying “whoever sprays Morsi with water will be sprayed with blood.”
After Morsi was removed from office by the military coup, prosecutors ordered Safwat's arrest on 10 July 2013.On 14 July 2013 Egypt's military-appointed prosecutor general Hisham Barakat ordered his assets to be frozen. He was arrested on 21 August 2013. On 14 September 2013, Hegazy was acquitted on charges of "inciting violence" at the Muslim Brotherhood headquarters on 30 June 2013. Cairo Criminal Court on 7 December 2013 refused to return a verdict and recused itself in another case involving Hegazy and Mohamed Beltagy citing "embarrassment" as a reason for its decision.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers, better known as the Muslim Brotherhood, is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928. The organization gained supporters throughout the Arab world and influenced other Islamist groups such as Hamas with its "model of political activism combined with Islamic charity work", and in 2012 sponsored the elected political party in Egypt after the January Revolution in 2011. However, it faced periodic government crackdowns for alleged terrorist activities, and as of 2015 is considered a terrorist organization by the governments of Bahrain, Egypt, Russia, Syria, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
Farag Foda, was a prominent professor, writer, columnist, and human rights activist. He was assassinated on 9th of June 1992 by members of Islamist group El Gama'a El Islamya after being accused of blasphemy by a committee of clerics (ulama) at al-Azhar. Foda was one of 202 people killed by "politically motivated assaults" in Egypt between March 1992 and September 1993. In December 1992, his collected works were banned.
The Muslim Brotherhood is an Islamic organization that was founded in Ismailia, Egypt by Hassan al-Banna in March 1928 as an Islamist religious, political, and social movement. The group spread to other Muslim countries but has its largest, or one of its largest, organizations in Egypt, where for many years it has been the largest, best-organized, and most disciplined political opposition force, despite a succession of government crackdowns in 1948, 1954, 1965 after plots, or alleged plots, of assassination and overthrow were uncovered. Following the 2011 Revolution the group was legalized, and in April 2011 it launched a civic political party called the Freedom and Justice Party (Egypt) to contest elections, including the 2012 presidential election when its candidate Mohamed Morsi became Egypt's first democratically elected president. One year later, however, following massive demonstrations, Morsi was overthrown by the military and arrested. As of 2014, the organization has been declared a terrorist group by Russia, Egypt, UAE, Saudi Arabia and is once again suffering a severe crackdown.
Muhammad Rabee al-Zawahiri is an Egyptian Islamist who was a member of Egyptian Islamic Jihad and one of 14 people subjected to extraordinary rendition by the CIA prior to the 2001 War on Terror. He is the younger brother of Al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.
Mohammed Badie is the eighth Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood. He has headed the Egyptian branch of the international Muslim Brotherhood organization since 2010. Before becoming general guide, Badie had been a member of the group's governing council, the Guidance Bureau, since 1996. He was arrested by Egyptian authorities on 20 August 2013. On 28 April 2014, after an eight-minute trial in which Badie could not present his defence, he was sentenced to death, along with 682 others who are allegedly Muslim Brotherhood supporters. He was sentenced to life in prison on 15 September 2014, and was sentenced to death on 11 April 2015, along with thirteen other senior Muslim Brotherhood members. He received a sixth life sentence on 22 August 2015 and a seventh on 8 May 2017.
Mohamed Beltagy is an Egyptian physician and Muslim Brotherhood politician. He was a Member of Parliament from 2005 to 2010, and is currently the general secretary of the Freedom and Justice Party.
In Egypt, the Muslim Brotherhood – a Sunni Islamist religious, political, and social movement – is, or was, considered the largest, best-organized political force in Egypt, with adherents estimated to number between 2 and 2.5 million. Founded in Egypt by Hassan al-Banna in March 1928, the group spread to other Muslim countries but has its largest, or one of its largest, organizations in Egypt, despite a succession of government crackdowns in 1948, 1954, 1965, and 2013 after plots, or alleged plots, of assassination and overthrow were uncovered.
Mohammed Khairat Saad el-Shater is an Egyptian engineer, businessman and Islamist political activist. A leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood, as the Deputy Supreme Guide, el-Shater was the initial candidate of the movement's Freedom and Justice Party during the 2012 Egyptian presidential election before being disqualified by the election commission. Previously, he was the deputy chairman of the Brotherhood.
Following the 2011 Egyptian revolution, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt became one of the main forces contending for political power in Egypt against the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) and other established centers of the former Hosni Mubarak regime.
The following is a chronological summary of the major events that occurred after the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, after Mohamed Morsi's election as the fifth President of Egypt, on 30 June 2012. This article documents the third wave of the Egyptian Crisis.
The 2012–13 Egyptian protests were part of a large scale popular uprising in Egypt against then-President Mohamed Morsi. On 22 November 2012, millions of protesters began protesting against Morsi, after his government announced a temporary constitutional declaration that in effect granted the president unlimited powers. Morsi deemed the decree necessary to protect the elected constituent assembly from a planned dissolution by judges appointed during the Mubarak era.
The Anti-Coup Alliance is a coalition in Egypt formed to defeat the ouster of former president Mohamed Morsi. The coalition is made up of approximately 40 Islamist parties and groups.
Protests against the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état erupted in July 2013. Immediately following the removal of President Mohamed Morsi by the Egyptian Armed Forces on 3 July 2013 amid demonstrations against Morsi's rule, many protesters amassed near the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque to call for Morsi's return to power and condemn the military, while others demonstrated in support of the military and interim government. Deadly clashes such as Rabaa massacre continued for several days, with three particularly bloody incidents being described by Muslim Brotherhood officials as "massacres" perpetrated by security forces. During the month of Ramadan, prime minister Hazem al-Beblawy threatened to disperse the ongoing Pro-Morsi sit-ins in Rabaa al-Adaweya square and al-Nahda square. The government crackdown of these protests occurred in a violent dispersal on 14 August 2013. In mid-August, the violence directed by the army towards the protesters escalated, with hundreds killed, and the government declaring a month-long nighttime curfew.
The Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) is an Egyptian Islamist political party. The ex-president of the party, Mohamed Morsi, won the 2012 presidential election, and in the 2011 parliamentary election it won more seats than any other party. It is nominally independent, but has strong links to the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt, the largest political group in Egypt. The party was banned and dissolved in 2014; however, it continues to function underground.
Hisham Muhammad Zaki Barakat was Prosecutor General of Egypt from 2013 to 2015. During his term as state prosecutor, he was responsible for thousands of controversial prosecutions, including several widely deemed as politically motivated resulting in death sentences for hundreds of Muslim Brotherhood members and supporters of deposed Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi. He was assassinated in a car bombing on 29 June 2015.
Mohamed Abu Samra is the current secretary-general of the Islamic Party, which is the political arm of Egyptian Islamic Jihad. Abu Samra stated in an interview that the Muslim Brotherhood was not successful in applying Sharia and that he supported the changing of the government. However, in an interview with Cairo Al-Akhbar, he called for a revolt if President Mohamed Morsy was deposed. As of September 2013 he was calling for peaceful protests and disavowed the actions of jihadist groups in the Sinai. He called on Egyptian judges to adhere to the law by stopping their strike that occurred in 2012. Abu Sanra said that he would be opposed twords returning Israeli Jews of Egyptian descent to Egypt in response to a comment made by Essam el-Erian, a member of the Freedom and Justice Party and an adviser to then president Mohamed Morsi; he also stated that according to Sharia law, Jews deserve to be fought and killed by Muslims.
Nabil Na'eem Abul Fattah is the founder of the Democratic Jihad Party as well as a contributor to Asharq Al-Awsat. He was also the leader of Egyptian Islamic Jihad from 1988 until 1992.
The raid on Kerdasa took place on September 19, 2013, in Kerdasa when Egyptian security forces stormed the town to cleanse it from alleged terrorist spots. The operation was in response to an earlier massacre on August 14 the same year, where protesters attacked a police station killing eleven security personnel shortly after the Egyptian security forces had launched a violent crackdown and massacre on two protest camps in Cairo where hundreds of supporters of ousted Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi were killed. The raid came a few days after a similar operation in Minya's town of Dalga, and was part of a larger crackdown by the interim government on armed supporters of deposed president Mohamed Morsi.