Sagaing Region

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Sagaing Region

စစ်ကိုင်းတိုင်းဒေသကြီး
Myanma  transcription(s)
   Burmese cac kuing: tuing: desa. kri:
Flag of Sagaing Region (2019).svg
Flag
Logo of Sagaing Region Government.svg
Seal
Sagaing Region in Myanmar.svg
Location of Sagaing Region in Myanmar
Coordinates: 21°30′N95°37′E / 21.500°N 95.617°E / 21.500; 95.617 Coordinates: 21°30′N95°37′E / 21.500°N 95.617°E / 21.500; 95.617
Country Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar
RegionCentral Northwestern
Capital Monywa
Government
  Chief Minister Myint Naing (NLD)
  Cabinet Sagaing Region Government
  Legislature Sagaing Region Hluttaw
  JudiciarySagaing Region High Court
Area
  Total93,704.5 km2 (36,179.5 sq mi)
Area rank 2nd
Population
 (2014) [1]
  Total5,325,347
  Rank 5th
  Density57/km2 (150/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Sagainggese
Demographics
  Ethnicities Bamar, Shan, Naga, Kuki
  Religions Buddhism, Christianity, Animism
Time zone UTC+06:30 (MST)
ISO 3166 code MM-01
HDI (2017)0.547 [2]
low · 9th
Website sagaingregion.gov.mm

Sagaing Region (Burmese : စစ်ကိုင်းတိုင်းဒေသကြီး, pronounced  [zəɡáɪ̯ɰ̃ táɪ̯ɰ̃ dèθa̰ dʑí] , formerly Sagaing Division) is an administrative region of Myanmar, located in the north-western part of the country between latitude 21° 30' north and longitude 94° 97' east. It is bordered by India’s Nagaland, Manipur, and Arunachal Pradesh States to the north, Kachin State, Shan State, and Mandalay Region to the east, Mandalay Region and Magway Region to the south, with the Ayeyarwady River forming a greater part of its eastern and also southern boundary, and Chin State and India to the west. The region has an area of 93,527 km2. In 1996, it had a population of over 5,300,000 while its population in 2012 was 6,600,000. The urban population in 2012 was 1,230,000 and the rural population was 5,360,000. [3] The capital city of Sagaing Region is Monywa.

Contents

Capital City

The Capital city of Sagaing Region is Monywa.

History

The Pyu were the first to in recorded history to populate the area of Sagaing Region by the 1st century CE. The Burmans first migrated into Upper Myanmar by 9th century CE. The area came under the Pagan Kingdom certainly by the middle of 11th century when King Anawrahta (r. 1044–1077) founded the Pagan Empire, which encompasses the modern day Myanmar.

After the fall of Pagan in 1287, the northwestern parts of Upper Myanmar came under the Sagaing Kingdom (1315–1364) ruled by Burmanized Shan kings. The area was ruled by the kings of Ava from 1364 to 1555 and the kings of Taungoo from 1555 to 1752. Konbaung Dynasty (1752–1885), founded by king Alaungpaya in Shwebo, became the last Burmese dynasty before the British conquest of Upper Burma in 1885. The area became Sagaing Division after the Burmese independence in January 1948.

Administrative divisions

Sagaing Region consists of 10 districts divided into 34 townships [4] with 198 wards and villages. The major cities are Sagaing, Shwebo, Monywa, Ye U, Katha, Kale, Tamu, Mawlaik and Hkamti. Mingun with its famous bell is located near Sagaing but can be reached across the Ayeyarwady from Mandalay. The districts are Sagaing, Shwebo, Monywa, Katha, Kale (Kalemyo), Tamu, Mawlaik and Hkamti. [5] The townships [4] are:

In August 2010, [6] three former townships of Sagaing Region were transferred, in accordance with the 2008 constitution, [7] to a new administrative unit the Naga Self-Administered Zone which is no longer part of Sagaing Region. Those townships were Lahe, Leshi and Nanyun. [6]

Government

Executive

Legislature

Judiciary

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1973 3,119,054    
1983 3,862,172+23.8%
2014 5,325,347+37.9%
Source: 2014 Myanmar Census [1]

The Bamar (Burmans) are the majority ethnic group in the dry regions and along the Mandalay-Myitkyina Railroad. Shan live in the upper Chindwin River valley. A sizable minority of Naga resides in the north of north-west mountain ranges and Kuki which includes the Thadou in the south. Smaller ethnic groups native to the Region include the Kadu and Ganang, who live in the upper Mu River valley and Meza River valley. There are also an unknown number of Catholic Bayingyi people (at least 3,000), the descendants of 16th and 17th century Portuguese adventurers and mercenaries, who live in their ancestral villages on the expansive plains of the Mu River valley.

Religion

Religion in Sagaing (2015) [8]

  Buddhism (92.2%)
  Christianity (6.5%)
  Islam (1.1%)
  Other religion (0.1%)
  Hinduism (0.1%)

According to the 2014 Myanmar Census, Buddhists, who make up 92.2% of Sagaing Region’s population, form the largest religious community there. [9] Minority religious communities include Christians (6.6%), Muslims (1.1%), and Hindus (0.1%) who collectively comprise the remainder of Sagaing Region’s population. [9] 0.1% of the population listed no religion, other religions, or were otherwise not enumerated. [9]

According to the State Sangha Maha Nayaka Committee’s 2016 statistics, 55,041 Buddhist monks were registered in Sagaing Region, comprising 10.3% of Myanmar's total Sangha membership, which includes both novice samanera and fully-ordained bhikkhu. [10] The majority of monks belong to the Thudhamma Nikaya (83.8%), followed by Shwegyin Nikaya (16.1%), with the remainder of monks belonging to other small monastic orders. [10] 9,915 thilashin were registered in Sagaing Region, comprising 16.4% of Myanmar’s total thilashin community. [10]

Ecology

There are a number of protected areas in Sagaing Region, among them are Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park, Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, [11] Mahamyaing Wildlife Sanctuary, [12] [13] and Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary in Homalin Township. [14]

Transport

Sagaing Sagaing3.jpg
Sagaing

Hemmed in by two great rivers of Myanmar, the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin, river transport is a common way to move people and cargo. Much of the inland Sagaing Region relies on roads and rail in poor condition.

Economy

Agriculture is the chief occupation. The leading crop is rice, which occupies most of the arable ground. Other crops include wheat, sesame, peanut, pulses, cotton, and tobacco. The region being next to India, depends on the export import business from India. It is the gateway to India for Myanmar. Sagaing is Myanmar’s leading producer of wheat, contributing more than 80% of the country's total production. Forestry is important in the wetter upper regions along the Chindwin River, with teak and other hardwoods extracted. As in other parts of the country, reforestation is not effective enough to maintain sustainable forestry. Important minerals include gold, coal, salt and small amounts of petroleum. Industry includes textiles, copper refining, gold smelting, and a diesel engine plant. The Region has many rice mills, edible oil mills, saw mills, cotton mills, and mechanized weaving factories. Local industry includes earthen pots, silverware, bronze-wares, iron-wares and lacquerware.

Education

Educational opportunities in Myanmar are extremely limited outside the main cities of Yangon and Mandalay. According to official statistics, less than 10% of primary school students in Sagaing Region reach high school. [15]

AY 2002–2003PrimaryMiddleHigh
Schools385419084
Teachers16,10050001600
Students550,000140,00049,000

Sagaing Region has three national "professional" universities in the Monywa University of Economics, Sagaing University of Education and the Sagaing Institute of Education. Monywa University is the main liberal arts university in the region.Sagaing Institute of Education also known Sagaing University of Education is the one of two senior universities of education in Myanmar.

Healthcare

The general state of healthcare in Myanmar is poor. The military government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world. [16] [17] Although healthcare is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment. Moreover, the healthcare infrastructure outside of Yangon and Mandalay is extremely poor. In 2003, Sagaing Region had less than a quarter of the number of hospital beds counted in Yangon Region, with a similar size of population. [18]

2002–2003# Hospitals# Beds
Specialist hospitals00
General hospitals with specialist services2400
General hospitals381168
Health clinics48768
Total882336

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Bago Region Region of Myanmar

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Magway Region Region of Myanmar

Magway Region is an administrative division in central Myanmar. It is the second largest of Myanmar's seven divisions, with an area of 44,820 km2. Pa Del Dam (ပဒဲဆည်) is one of the dams in Aunglan Township, Magway Division. The capital and second largest city of the Magway Division is Magway. The largest city is Pakokku. The major cities of Magway Division are Magway, Pakokku, Chauk, Aunglan, Yenangyaung, Taungdwingyi, Minbu, Thayet and Gangaw.

Chin State State of Myanmar

Chin State is a state in western Myanmar. The 36,019-square-kilometre (13,907 sq mi) Chin State is bordered by Sagaing Division and Magway Division to the east, Rakhine State to the south, Bangladesh to the south-west, and the Indian states of Mizoram to the west and Manipur to the north. The population of Chin state is about 478,801 in 2014 census. The capital of the state is Hakha. The state is a mountainous region with few transportation links. Chin State is sparsely populated and remains one of the least developed areas of the country. Chin State has the highest poverty rate of 73% as per the released figures from the first official survey. The official radio broadcasting dialect of Chin is Falam. There are 53 different subtribes and languages in Chin State. There are nine townships in Chin State. Hakha, Thantlang, Falam, Tedim, Tonzang, Matupi, Mindat, Kanpetlet and Paletwa townships. In 1896, Mindat and Kanpetlet were placed under Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts of British Burma later emerged into Chin hills. Only Paletwa township became a part of Arakan Hill Tracts District of British Burma.

Administrative divisions of Myanmar

Myanmar is divided into twenty-one administrative subdivisions, which include states, regions, union territory, self-administered zones and self-administered division. Following is the table of government subdivisions and its organizational structure based on different states, regions, zones, division and the union territory:

Monywa City in Sagaing Region, Myanmar

Monywa is the largest city in Sagaing Region, Myanmar, located 136 km north-west of Mandalay on the eastern bank of the River Chindwin. Monywa is one of the largest economic cities in Myanmar.

Chindwin River

The Chindwin River is a river flowing entirely in Myanmar, and the largest tributary of the country's main river, the Ayeyarwady. Its official name is also spelled Chindwinn.

Mandalay Region Region of Myanmar

Mandalay Region is an administrative division of Myanmar. It is located in the center of the country, bordering Sagaing Region and Magway Region to the west, Shan State to the east, and Bago Region and Kayin State to the south. The regional capital is Mandalay. To the south of the region lies the national capital of Nay Pyi Taw. The division consists of seven districts, which are subdivided into 28 townships and 2,320 wards and village-tracts.

Pakokku City in Magway Region, Myanmar

Pakokku is the largest city in the Magway Region of Myanmar, also known as Burma. It is situated about 30 km north-east of Bagan on the Irrawaddy River. It is the administration seat of Pakokku Township, Pakokku District and Gangaw District. Pakokku Bridge is part of the India–Myanmar–Thailand Trilateral Highway and is the longest bridge in Myanmar.It is home of the Pakokku airport.

Homalin Town in Sagaing Region, Myanmar

Homalin or Hommalinn is a small town in north-western Burma and capital of the Homalin Township in Hkamti District of the Sagaing Region. The town lies on the Chindwin River and is served by Homalin Airport.

Tanintharyi Region Region of Myanmar

Tanintharyi Region is an administrative region of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. It borders the Andaman Sea to the west and the Tenasserim Hills, beyond which lie Thailand, to the east. To the north is the Mon State. There are many islands off the coast, the large Mergui Archipelago in the southern and central coastal areas and the smaller Moscos Islands off the northern shores. The capital of the division is Dawei (Tavoy). Other important cities include Myeik (Mergui) and Kawthaung. The division covers an area of 43,344.9 km², and had a population of 1,406,434 at the 2014 Census.

Myaung is a town in the Sagaing Region in central Myanmar. It is a crowded and peaceful town where is located on the west bank of the Ayeyarwady River. It is a region between the Rivers of Ayeyarwady and Chindwin. There are many ancient and historical pagodas, monasteries, and places in Myaung Township. Myaung Township is officially demarcated with the neighbour boundaries of Chaung-U in the north-west, of Myinmu in the east and north east. In the township of Myaung, Kyauk Nagar Mountain is very famous, where very ancient rocky statues like the rocky dragon-shaped statues are found, and the Buddhist Region rich of many pagodas is situated. Myaung Township is one of the townships which were historically concerned with King Kyansit like Chaung-U Township. There are also many pagodas or Buddhist temples and monasteries of or built by King Kyansittha at the age of Bagan. It is a crowded town since it is located on the west bank of the river. To get there, there is Myaung-Payeinma Road, turning in from the Monywa-Mandalay one.

Mu River river in Myanmar

Mu River is a river in upper central Myanmar (Burma), and a tributary of the country's chief river the Ayeyarwady. It drains the Kabaw valley and part of the Dry Zone between the Ayeyarwady to the east and its largest tributary Chindwin River to the west, flows directly north to south for about 275 km (171 mi) and enters the Ayeyarwady west of Sagaing near Myinmu.

Shwebo Township Township in Sagaing Region, Burma

Shwebo Township is a township of Shwebo District in the Sagaing Region of Burma (Myanmar). It is located on the plains between the Mu River and the Ayeyarwady River. The ancient palace of King Alaungmintaya is being excavated there. Its administrative seat is the city of Shwebo. As of 2014 it has a population of 266,807. 53.7% of its population is male while 46.3% is female.

Mawlaik District District in Sagaing Region, Burma

Mawlaik District is a district in central Sagaing Division of Burma (Myanmar). Its administrative center is the town of Mawlaik.

Monywa District District in Sagaing Region, Burma

Monywa District is an administrative district in southern Sagaing Division, Burma (Myanmar). Its administrative center is the city of Monywa.

Hkamti Township Township in Sagaing Region, Burma

Hkamti Township or Khamti Township is a township in Hkamti District in the Sagaing Region of Burma (Myanmar). The principal town is Hkamti. As of 2014 the township had a population of 47,658 people and covered an area of 8,174 square kilometres (3,156 sq mi). The township is dominated by the Chindwin River and its tributaries and thickly forested areas. Nearly half the active working population are employed in agriculture, forestry or fishing. The township is a producer of rice, and has reserves of gold and jade being mined.

Shwebo City in Sagaing Region, Myanmar

Shwebo is a city in Sagaing Region, Burma, 110 km north-west of Mandalay between the Irrawaddy and the Mu rivers. The city was the origin of the Konbaung Dynasty, established by King Alaungpaya in 1752, that was the dominant political force in Burma after the mid-18th century. It served as Alaungpaya's capital from 1752 to 1760. As of 2021, it has a population of 88,914.

Mahamyaing Wildlife Sanctuary

Mahamyaing Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in Myanmar's Sagaing Region, covering an area of 1,181 km2 (456 sq mi). It ranges in elevation from 145 to 590 m and was established in 2002 in Kalay and Mawlaik Townships.

Aung Myay Village tract in Sagaing Region, Burma

Aung Myay is a village and village tract in Hkamti Township in Hkamti District in the Sagaing Region of northwestern Burma. It lies on the Nam Tonhtun, a tributary of the Chindwin River. At the time of the 2014 census the village tract had a population of 1366 people.

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