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Saguia el-Hamra (Spanish : Saguía el Hamra, Arabic : الساقية الحمراء, romanized: al-Saqiyah al-Hamra'a, lit. 'Red Canal') was, with Río de Oro, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969. Its name comes from a waterway that goes through the capital. The wadi is inhabited by the Oulad Tidrarin Sahrawi tribe.
Occupying the northern part of Western Sahara, it lay between the 26th parallel north and 27°50'N. The city of Cape Bojador served to divide the regions. Its colonial capital was El Aaiún (Laâyoune),and it also included the city of Smara.
The territory takes its name from an intermittent river, the Saguia el-Hamra, the route of which runs west from south of El Farcya to reach the Atlantic at Laayoune.
The area is roughly 82,000 km (51,000 mi), making it approximately a third of the entire Western Sahara.
Cape Juby is a cape on the coast of southern Morocco, near the border with Western Sahara, directly east of the Canary Islands.
Laâyoune or El Aaiún is the largest city of the disputed territory of Western Sahara, with a population of 217,732 in 2014, and de facto administered by Morocco. The modern city is thought to have been founded by the Spanish captain Antonio de Oro in 1938. In 1940, Spain designated it as the capital of the Spanish Sahara. Laâyoune is the capital of the Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra region administered by Morocco under the supervision of the UN peace-keeping mission in Western Sahara (MINURSO).
Smara is a city in the Moroccan-controlled part of Western Sahara, with a population of 57,035 recorded in the 2014 Moroccan census. It is served by Smara Airport and Smara bus station.
Spanish Sahara, officially the Province of the Sahara between 1958 and 1976, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled by Spain between 1884 and 1976. It had been one of the most recent acquisitions of the Spanish Empire as well as one of its last remaining holdings, which had once extended from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies.
Río de Oro was, with Saguia el-Hamra, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969; it had been taken as a Spanish colonial possession in the late 19th century. Its name seems to come from an east–west river which was supposed to have run through it. The river was thought to have largely dried out – a wadi, as the name indicates – or have disappeared underground.
Bou Craa is a town in Western Sahara, south-east of the main city of El Aaiún. It is inhabited almost exclusively by employees of the Moroccan-controlled Bou Craa phosphate industry.
The Southern Provinces or Moroccan Sahara are the terms used by the Moroccan government for Western Sahara. These two official Moroccan denominations explicitly include all of Western Sahara, which spans three of country's 12 top-level administrative regions. A frequent use of the term "Southern Provinces" is found for example in Moroccan state television.
The Movement for the Liberation of Saguia el Hamra and Wadi el Dhahab, also referred to as the Liberation Movement, Movement for the Liberation of the Sahara, Advanced Organization of the Sahara or simply the Muslim Party was a Sahrawi movement created in the late 1960s by Muhammad Bassiri, a Sahrawi journalist and quranic teacher.
Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra was one of the sixteen regions of Morocco from 1997 to 2015. It was mainly located in the disputed territory of Western Sahara, covered an area of 139,480 square kilometres (53,850 sq mi) and had a population of 301,744. Its capital was Laayoune. In September 2015, the region was combined with Es-Semara Province in Guelmim-Es Semara to form the new region of Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra.
The Western Sahara War was an armed struggle opposing the Sahrawi indigenous Polisario Front to Morocco between 1975 and 1991 and Mauritania from 1975 to 1979, being the most significant phase of the Western Sahara conflict. The conflict erupted after the withdrawal of Spain from the Spanish Sahara in accordance with the Madrid Accords, by which it transferred administrative control of the territory to Morocco and Mauritania, but not sovereignty. In late 1975, the Moroccan government organized the Green March of some 350,000 Moroccan citizens, escorted by around 20,000 troops, who entered Western Sahara, trying to establish a Moroccan presence. While at first met with just minor resistance by the POLISARIO, Morocco later engaged a long period of guerrilla warfare with the Sahrawi nationalists. During the late 1970s, the Polisario Front, desiring to establish an independent state in the territory, attempted to fight both Mauritania and Morocco. In 1979, Mauritania withdrew from the conflict after signing a peace treaty with the POLISARIO. The war continued in low intensity throughout the 1980s, though Morocco made several attempts to take the upper hand in 1989–1991. A cease-fire agreement was finally reached between the Polisario Front and Morocco in September 1991. Some sources put the final death toll between 10,000 and 20,000 people.
El Marsa Arabic: المرسى is a port city in Western Sahara.
Laâyoune is a delineated province in the north-west of Moroccan economic region of Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra, which is situated within the northern part of the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Its population in 2004 was 210,023. In today's limits of the province the population was 199,603. Its main town is Laayoune.
The Saguia el-Hamra is a wadi and intermittent river which rises in the northeast of Western Sahara, some 30 kilometres southeast of Farsia. The wadi continues west, passing close to Haouza and Smara before joining with the intermittent Oued el Khatt just south of Laayoune on the Atlantic coast. The wadi gives its name to the Saguia el-Hamra region.
Tarfaya is a province in the Moroccan economic region of Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra, which includes the southwestern part of the territory of Morocco as of before 1975, and the northern part of the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Its population in 2004 was 10420. Its main town is Tarfaya.
Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra is one of the twelve regions of Morocco. It is mainly located in the disputed territory of Western Sahara: the western part of the region is administered by Morocco and the eastern part by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The region as claimed by Morocco covers an area of 140,018 square kilometres (54,061 sq mi) and had a population of 367,758 as of the 2014 Moroccan census. The capital of the region is Laâyoune.
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic–Spain relations refers to the current and historical relationship between the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and Spain.
Bir Tiguisit, Buir Tiguisit or Bir Tighissit is a locality located in the southern part of Saguia el-Hamra, in Western Sahara. It is located south of Tifariti, near the border with Mauritania. It is currently controlled by the Polisario Front, in the so-called Liberated Territories or Free Zone. The Moroccan authorities have integrated it into the Es-Semara Province in the region of Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra.
The Morocco–Western Sahara border is 444 km in length and runs from Atlantic Ocean in the west, to the tripoint with Algeria in the east. The border has existed purely in a de jure sense since Morocco's annexation of Western Sahara in 1975.
The Mauritania–Western Sahara border is 1,564 kilometres (972 mi) in length and runs from the tripoint with Algeria in the north-east to the Atlantic Ocean in the south-west.
The Algeria–Western Sahara border is 41 km in length and runs from the tripoint with Morocco in the north to the tripoint with Mauritania in the south.
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