Saif al-Islam Gaddafi

Last updated

Saif al-Islam Gaddafi
Personal details
Born
Saif al-Islam Muammar al-Gaddafi
سيف الإسلام معمر القذافي

(1972-06-25) 25 June 1972 (age 47)
Tripoli, Libya
Political party Popular Front for the Liberation of Libya
Alma mater Al Fateh University
Imadec
London School of Economics [1]
Profession Engineer
Website Gaddafi International Charity and Development Foundation
Military service
Allegiance Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Branch/service Libyan Army
Years of service2011
Battles/wars 2011 Libyan civil war

Saif al-Islam Gaddafi (Arabic : سيف الإسلام معمر القذافي; born 25 June 1972) is a Libyan political figure. He is the second son of the former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and his second wife Safia Farkash. Gaddafi was awarded a PhD from the London School of Economics.

Libya Country in north Africa

Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest. The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres (700,000 sq mi), Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, and is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The second-largest city is Benghazi, which is located in eastern Libya.

Muammar Gaddafi Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist

Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi, commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He governed Libya as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977, and then as the "Brotherly Leader" of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011. He was initially ideologically committed to Arab nationalism and Arab socialism but later ruled according to his own Third International Theory.

Safia Farkash El Hadad is the widow of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and former First Lady of Libya, and mother of seven of his eight biological children.

Contents

He was a part of his father's inner circle, performing public relations and diplomatic roles on his behalf. [2] He publicly turned down his father's offer of the country's second highest post and held no official government position. According to American State Department officials in Tripoli, during his father's reign, he was the second most widely recognized person in Libya, being at times the "de facto" Prime Minister, [3] and was mentioned as a possible successor, though he rejected this. [4] An arrest warrant was issued for him on 27 June 2011 by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for charges of crimes against humanity against the Libyan people, for killing and persecuting civilians, [5] under Articles 7(1)(a) and 7(1)(h) of the Rome statute. [6] He denied the charges. [7] As of 2011, Saif El Islam had strong public support from many portions of the Libyan society, as many viewed him as a reformer and a pacifist, contrary to how Western media portrayed him during the revolution. [8]

United States Department of State United States federal executive department responsible for foreign affairs

The United States Department of State (DOS), commonly referred to as the State Department, is a federal executive department responsible for carrying out U.S. foreign policy and international relations. Established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department, its duties include advising the U.S. President, administering the nation's diplomatic missions, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and representing the U.S. at the United Nations.

The International Criminal Court investigation in Libya or the Situation in Libya is an investigation started in March 2011 by the International Criminal Court (ICC) into war crimes and crimes against humanity claimed to have occurred in Libya since 15 February 2011. The initial context of the investigation was the 2011 Libyan Civil War and the time frame of the investigation continued to include the 2019 Western Libya offensive.

Crimes against humanity deliberate attack against civilians

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials. Crimes against humanity have since been prosecuted by other international courts as well as in domestic prosecutions. The law of crimes against humanity has primarily developed through the evolution of customary international law. Crimes against humanity are not codified in an international convention, although there is currently an international effort to establish such a treaty, led by the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative.

Gaddafi was captured in southern Libya by the Zintan militia on 19 November 2011, after the end of the Libyan Civil War, and flown by plane to Zintan. He was sentenced to death on 28 July 2015 by a court in Tripoli for crimes during the civil war, in a widely criticised trial conducted in absentia . He remained in the custody of the de facto independent authorities of Zintan. [9] On 10 June 2017, he was released from prison in Zintan, according to a statement from Abu Bakr al-Siddiq Battalion. [10] Later the same month, his full amnesty was declared by the Tobruk-based government led by Khalifa Haftar. [11] As of May 2018, Gaddafi remained wanted [12] under his ICC arrest warrant for crimes against humanity. [6]

Zintan Town in Tripolitania, Libya

Zintan is one of the biggest cities in north western Libya, situated roughly 136 kilometres (85 mi) southwest of Tripoli, in the area. The city and its surrounding area has a population of approximately 50,000.

Libyan Civil War (2011) 2011 armed conflict in the North African country of Libya

The First Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. The war was preceded by protests in Zawiya on 8 August 2009 and finally ignited by protests in Benghazi beginning on Tuesday, 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security forces that fired on the crowd. The protests escalated into a rebellion that spread across the country, with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing an interim governing body, the National Transitional Council.

Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings. in absentia is Latin for "in the absence". Its meaning varies by jurisdiction and legal system.

Education and career

Saif al-Islam Gaddafi graduated with a bachelor of science degree in engineering science from Tripoli's Al Fateh University in 1994. However, there is another report stating that he is an architect. [13] He earned an MBA from Vienna's Imadec business school in 2000.

Tripoli Capital city in Greater Tripoli, Libya

Tripoli is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.158 million people in 2018. It is located in the northwest of Libya on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean Sea and forming a bay. It includes the port of Tripoli and the country's largest commercial and manufacturing centre. It is also the site of the University of Tripoli. The vast Bab al-Azizia barracks, which includes the former family estate of Muammar Gaddafi, is also located in the city. Colonel Gaddafi largely ruled the country, from his residence in this barracks.

The Master of Business Administration degree originated in the United States in the early 20th century when the country industrialized and companies sought scientific approaches to management. The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business such as accounting, applied statistics, business communication, business ethics, business law, finance, managerial economics, management, entrepreneurship, marketing, supply chain, and operations in a manner most relevant to management analysis and strategy.

Vienna Capital city and state of Austria

Vienna is the federal capital, largest city and one of nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today it is the second largest German-speaking city after Berlin and just before Hamburg. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of Czechia, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.

His paintings made up the bulk of the international Libyan art exhibit, "The Desert is Not Silent" (2002–2005), [14] a show which was supported by a host of international corporations with direct ties to his father's government, among them the ABB Group and Siemens. [15]

ABB Group multinational corporation operating in robotics, power and automation technology

ABB is a Swiss-Swedish multinational corporation headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, operating mainly in robotics, power, heavy electrical equipment and automation technology areas. It is ranked 341st in the Fortune Global 500 list of 2018 and has been a global Fortune 500 company for 24 years.

Siemens AG (Aktiengesellschaft) is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

Gaddafi was awarded a PhD degree in 2008 from the London School of Economics, where he attended amid a series of contacts between the school and the Libyan political establishment. He presented a thesis on "The role of civil society in the democratisation of global governance institutions: from 'soft power' to collective decision-making?" [16] [17] Examined by Meghnad Desai (London School of Economics) and Anthony McGrew (University of Southampton), among the LSE academics acknowledged in the thesis as directly assisting with it were Nancy Cartwright, David Held and Alex Voorhoeve (the son of former Dutch minister Joris Voorhoeve). Professor Joseph Nye of Harvard University is also thanked for having read portions of the manuscript and providing advice and direction. [18] [19] Furthermore, allegations abound that Saif's thesis was in many parts ghost-written by consultants from Monitor Group, which earned $3 million per year in fees from Muammar Gaddafi. [20]

London School of Economics Public research university in Westminster, central London, England

The London School of Economics is a public research university located in London, England, and a member institution of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, and George Bernard Shaw for the betterment of society, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the University in 1901. The LSE started awarding its own degrees in 2008, prior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London.

Meghnad Desai, Baron Desai British economist and politician

Meghnad Jagdishchandra Desai, Baron Desai, is a British economist and Labour politician. He stood unsuccessfully for the position of Lord Speaker in the British House of Lords in 2011, the first ever non-UK born candidate to do so. He has been awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award in the Republic of India, in 2008.

University of Southampton research university located in Southampton, England

The University of Southampton is a research university in Southampton, England. The university's origins date back to the founding of the Hartley Institution in 1862. In 1902, the Institution developed into the Hartley University College, awarding degrees from the University of London. On 29 April 1952, the institution was granted full university status, allowing it to award its own degrees.

Speaking in Sabha on 20 August 2008, Gaddafi said that he would no longer involve himself in state affairs. He noted that he had previously "intervene[d] due to the absence of institutions", [21] but said that he would no longer do so. He dismissed any potential suggestion that this decision was due to disagreement with his father, saying that they were on good terms. He also called for political reforms within the context of the Jamahiriya system and rejected the notion that he could succeed his father, saying that "this is not a farm to inherit". [21]

Charity and social affairs

Gaddafi was the president of the Libyan National Association for Drugs and Narcotics Control (DNAG). In 1998, [22] he founded the official charity, the Gaddafi International Foundation for Charity Associations, which intervened in various hostage situations involving Islamic militants and the crisis of the HIV trial in Libya and the resulting European Union-Libyan rapprochement.

In 2009, both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch were allowed entry to Libya, via Gaddafi's non-profit organization in order to gather facts about the human rights situation in Libya. [23] [24] While AI and HRW reported that there were concerns about the "repressive atmosphere," both felt there were signs of "improvement" and HRW said that one should not "underestimate the importance of the efforts made so far" by Gaddafi in the realm of human rights in Libya. [25]

In December 2010, Gaddafi announced that his charity foundation "will no longer be involved in promoting human rights and political change in the North African country," and that instead, it "will focus on its 'core charitable mission' of delivering aid and relief to sub-Saharan Africa." [26]

International diplomacy

Gaddafi was instrumental in negotiations that led to Libya's abandoning a weapons of mass destruction programme in 2002–2003. He arranged several important business deals on behalf of the Libyan regime in the period of rapprochement that followed. He was viewed as a reformer, and openly criticised the regime: [27]

[a] congressional aide asked him what Libya needed most. His one-word answer: democracy.

"You mean Libya needs more democracy?" the aide asked.

"No. 'More democracy' would imply that we had some," Gaddafi said.

In 2003, he published a report critical of Libya's record on human rights.

On 10 December 2004, shortly before a trip by Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin to Tripoli, in an interview with The Globe and Mail Gaddafi requested a formal apology from the Canadian government, for joining U.S.-led sanctions against Libya after the Lockerbie bombing, and for denying him a student visa to study in Canada in 1997. His request was met with incredulity in Canada, and the Canadian government announced that no apology would be forthcoming.

HIV trial

In her book Notes from Hell Chervianashka confirms torture during the HIV trial, and describes Saif al-Islam's role in the process Notes from Hell 2014 eBook edition.jpg
In her book Notes from Hell Chervianashka confirms torture during the HIV trial, and describes Saif al-Islam's role in the process

Gaddafi played an important role in the HIV trial in Libya. At first he rejected information the medics were tortured. "During this time we saw Gaddafi's son on a television broadcast categorically denying that Libya still tortured suspected criminals", claims Valya Chervianashka, one of the accused nurses in her auto-biography. Later he admitted in interviews that the Bulgarian nurses, charged with conspiring to deliberately infect over 400 children with HIV in 1998, had been tortured and that the government had denied them a fair trial. His admissions were said to have badly damaged his reputation in Libya. [3]

The torture process is confirmed and described in details in the book Notes from Hell , [28] co-written by one of the nurses, Valya Chervianashka. Saif al-Islam was mentioned several times in the book. According to her:

One day, the executive director of Muammar al-Gaddafi's son's foundation, the Gaddafi International Foundation for Charity Associations (GICDF), arrived at the prison, inviting us to the director's office of the women's wing for a meeting. We were in our pyjamas, dishevelled and unprepared. We hastily put on some clothes and hurried to meet the director. A Libyan man along with Ambassador Lyudmil Spassov and Roumen Petrov waited for us outside the office. The Ambassador told us, "This is a very important person. He will help you; he is on your side." Saleh Abdel Salam, executive director of GICDF, was intimidating. We didn't realise it then, but this Libyan man would indeed help us in the future.

Isratine proposal

Saif introduced the Isratine proposal to permanently resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict through a secular, federalist, republican one-state solution. [29]

Philippine peace process

Gaddafi served as Chairman of the Gaddafi International Foundation for Charitable Associations. In this role, he was involved in a number of humanitarian initiatives. Notably, he hosted peace talks between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in Tripoli. [30] In the resulting peace agreement concluded on 22 June 2001, Gaddafi was expressly thanked for his involvement. [30] He was also the witness to the signing of the peace agreement. [30] The peace agreement forms a part of the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro concluded in 2014. [31]

2008 agreement with Italy

Gaddafi was involved in negotiating compensation from Libya's former colonial power, Italy, and on 30 August 2008 a Friendship, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement was signed in Benghazi by his father and Italy's prime minister Silvio Berlusconi. [32] However, the treaty was unilaterally suspended by Italy at the beginning of 2011, after Italy refused to consider Gaddafi government as their interlocutor. [33]

Compensation for American terror victims

He was also negotiating with the United States in order to conclude a comprehensive agreement making any further payments for American victims of terror attacks that have been blamed on Libya – such as the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing, the 1988 Lockerbie bombing and the 1989 UTA Flight 772 bombing – conditional upon U.S. payment of compensation for the 40 Libyans killed and 220 injured in the 1986 United States bombing of Tripoli and Benghazi. On 14 August 2008, the U.S.-Libya Comprehensive Claims Settlement Agreement was signed in Tripoli. Former British Ambassador to Libya Oliver Miles described the agreement as "a bold step, with political cost for both parties" and wrote an article in the online edition of The Guardian querying whether the agreement is likely to work. [34]

In an August 2008 BBC TV interview, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi said that Libya had admitted responsibility (but not "guilt") for the Lockerbie bombing simply to get trade sanctions removed. He further admitted that Libya was being "hypocritical" and was "playing on words", but said Libya had no other choice on the matter. According to Gaddafi, a letter admitting "responsibility" was the only way to end the economic sanctions imposed on Libya. When asked about the $10m (£5.3m) compensation that Libya was paying to each victims' family, he again repeated that Libya was doing so because it had no other choice. He went on to describe the families of the Lockerbie victims as "trading with the blood of their sons and daughters" and being very "greedy", saying, "They were asking for more money and more money and more money". [35]

Diplomacy for extraditing Libyans

Interviewed by French newspaper Le Figaro on 7 December 2007, Gaddafi said that the seven Libyans convicted for the Pan Am Flight 103 and the UTA Flight 772 bombings "are innocent". [36] When asked if Libya would therefore seek reimbursement of the compensation paid to the families of the victims (US$2.33 billion), Gaddafi replied: "I don't know." [36] Gaddafi led negotiations with Britain for the release of Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, the convicted Pan Am 103 conspirator. [27]

In 2007, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi met with French President Nicolas Sarkozy in Tripoli, with whom it is alleged he helped broker an arms deal, including missiles. [37] [38] [39]

In November 2008, Gaddafi made a high-profile visit to the United States where he met with US Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice. During the meeting, Rice raised the case of Libya's jailed political dissident and democracy activist, Fathi El-Jahmi. [40] In a Forbes article in 2009, Fathi's brother wrote that "for nearly a year, both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch hesitated to advocate publicly for Fathi's case, because they feared their case workers might lose access to Libyan visas." [41]

In 2009, Saif al-Islam welcomed Sarah Leah Whitson, director of Human Rights Watch's Middle East division, into Libya, accompanying her in meeting with many government officials and others during her visit. She wrote of her official visit that "the real impetus for the transformation rests squarely with a quasi-governmental organization, the Qaddafi Foundation for International Charities and Development" chaired by Gaddafi. She praised Gaddafi for establishing the country's two semi-private newspapers, and said "it is impossible to underestimate the importance of the efforts made so far. Let's hope this spring will last." [42]

Stand-off with US officials

In 2009, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi claimed that Libya's opinion of him was shaped largely by his role in Libya's engagement with the West, saying "If something goes wrong, people will blame me, whether I am in a certain official position or not." He expressed frustration with the US, saying Libya's decision to give up its Weapons of Mass Destruction programs was contingent upon "compensation" from the US, including the signing of the Trade and Investment Framework Agreement, economic cooperation, and cooperation in purchasing conventional weapons and military equipment. He stated, "We share rich natural resources – oil and gas – along the borders, yet we have no capacity to defend that wealth." Because of a US legal embargo, Libya cannot purchase weapons from the United States, Sweden, or Germany, and has been disallowed from buying "Tiger" vehicles with American-manufactured engines from Jordan. He asked for greater military assistance, as Libya had committed itself to destroying chemical stockpiles, but would require at least $25 million to do so. Gaddafi said the United States had "humiliated" his father during his visit to New York in 2009, and said that his father's tent and residence issues were disappointing and his UN speech had been misinterpreted. Gaddafi said that his father was barred from visiting Ground Zero, which also frustrated him. Gaddafi held a standoff with US officials in November 2009, refusing to send a shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium back to Russia unless the United States renewed its commitment to cooperation with Libya. [43]

Libyan civil war

Activities

On 19 February, several days after the conflict began, Saif al-Islam announced the creation of a commission of inquiry into the violence, chaired by a Libyan judge, as reported on state television. He stated that the commission was intended to be "for members of Libyan and foreign organizations of human rights" and that it would "investigate the circumstances and events that have caused many victims." [44] Later in the month, he went on state television to deny allegations that the government had launched airstrikes against Libyan cities and stated that the number of protesters killed had been exaggerated. [45]

On 20 February 2011, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi delivered an address to the nation on Libyan state television stating that if no agreement could be found between protesters and the government "thousands of deaths, and rivers of blood will run through Libya". He also insisted that his father remained in charge with the army's backing and would "fight until the last man, the last woman, the last bullet." [46] Speaking on Libyan state TV, Saif al-Islam blamed the civil war on tribal factions and Islamists acting on their own agendas, drunken and drugged.[ clarification needed ] He promised reforms, and said the alternative would be civil war blocking trade and oil money and leading to the country being taken over by foreigners. [47] He closed by saying, "We will not let Al Jazeera, Al Arabiya and BBC trick us." Oliver Miles, a former British Ambassador to Libya, disagreed with his assessment. [48] [49] In an interview with ABC News reporter Christiane Amanpour, Saif al-Islam denied that his father's regime was killing civilians. [50]

In June 2011, Saif al-Islam and his father, Muammar, announced that they were willing to hold elections and that Muammar Gaddafi would step aside if he lost. Saif al-Islam stated that the elections could be held within three months and transparency would be guaranteed through international observers. NATO and the rebels rejected the offer, and NATO soon resumed their bombardment of Tripoli. [51]

On 27 June, an arrest warrant was issued by the ICC. [52] On 1 July, Saif al-Islam had an interview with Russia Today , where he denied the ICC's allegations that he, or his father, ordered the killing of civilian protesters. He pointed out that he was not a member of the government or the military, and therefore had no authority to give such orders. According to Saif al-Islam, he made recorded calls to General Abdul Fatah Younis, who later defected to the rebel forces, requesting him not to use force against protesters, to which Younis responded that the protestors were attacking a military site, where surprised guards fired in self-defence. Saif al-Islam condemned NATO for bombing Libyan civilians, including his family members and their children, under the false pretence that their homes were military bases. He stated that NATO offered to drop the ICC charges against him and his father if they accept a secret deal, an offer they rejected. He thus criticised the ICC as "a fake court" controlled by NATO member states. [7] [53]

In August, Saif al-Islam gave an interview to the New York Times stating that Libya was becoming more closely aligned to Islamists and would likely resemble Iran or Saudi Arabia. Saif al-Islam said that his father was working closely with Islamists within the rebellion to splinter the resistance. [54]

On 21 August, the National Transitional Council claimed that Saif al-Islam was arrested by the National Liberation Army, pursuant to an arrest warrant issued by the International Criminal Court. [55] However, on the early morning of 23 August, Saif al-Islam was seen by Western journalists apparently moving around under his own free will outside the Rixos Hotel. [56] [57]

After the fall of Tripoli, Saif al-Islam went to Bani Walid.{بني وليد} His brother, Al-Saadi contacted CNN, stating that he had the authority to negotiate on behalf of loyalist forces, and wished to discuss a ceasefire. [58] On 5 September, Al-Saadi said in an interview with CNN that an "aggressive" speech by his brother Saif al-Islam had led to the breakdown of the negotiations between NTC forces and Gaddafi loyalists in Bani Walid. Saif al-Islam stayed in Bani Walid until the town was captured by NTC forces. [59]

On 17 October, after leaving Bani Walid, his convoy was hit by a NATO air attack at Wadi Zamzam where he lost 26 of his supporters and 9 military vehicles. [60] His right hand was wounded and according to his own explanation it happened during the NATO air strike. According to the Libyan Al Mashhad Al Leebi program, the fingers of his right hand were cut off. [61]

Capture

With the death of Muammar and Mutassim Gaddafi in Sirte on 20 October 2011, Saif al-Islam was the only member of the Gaddafi family left in Libya. He appeared on Syrian pro-Gaddafi television on 22 October claiming "I am in Libya, I am alive and free and willing to fight to the end and take revenge", [62] but his whereabouts were unknown and subject to many rumours.

An international team of lawyers representing the interests of Saif al-Islam wrote to US leaders demanding that he be protected from assassination and holding the United States and NATO responsible for the Libyan leader's "brutal assassination" and repeated attacks on Libya's civilian population. [63]

On 19 November 2011, as Saif al-Islam was trying to flee from Libya, he and four aides were captured, [64] and detained about 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of the town of Ubari near Sabha in southern Libya, 640 kilometres (400 mi) from Tripoli. [65] Sources say that it was the betrayal by a Libyan nomad, Yussef Saleh al-Hotmani, that finally led to his capture. Yussef Saleh al-Hotmani told the interviewers that he was hired to guide a man to Niger and that he was offered €1 million for the job. Being offered such a huge sum of money, he suspected foul play as Saif's agent did not tell him whom he was going to guide. He contacted the rebel fighters and told them where a two vehicle convoy would pass through southern Libya on the night of 18 November and this allowed the rebel fighters to ambush the convoy. Saif was taken to Zintan by plane and, pending trial, he was kept in detention by the Zintan-militia that captured him. [66]

Criminal charges and trials

Based on his outstanding warrant the International Criminal Court (ICC) asked the new government about Saif al-Islam Gaddafi's detention. [65] The new government was unable or unwilling to comply with the ICC's information requests regarding Saif al-Islam. [67] New deadlines for information requests from the ICC were also missed. A brief filed by the Office of Public Counsel for the Defence on behalf of Gaddafi claimed that "there is no basis for asserting that the ICC should defer the case to Libya". [68] The brief requested the court to order Libya to immediately implement Gaddafi's rights, and report Libya to the Security Council if it does not. [68]

In August 2012, the Libyan government announced that Saif al-Islam would stand trial in the western Libyan town of Zintan, in September 2012. [69] However, the trial was subsequently delayed. On 17 January 2013, Saif al-Islam appeared in court in Zintan. [70] However, trial was again delayed, and it wasn't until April 2014 that Saif al-Islam Gaddafi appeared in court in Tripoli, via video link for security reasons. [71]

Libya appealed his extradition to the Hague Court (ICC), but the court affirmed the indictments. [72] The court held that the Libyan government failed to show that Saif al-Islam faced the same charges in Libya as he did in the ICC. [72]

On July 28, 2015, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi was sentenced to death in absentia for war crimes by the "self-declared government" in Tripoli, Libya (he was being held in Zintan, not where the trial was held). However, the Zintan authorities have consistently refused to either hand him over to the Tripoli authorities or to implement their sentence. The trial and the sentence have been criticised by the United Nations human rights office (OHCHR) and by Human Rights Watch. [73] [74] [75]

In July 2016, one of his lawyers Karim Khan claimed that his client had been freed on 12 April of that year and transferred to a secret location after the government quashed his sentence, and that he would petition the ICC to drop all charges against him. [76] A Zintan military source denied that he had been released. [77]

In May 2017 Saif al-Islam survived an assassination attempt in Zintan by local militias. [78]

Release and ICC arrest warrant

On 10 June 2017, Saif al-Islam was released from prison in Zintan, according to a statement from Abu Bakr al-Siddiq Battalion. [10] The militia chose not to transfer him to the custody of the International Criminal Court, saying "We are not concerned with the international tribunal as the ICC did not ask us to hand him over". [78] The UN-backed Libyan government based in Tripoli condemned his release while an ICC prosecutor was still trying to verify the release, and called on Libya and other states to arrest and surrender him, stating "Libya is obliged to immediately arrest and surrender Mr Gaddafi [...] regardless of any purported amnesty law." [79] [80]

In May 2018, the ICC reminded Libyan authorities of the arrest warrant issued against Saif al-Islam, [6] calling for him to be arrested and transferred to the custody of the ICC. The ICC also called for "credible information" that could lead to finding his location. [12]

2019 presidential run

Gaddafi announced on 22 March 2018 from Tunis that he will run for the post of president in the next Libyan general election under the Popular Front for the Liberation of Libya (PFLL). Ayman Abu Ras, a spokesperson for the party, said that Gaddafi wished to focus on a programme of "reform" focused on reconstruction projects that would benefit all Libyans. [81] [82]

Personal life

In 2006, the German newspaper Der Spiegel and the Spanish newspaper La Voz de Galicia reported that Saif al-Islam was romantically linked to Orly Weinerman, an Israeli actress and model, they dated from 2005-2011. [83] [84] At the time, Weinerman publicly denied having any contact whatsoever with Saif al-Islam, but she has since admitted it, and in September 2012, she asked former British Prime Minister Tony Blair to intervene in his trial in order to spare his life. [85] [86]

In 2009, a party in Montenegro for his 37th birthday included well-known guests such as Oleg Deripaska, Peter Munk and Prince Albert of Monaco. [87]

British society

In the 2000s, Saif al-Islam was hosted at Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle by the British royal family. [88] In 2011, he referred to former Prime Minister Tony Blair as a personal friend; Blair took an interest in advising Libya on oil revenues and finance. [89] In 2009, he spent a weekend at Waddesdon Manor, home of financier Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild, where he was the guest of Lord Mandelson and Nathaniel Philip Rothschild. He later stayed at the Rothschild holiday home in Corfu. Nathaniel Rothschild was a guest at Saif's 37th birthday celebration in Montenegro. [88] [89] [90]

Saif al-Islam received his PhD from the London School of Economics (LSE) in 2008. [91] Through the Gaddafi International Charity and Development Foundation (GICDF), Saif pledged a donation of £1.5 million to support the work of the LSE's Centre for the Study of Global Governance on civil society organisations in North Africa. Following the LSE Libya Links affair, the LSE issued a statement indicating that it would cut all financial ties with the country and would accept no further money from the GICDF, having already received and spent the first £300,000 instalment of the donation. [92]

Critics have charged that Gaddafi plagiarized portions of his doctoral dissertation and pressure was put on the LSE to revoke his degree. [93] The LSE set up a review process to evaluate the plagiarism charges [94] in early 2011. [95] [96] In November 2011, the review panel concluded that the PhD should not be revoked. [97]

See also

Related Research Articles

Politics of Libya

The Politics of Libya is in an uncertain state due to the collapse of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in 2011 and an ongoing civil war between the Council of Deputies in Tobruk and its supporters, the New General National Congress in Tripoli and its supporters, and various jihadists and tribal elements controlling parts of the country.

Al-Saadi Muammar Gaddafi, is the third son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. He is a Libyan former association football player. In 2011, he was the commander of Libya's Special Forces and was involved in the Libyan Civil War. An Interpol notice was issued against him in 2011. On 5 March 2014, he was arrested in Niger and extradited to Libya, where he faced murder charges, of which he was cleared in 2018. In August 2015, video surfaced allegedly showing Gaddafi being tortured.

Gaddafi International Foundation for Charity Associations organization

The Gaddafi International Charity and Development Foundation, known also as GIFCA, was an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) with headquarters formerly located in the Libyan capital Tripoli and offices in Chad, Germany, the Philippines and Sudan. GICDF was established in 1998 upon signature of its charter in Geneva, Switzerland. The president of the Foundation was Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, a son of the former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.

Mustafa Abdul Jalil Libyan politician

Mustafa Abdul Jalil is a Libyan politician who was the Chairman of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 until its dissolution on 8 August 2012. This position meant he was de facto head of state during a transitional period after the fall of Muammar Gaddafi's government in the Libyan Civil War, and until the handover of power to the General National Congress.

Bab al-Azizia barracks

Bab al-Azizia, "The Splendid Gate", is a military barracks and compound situated in the southern suburbs of Tripoli, the capital of Libya. It served as the main base for the Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi until its capture by anti-Gaddafi forces on 23 August 2011, during the Battle of Tripoli in the Libyan Civil War.

Abdullah (al) Senussi is a Libyan national who was the intelligence chief and brother-in-law of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi. He was married to Gaddafi's sister-in-law.

Khamis Gaddafi was the seventh and youngest son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, and the military commander in charge of the Khamis Brigade of the Libyan Army. He was part of his father's inner circle. During the Libyan Civil War in 2011, he was a major target for opposition forces trying to overthrow his father.

Saif al-Arab Gaddafi was the sixth son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. From around 2006 to 2010, Saif al-Arab spent much of his time in Munich. On 30 April 2011, the Libyan government reported that Saif al-Arab and three of his young nieces and nephews were killed by a NATO airstrike on his house during the Libyan Civil War. During the beginning of the uprising, Saif al-Arab was put in charge of military forces by his father in order to put down protesters in Benghazi. Saif al-Arab was viewed as the most low-profile of Gaddafi's eight children.

The affair of the LSE Libya Links refers to the various connections that existed between the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) and the Libyan government and its leader Muammar Gaddafi and his son Saif al-Islam Gaddafi. The NGO Gaddafi Foundation pledged to donate £1.5 million over five years to a research centre, LSE Global Governance, of which £300k were paid. In addition, LSE Enterprise established a contract worth £2.2 million to train Libyan officials. In 2008, the LSE granted a PhD degree to Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, the son of the Libyan leader, for a dissertation. Currently, allegations circulate that Gaddafi's thesis was ghost-written and/or plagiarised. In December 2010, Muammar Gaddafi addressed members of the School in a video link-up where he was addressed as "Brother Leader" and received an LSE cap previously given to Nelson Mandela.

Moussa Ibrahim LIbyan politician

Moussa Ibrahim is a Libyan political figure who rose to international attention in 2011 as Muammar Gaddafi's Information Minister and official spokesman, serving in this role until the government was toppled in the Libyan Civil War. Ibrahim held frequent press conferences in the course of the war, denouncing rebel forces and the NATO-led military intervention, often in defiant and impassioned tones. His status and whereabouts remained unknown following the Battle of Tripoli in which the Gaddafi government was overthrown, although there were several claims and subsequent refutations of his capture. Eventually, in late 2014, it was discovered he was in Egypt before he was deported and fled to Serbia. On 12 January 2015 Moussa Ibrahim spoke publicly by video link at a political event hosted at the Committee Rooms Houses of Parliament, Westminster, London from an undisclosed location, also the Director of Private Security Company.

Battle of Tripoli (2011) battle of the Libyan Civil War

The Battle of Tripoli was a military confrontation in Tripoli, Libya, between loyalists of Muammar Gaddafi, the longtime leader of Libya, and the National Transitional Council, which was attempting to overthrow Gaddafi and take control of the capital. The battle began on 20 August 2011, six months after the Libyan Civil War started, with an uprising within the city; rebel forces outside the city planned an offensive to link up with elements within Tripoli, and eventually take control of the nation's capital.

Aftermath of the 2011 Libyan Civil War

The aftermath of the Libyan Civil War has been characterized by marked change in the social and political order of Libya after the overthrow and killing of Muammar Gaddafi in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. The country has been subject to ongoing proliferation of weapons, Islamic insurgencies, sectarian violence, and lawlessness, with spillovers affecting neighboring countries including Mali.

Death of Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Gaddafis death

Muammar Gaddafi, the deposed leader of Libya, was captured and killed on 20 October 2011 during the Battle of Sirte. Gaddafi was found hiding in a culvert west of Sirte and captured by National Transitional Council forces. He was killed shortly afterwards. The NTC initially claimed he died from injuries sustained in a firefight when loyalist forces attempted to free him, although a graphic video of his last moments show rebel fighters beating him and one of them sodomizing him with a bayonet before he was shot several times as he pleaded for his life.

Osama al-Juwaili Libyan Defence Minister

Major General Osama al-Juwaili is a Libyan military officer who served as Minister of Defence in the government of Abdurrahim El-Keib, Libya's interim Prime Minister. Since the formation of the Government of National Accord (GNA) in 2015, al-Juwaili served it as a senior commander, since 2017 being the commander of the Western Military Zone. On 6 April 2019 he became the commander of the joint operations room, created by Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj to coordinate military operations since the start of the 2019 Western Libya offensive.

Gaddafi loyalism

Gaddafi loyalism refers to sympathetic sentiment towards the overthrown government of Muammar Gaddafi, who was killed in October 2011. It has been responsible for some of the ongoing violence in Libya, though the degree of its involvement has been disputed in a number of instances.

Melinda Taylor is an Australian criminal lawyer who was arrested and detained in Libya in 2012 after being assigned by the International Criminal Court to defend Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, the son of Muammar Gaddafi.

References

  1. Thomas, Landon (28 February 2010). "Unknotting Father's Reins in Hope of 'Reinventing' Libya". New York Times .
  2. "Inside Gaddafi's inner circle". Al Jazeera. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  3. 1 2 McLean, Alan; Shane, Scott; Tse, Archie (28 November 2010). "A Selection From the Cache of Diplomatic Dispatches". New York Times.
  4. "The Politics of Blackmail". Newsweek. 13 September 2008. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  5. "War crimes court issues Gaddafi arrest warrant".
  6. 1 2 3 "Situation in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya — Public — Warrant of Arrest for Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi" (PDF). International Criminal Court. 27 June 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  7. 1 2 "Gaddafi's son: Libya like McDonald's for NATO – fast war as fast food". Russia Today. 1 July 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
  8. Internationalist 360° (13 June 2017). "LPNM: The Libyan People Support Saif al-Islam Qaddafi". LIBYAN REVOLUTIONARY COMMITTEES MOVEMENT. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  9. "Libya trial: Gaddafi son sentenced to death over war crimes". BBC. BBC. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  10. 1 2 "Saif al-Islam Gaddafi freed from prison in Zintan". Al Jazeera. 11 June 2017.
  11. Xypolia, Ilia. "News of Saif al-Islam's release: regional politics fuels rumour mill in Libya". News24. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  12. 1 2 The Office of the Prosecutor (9 May 2018). "Fifteenth report of the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court to the United Nations Security Council pursuant to UNSCR 1970 (2011)" (PDF). International Criminal Court. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  13. Afiouni, Nevine (26 October 2011). "Qaddafi's children as controversial as father". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  14. The Desert Is Not Silent, Internet Archive record, Historical index.
  15. Commercial partners of "The Desert Is Not Silent", Internet Archive record, 29 June 2007.
  16. Alqadhafi, Saif Al-Islam, The role of civil society in the democratisation of global governance institutions: from "soft power" to collective decision-making? Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine , London School of Economics Library, 2008.
  17. Gaddafi son calls for democracy , BBC News, 16 September 2009.
  18. Desai, Meghnad (2011) LSE is paying a heavy price for Saif Gaddafi's PhD: When it comes to Saif Gaddafi and his PhD, hindsight is indeed a wonderful thing, The Guardian, Friday 4 March 2011
  19. Alqadhafi, Saif Al-Islam (2008) The role of civil society in the democratisation of global governance institutions: from "soft power" to collective decision-making? A thesis submitted to the Department of Philosophy of the London School of Economics for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, London, September 2007, and published 2008, p.4.
  20. Sherwin, Adam (2 March 2011). "Gaddafi son plagiarised his thesis at LSE". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  21. 1 2 "Qaddafi's son declares he's leaving politics", Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 22 August 2008.
  22. "Listing on Global Hand" . Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  23. "LIBYA: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL COMPLETES FIRST FACT-FINDING VISIT IN OVER FIVE YEARS" . Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  24. "Libya: In Repressive Atmosphere, Pockets of Improvement" . Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  25. "Tripoli Spring - How Libya's behind-the-scenes reformer is actually, well, reforming". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  26. Ian Black. "Gaddafi's son retreats on human rights in Libya". the Guardian. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  27. 1 2 James Verini (22 May 2011). "The Good Bad Son" . Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  28. "Creative Writing (page 1)". www.goodreads.com. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  29. "White Book (ISRATIN)". 8 May 2003. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  30. 1 2 3 Agreement on Peace between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front dated 2 June 2001
  31. Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro
  32. VOA: Italy to Pay $5 Billion to Libya in Landmark Accord, 30 August 2008, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Italy.
  33. "Italy suspends friendship treaty with Libya". CNN. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  34. Miles, Oliver (16 August 2008). "The long road to normalisation". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
  35. "Lockerbie evidence not disclosed". BBC. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
  36. 1 2 ‹See Tfd› (in French) Seif el-Islam Kadhafi : "La Libye sera un pays heureux", Le Figaro , 7 December 2007.
  37. "Sarkozy denies weapons deals to Libya", Jerusalem Post . 4 August 2007. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  38. "EADS confirms it is selling military equipment to Libya", New York Times. 3 August 2007. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  39. "Profile: Colonel Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam", The Telegraph . 22 August 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  40. Pleming, Sue (20 November 2008). "Rice meets Gaddafi son, asks about dissident". The Malaysian Star. Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  41. Mohamed Eljahmi. "Don't Let My Brother's Death Be In Vain". Forbes.com. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  42. "Tripoli Spring". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  43. McLean, Alan; Shane, Scott; Tse, Archie (28 November 2010). "A Selection From the Cache of Diplomatic Dispatches". New York Times.
  44. "Libye: de nouveaux morts lors d'une opération des forces libyennes". La Dépêche du Midi . Agence France-Presse. 19 February 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011. (Translation)
  45. Williams, Davis; Greenhill, Sam (25 February 2011). "Now Gaddafi Blames Hallucinogenic Pills Mixed with Nescafe and bin Laden for Uprisings... Before Ordering Bloody Hit on a Mosque". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  46. "Al Jazeera English - Saif El Islam Gadaffi addresses the nation - Part 1 of 3".
  47. Gaddafi's son talks of conspiracy, Al Jazeera, 20 February 2011.
  48. How will Libya's protests play out?, Oliver Miles, The Guardian , 20 February 2011.
  49. Libya on brink as protests hit Tripoli, Ian Black, The Guardian , 21 February 2011.
  50. 'This Week' Transcript: Saif al-Islam and Saadi Gadhafi, ABC News.
  51. Carey, Nick (16 June 2011). "Rebels dismiss election offer, NATO pounds Tripoli". Reuters . Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  52. "Libya: Muammar Gaddafi subject to ICC arrest warrant". BBC News. 27 June 2011.
  53. Smith, David (1 July 2011). "Gaddafi's son claims Nato wants deal with Libya". The Guardian . London. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  54. Kirkpatrick, David D. (3 August 2011). "Libya Allying With Islamists, Qaddafi Son Says". New York Times.
  55. "Libya Rebels in Tripoli as Qaddafi's Defenses Collapse". Fox News. Associated Press. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  56. "Reports of Saif al-Islam Qaddafi's Capture False, Appears in Tripoli". Fox News. 22 August 2011.
  57. "Col Gaddafi Son Saif Free And In Tripoli". Sky News. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  58. "Gadhafi son offers to broker Libya cease-fire". CNN. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
  59. "Insider describes Saif al-Islam Qaddafi escape from Bani Walid". Al Arabia News. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  60. "Libya: relaxed Saif al-Islam Gaddafi tells of injury by 'Nato infidels'". The Telegraph. London. 21 November 2011.
  61. "Gaddafi's son had fingers 'cut off'". The Australian. 24 November 2011.
  62. "Libya's NTC claim Saif al-Islam Gaddafi captured alive, uninjured". Digital Journal. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  63. "International legal team demands protection for Saif Gaddafi from planned NATO assassination". Indiavision news. 25 October 2011. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017.
  64. "Gaddafi's son hires mercenaries to flee". Indiavision News . 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013.
  65. 1 2 "Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam captured in Libya". BBC. 19 November 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  66. Spencer, Richard (20 November 2011). "Libya: conflict brewing over trial of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  67. "'No Libyan response' on Gaddafi son as deadline nears". BBC News. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  68. 1 2 "Public Redacted Version of "OPCD Observations on Libya's Submissions Regarding the Arrest of Saif Al-Islam" (ICC-01/11-01/11-51-Conf, 2 February 2012)". www.icc-cpi.int.
  69. "Saif al-Islam Gadaffi to go on trial in September". Press TV. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  70. Ali Shuaib (17 January 2013). "Gaddafi's son appears in Libyan court for first time". Reuters . Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  71. "Libya court reopens trial of Gaddafi regime figures". Daily India Mail. 28 April 2014. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014.
  72. 1 2 "Libya must immediately surrender Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi to the ICC". Amnesty International. 21 May 2014. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014.
  73. "Libya trial: Gaddafi son sentenced to death over war crimes". BBC News. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  74. David D. Kirkpatrick (28 July 2015). "Libyan Court Sentences Qaddafi Son to Death". The New York Times . Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  75. Eyder Peralta (28 July 2015). "In Libya, Gadhafi's Son, Saif Al-Islam, Is Sentenced To Death In Absentia". NPR . Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  76. Stephen, Chris. "Gaddafi son Saif al-Islam freed after death sentence quashed". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  77. "Gaddafi's son Saif still in prison in western Libya, military source says". Yahoo News. 8 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  78. 1 2 "Libya's Saif al-Islam survives 'assassination attempt' in Zintan". The News Arab. 9 May 2017.
  79. "Saif al-Islam Gaddafi case: ICC calls for arrest of ex-Libya leader's son". BBC. 14 June 2017.
  80. "ICC Prosecutor calls for the immediate arrest and surrender of the suspects, Mssrs Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi and Al-Tuhamy Mohamed Khaled to the Court". International Criminal Court. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  81. Crilly, Rob (20 March 2018). "Gaddafi's son Saif 'to run for Libyan president' in 2018 elections". The Telegraph.
  82. "Saif al-Islam Gaddafi to run for Libya president". Middle East Eye.
  83. "Orly Weinerman". Der Spiegel (in German). 16 January 2006. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  84. "Terra Chá, tierra de centenarios: Hechos y figuras". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). A Coruña, Spain. 15 January 2006. Archived from the original on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  85. רשות המסים נגד אורלי ויינרמן [Tax Authority against Orly Weinerman]. Ynet (in Hebrew). 5 March 2006. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  86. "Israeli model admits to six year affair with Gaddafi's son, begs Blair to help save his life". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  87. Milo with billionaires at Saif Gadaffi's birthday party, Visit Montenegro, 28 June 2009.
  88. "Gaddafi son at heart of British society" Archived 26 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine , Joe Murphy. Evening Standard . 23 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  89. "LSE Director steps down – 03 – 2011 – News archive – News – News and media – Home". .lse.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  90. Statement on Libya, London School of Economics, February 2011.
  91. Owen, Jonathan (6 March 2011). "Gaddafi son's LSE thesis 'written by Libyan academic'". independent.co.uk. The Independent. Retrieved 13 April 2016. Fresh evidence emerged yesterday revealing how Saif Gaddafi, the son of the Libyan leader, plagiarised his PhD thesis at the London School of Economics.
  92. Pressure on LSE to annul Gaddafi son's PhD, Chris Cook, Financial Times , 24 February 2011
  93. Eliot Sefton, LSE investigates Saif Gaddafi plagiarism claims, The First Post , 1 March 2011.
  94. Sellgren, Katherine (1 March 2011). "LSE investigates Gaddafi's son plagiarism claims". BBC News. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
  95. "LSE response to the Woolf Inquiry – 11 – 2011 – News archive – News – News and media – Home". .lse.ac.uk. Retrieved 27 August 2014.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Saif al-Islam Muammar Al-Gaddafi at Wikimedia Commons