Sajid dynasty

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Sajid dynasty

ساجیان
889–929
SajidDynastyMapHistoryofIran.png
Map of the Sajid dynasty at its greatest extent
Capital Maragha
(889-901)
Ardabil
(901-929)
Common languages Persian
Religion
Sunni Islam
Government Monarchy
Afshin  
 889–901
Muhammad ibn Abi'l-Saj
 928–929
Abu'l-Musafir al-Fath (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
 Established
889
 Disestablished
929
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Black flag.svg Abbasid Caliphate
Sallarid dynasty SallaridMapHistoryofIran.png
Today part ofFlag of Armenia.svg  Armenia
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey

The Sajid dynasty (Persian : ساجیان), was an Iranian Muslim dynasty that ruled from 889-890 until 929. Sajids ruled Azerbaijan and parts of Armenia first from Maragha and Barda and then from Ardabil. [lower-alpha 1] [1] The Sajids originated from the Central Asian province of Ushrusana and were of Iranian (Sogdian) [2] [3] [lower-alpha 2] descent. Muhammad ibn Abi'l-Saj Diwdad the son of Diwdad, the first Sajid ruler of Azerbaijan, was appointed as its ruler in 889 or 890. Muhammad's father Abu'l-Saj Devdad had fought under the Ushrusanan prince Afshin Khaydar during the latter's final campaign against the rebel Babak Khorramdin in Azerbaijan, and later served the caliphs. Toward the end of the 9th century, as the central authority of the Abbasid Caliphate weakened, Muhammad was able to form a virtually independent state. Much of the Sajids' energies were spent in attempting to take control of neighboring Armenia. The dynasty ended with the death of Abu'l-Musafir al-Fath in 929.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Iranian peoples diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group

The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

Azerbaijan (Iran) region in northwestern Iran

Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. Iranian Azerbaijan is administratively divided into West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, Ardabil, and Zanjan provinces. The region is mostly populated by Azerbaijanis, with minority populations of Kurds, Armenians, Tats, Talysh, Assyrians and Persians.

Contents

Chronology

Subuk was a ghulam who gained the governorship of Azerbaijan in 919 and held it for three years.

Abul-Musafir al-Fath Sajid amir

Abu'l-Musafir al-Fath was the last Sajid amir of Azerbaijan (928–929). He was the son of Muhammad al-Afshin.

See also

Sajid invasion of Georgia was the final attempt to establish Muslim hegemony in the South Caucasus before the Seljuk invasions. Yusuf Ibn Abi'l-Saj, a Sajid emir, whom Georgians knew as Abu l'Kasim, invaded Georgian lands in 914, with the purpose to strengthen gradually weakening Arab power and Muslim hold on Georgian principalities. He first reached Tbilisi, then turned towards Kakheti and besieged the fortresses of Ujarma and Botchorma. Later, he made peace with Kvirike, chorepiscopus (ruler) of Kakheti and returned control of Ujarma to him. After this, he marched his forces to Kartli and laid waste to it. Georgians themselves destroyed the fences of Uplistsikhe, so it wouldn't fall to the hands of the enemy. Perso-Arab forces raided Samtskhe-Javakheti as well, but were unable to take the Tmogvi fortress and retreated. On the way they besieged Q'ueli fortress and took it despite stiff resistance. Muslims captured the military commander of the castle, Gobron, and put him to death. He was later canonized by Georgian Orthodox Church. Despite his military successes Abu l'Kasim was unable to attain his goal. He was forced to finally retreat from Georgian lands because of stubborn resistance by people whose lands he was so eager to ravage and subject.

The term Iranian Intermezzo represents a period in history which saw the rise of various native Iranian Muslim dynasties in the Iranian plateau. This term is noteworthy since it was an interlude between the decline of Abbāsid Arab rule and power and the eventual emergence of the Seljuq Turks in the 11th century. The Iranian revival consisted of Iranian support based on Iranian territory and most significantly a revived Iranian national spirit and culture in an Islamic form.

Notes

  1. "For nearly forty years, until the killing of Fatḥ b. Moḥammad b. Abi’l-Sāj in 317/929, members of the family ruled Azerbaijan and Armenia first from Marāḡa and Barḏaʿa and then from Ardabīl. They reduced refractory Armenian princes to submission, but themselves sporadically withheld allegiance to Baghdad and suspended the payment of tribute; after the end of the Sajids, direct caliphal control was never restored in northwestern Iran." [1]
  2. "In ca. 279/892 the caliph Moʿtażed appointed one of his generals, Moḥammad b. Abi’l-Sāj, an Iranian from Central Asia, as governor of Azerbaijan and Armenia, and the family of the Sajids" [1]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Azerbaijan IV, C.E. Bosworth, Encyclopaedia Iranica, December 15, 1987;"...the caliph Moʿtażed appointed one of his generals, Moḥammad b. Abi’l-Sāj, an Iranian from Central Asia, as governor of Azerbaijan and Armenia, and the family of the Sajids (q.v.) took their place as one of the virtually autonomous lines of provincial governors..."
  2. Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual, Columbia University, 1996. pg 147: "The Sajids were a line of caliphal governors in north-western Persia, the family of a commander in the 'Abbasid service of Soghdian descent which became culturally Arabised."
  3. V. Minorsky, Studies in Caucasian history, Cambridge University Press, 1957. pg 111

Literature