Sakai

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Sakai
堺市
Sakai City [1]
Sakai montage.jpg
From top left: Daisen Kofun, Old Sakai Lighthouse, Ruins of Rikyu's house, Ōtori taisha, Myōkoku-ji, Skyline with Daisen kofun in the center
Flag of Sakai, Osaka.svg
Emblem of Sakai, Osaka.svg
Sakai
Location of Sakai in Osaka Prefecture
Sakai in Osaka Prefecture Ja.svg
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Sakai
Location in Japan
Coordinates: 34°34′24″N135°28′59″E / 34.57333°N 135.48306°E / 34.57333; 135.48306 Coordinates: 34°34′24″N135°28′59″E / 34.57333°N 135.48306°E / 34.57333; 135.48306
CountryJapan
Region Kansai
Prefecture Osaka
Government
  MayorHideki Nagafuji (from June 2018)
Area
  Total149.82 km2 (57.85 sq mi)
Population
 (January 1, 2022)
  Total819,965
  Density5,500/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+09:00 (JST)
City hall address3-1 Minami-Kawaramachi, Sakai-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka-fu 590-0078
Climate Cfa
Website Official website
Symbols
Bird Shrike
Flower Iris
Tree Willow

Sakai (堺市, Sakai-shi) is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. It has been one of the largest and most important seaports of Japan since the medieval era. Sakai is known for its keyhole-shaped burial mounds, or kofun, which date from the fifth century and include Daisen Kofun, the largest grave in the world by area. Once known for swords, Sakai is now famous for the quality of its cutlery. As of 1 January 2022, the city had an estimated population of 819,965, [2] making it the fourteenth most populous city in Japan (excluding Tokyo).

Contents

Geography

Sakai is located in southern Osaka Prefecture, on the edge of Osaka Bay and directly south of the city of Osaka.

Neighboring municipalities

Osaka Prefecture

Climate

Sakai has a Humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) characterized by warm summers and cool winters with light to no snowfall. The average annual temperature in Sakai is 16.5 °C (61.7 °F). The average annual rainfall is 1,232.9 mm (48.54 in) with June as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 28.6 °C (83.5 °F), and lowest in January, at around 5.6 °C (42.1 °F). [3]

Climate data for Sakai (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1977−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)19.1
(66.4)
23.9
(75.0)
25.6
(78.1)
30.2
(86.4)
33.0
(91.4)
36.3
(97.3)
37.9
(100.2)
39.7
(103.5)
36.8
(98.2)
32.7
(90.9)
27.5
(81.5)
25.5
(77.9)
39.7
(103.5)
Average high °C (°F)9.6
(49.3)
10.5
(50.9)
14.3
(57.7)
20.0
(68.0)
24.9
(76.8)
28.1
(82.6)
32.0
(89.6)
33.9
(93.0)
29.6
(85.3)
23.6
(74.5)
17.8
(64.0)
12.3
(54.1)
21.4
(70.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.6
(42.1)
6.0
(42.8)
9.3
(48.7)
14.6
(58.3)
19.4
(66.9)
23.1
(73.6)
27.2
(81.0)
28.6
(83.5)
24.6
(76.3)
18.6
(65.5)
12.9
(55.2)
7.9
(46.2)
16.5
(61.7)
Average low °C (°F)1.6
(34.9)
1.7
(35.1)
4.5
(40.1)
9.3
(48.7)
14.4
(57.9)
19.1
(66.4)
23.4
(74.1)
24.5
(76.1)
20.6
(69.1)
14.3
(57.7)
8.4
(47.1)
3.9
(39.0)
12.1
(53.8)
Record low °C (°F)−5.0
(23.0)
−5.3
(22.5)
−3.3
(26.1)
−1.1
(30.0)
4.1
(39.4)
9.1
(48.4)
15.5
(59.9)
16.6
(61.9)
9.7
(49.5)
2.7
(36.9)
−0.9
(30.4)
−3.4
(25.9)
−5.3
(22.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)48.3
(1.90)
57.8
(2.28)
97.8
(3.85)
92.2
(3.63)
126.7
(4.99)
164.1
(6.46)
154.2
(6.07)
87.3
(3.44)
139.0
(5.47)
139.3
(5.48)
74.6
(2.94)
51.9
(2.04)
1,232.9
(48.54)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0mm)6.46.99.59.39.611.810.36.610.08.96.86.6102.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 138.3138.7173.5194.6206.9160.6190.6228.6160.4163.0147.5138.72,041.4
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [3] [4]

Demographics

According to Japanese census data, [5] the population of Sakai increased rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s, and has been relatively stable since.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1960 383,559    
1970 616,558+60.7%
1980 839,421+36.1%
1990 844,899+0.7%
2000 829,636−1.8%
2010 842,132+1.5%
2020 826,161−1.9%

History

Origins

The area that would later become known as Sakai has been inhabited since approximately 8,000 BC. [6] Sakai is known for its keyhole-shaped burial mounds, or kofun, which date from the 5th century. The largest of these, Daisen Kofun, is believed to be the grave of the Emperor Nintoku and is the largest grave in the world by area. During the Kofun period between 300 and 500 AD, the Mozu Tumulus Cluster was built from over one hundred burial mounds. [6] The name "Sakai" appears in Fujiwara Sadoyori's poetry by 1045. [7] Most of the current city is located within ancient Izumi Province; however, the wards of Mihara, Higashi and a portion of Kita are located within ancient Kawachi Province.

Tradition holds that 10,000 homes burned to the ground in 1399. [7]

Middle Ages

Medieval Sakai was an autonomous city run by merchant oligarchs. During the Muromachi and Sengoku periods from about 1450 to 1600, Sakai developed into one of richest cities in Japan as a port for foreign trade. It was a leading producer of textiles and ironwork. [8] In those days, it was said that the richest cities were Umi no Sakai, Riku no Imai (tr. "along the sea, Sakai; inlands, Imai"; the latter is now a part of Kashihara, Nara). The famous Zen Buddhist priest Ikkyū chose to live in Sakai because of its free atmosphere. The first reliable account of the city is dated to the 1480s and contains publicly issued legal notices, which suggests that the city had a governing council at that point. By the 1530s, the population was around 40,000 residents, almost all of which earned a living through commercial enterprises and some of which were the wealthiest people in Japan. At this time, Sakai was administered by an oligarchy of powerful merchants. The government had ten divisions machi that were subordinate to the representative council of wealthy townsmen known as the egoshu. [8] [9]

Sen no Rikyū, known as the greatest master of the tea ceremony, was originally a merchant of Sakai. Because of the close relationship between the tea ceremony and Zen Buddhism and because of the prosperity of its citizens, Sakai was one of the main centers of the tea ceremony in Japan.

In the Sengoku period, Christian missionaries, including Francis Xavier in 1550, visited Sakai and documented its prosperity. Gaspar Vilela described the town as the safest place in the area when he visited in 1561. [10] He also mentioned that the city was "governed by consuls like Venice in Italy". [8] [11]

After the coming of Europeans, Sakai became a manufacturing base of matchlock firearms and a daimyō , Oda Nobunaga, was one of their important customers. During his ambitious attempt to unify Japan, Nobunaga attempted to take the autonomy privilege from Sakai. Sakai's citizens denied his order and pitched a desperate battle against his army. Most citizens fled and Sakai was burned and seized by Nobunaga.

After the assassination of Nobunaga in 1582, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, seized power and abolished the autonomous system of Sakai, forcing many merchants to move to his stronghold in Osaka. [12]

In 1615, Sakai was razed to the ground in the SummerCampaign of the Siege of Osaka between the Toyotomi clan and Tokugawa Ieyasu. [7]

Sakai was restored as an important trade center during the Edo period but was involved only in inland trade due to the sakoku policy of the Tokugawa shogunate, which isolated Japan from the outside world. It was also known for its sake brewing and its cutlery industries. After the isolation policy was abandoned during the Bakumatsu period, Sakai was the location of the Sakai Incident, involving a clash between French sailors and Japanese gendarmes resulting in multiple casualties. When the Western powers demanded the opening of Osaka a port for foreign trade, both Sakai and Hyōgo were named as candidates; however, Sakai's proximity and ease of access to Kyoto and the presence of many imperial tombs led to the selection of Hyōgo.

Modern Sakai

Following the Meiji restoration, Sakai was transformed into an industrial center as part of the Hanshin Industrial Region, with industries centering on textiles and brick making. From 1876 to 1881, Sakai was part of Nara Prefecture. The city of Sakai was proclaimed on April 1, 1889 with the creation the modern municipalities system. It was one of the first 31 cities to be created in Japan. The 1934 Muroto typhoon killed over 300 people in Sakai. Another major disaster was in 1945, when the city was heavily bombed on six occasions during World War II with over 1800 civilian deaths. Following the February 2005 annexation of the town of Mihara (from Minamikawachi District), Sakai became a designated city in April 2006 [13] giving it a greater measure of self-determination in governmental affairs.

Government

Sakai has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city council of 52 members. Sakai contributes eight members to the Osaka Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the city is divided between the Osaka 15th district, Osaka 16th district and Osaka 17th districts of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

Local administration

Sakai has seven wards (ku):

Wards of Sakai
Place NameMap of Sakai
Rōmaji Kanji PopulationLand area in km2Pop. density per km2
1 Sakai-ku(administrative center)堺区148,35323.666,270
A map of Sakai's Wards Sakai wards.png
A map of Sakai's Wards
2 Higashi-ku 東区84,70810.498,075
3 Kita-ku 北区159,08415.6010,198
4 Naka-ku 中区120,21617.886,723
5 Nishi-ku 西区134,38928.624,696
6 Mihara-ku 美原区37,22313.202,820
7 Minami-ku 南区135,99240.393,367

Cityscape

Economy

Sakai was traditionally dependent on heavy industry and its port. However, after the period of high economic growth after War War II, along with the development and expansion of the Osaka metropolitan area, Sakai also has lso increased become a satellite city (commuter town) for Osaka metropolis, as represented by the development of Senboku New Town. Shimano, a major manufacturer of cycling and fishing products, is based in Sakai.

Education

Osaka Prefecture University Opu photo1.jpg
Osaka Prefecture University

Universities

Primary and secondary schools

Sakai has 98 public elementary schools and 43 public middle schools operated by the city government. The city also has one private elementary school, three private combined middle/high schools and one private combined elementary/middle/high school. The city has 23 public high schools operated by the Osaka Prefectural Board of Education, and four private high schools. The city operates two and the prefecture operates four special education schools for the disabled.

The city previously had a North Korean school, Sakai Korean Elementary School (堺朝鮮初級学校). [14]

Transportation

Hankai Tramway 2016-9-25-hankai-1003.jpg
Hankai Tramway
Senboku New Town & Semboku Rapid Railway Semboku011.JPG
Senboku New Town & Semboku Rapid Railway
Mihara JCT Mihara JCT1.jpg
Mihara JCT

Airways

Airport

Sakai does not have an airport. The nearest major airport is Kansai International Airport.

Railways

JR logo (west).svg JR WestHanwa Line

Nankai group logo.svg Nankai Electric Railway - Nankai mainline symbol.svg Nankai Main Line

Nankai group logo.svg Nankai Electric Railway - Nankai koya line symbol.svg Kōya Line

Semboku-logo.svg Semboku Rapid Railway Co., Ltd. - Semboku Rapid Railway

Subway

Osaka Metro logo.svg Osaka Metro - Osaka Metro Midosuji line symbol.svg Midōsuji Line

Tramway

Hankai Tramway

Bus

Highways

Expressways

Japan National Route

International relations

Sister cities

Friendship cities

Notable people from Sakai

Local attractions

See also

Related Research Articles

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Osaka Prefecture University

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Izumigaoka Station Railway station in Sakai, Japan

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Sakaihigashi Station Railway station in Sakai, Japan

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Shirasagi Station Railway station in Sakai, Japan

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Sakai Station Railway station in Sakai, Japan

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Mozu Tombs Megalithic tombs in Japan

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Sakai City Museum is located within Daisen Park, in Sakai-ku, Sakai City, in Osaka Prefecture. The exhibition hall of approx. 1,330 square meters is divided up into areas for ancient times, the middle ages, early modern, and modern times. The museum was opened in 1980, to commemorate the 90th anniversary of Sakai’s municipalization. The present (2017-) director of the museum is Ken'ichi Sudo. Susumu Nakanishi was a former (2008-2013) director of the museum.

Grand Kitano Tea Ceremony

The Grand Kitano Tea Ceremony, also known in English as the Grand Kitano Tea Gathering, was a large Japanese tea ceremony event that was hosted by the regent and chancellor Toyotomi Hideyoshi at Kitano Tenmangū shrine in Kyoto on the first day of the tenth month in the year Tenshō 15 (1587). Japanese cultural historians view it as a major cultural event of the Momoyama period. Louise Cort points out these three reasons: The event was "a key move in Hideyoshi's strategy to prove his cultural legitimacy; a turning point in the development of chanoyu style and theory; and a crisis in the personal relationship between its chief designers, two of the most influential figures of the Momoyama period, Hideyoshi and Sen no Rikyū".

Nanshū-ji

Nanshū-ji (南宗寺) is a Buddhist temple in the Sakai ward of the city of Sakai, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. It belongs to the Daitoku-ji-branch of the Rinzai school of Japanese Zen. Its main image is a Shaka Sanzon. Its Japanese garden, laid out by Furuta Oribe in 1619, is designated a National Place of Scenic Beauty. The temple is the bodaiji of the Miyoshi clan and for many schools of the Japanese tea ceremony.

References

  1. Sakai official English name Archived February 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  2. "Sakai city official statistics" (in Japanese). Japan.
  3. 1 2 "平年値(年・月ごとの値)". JMA. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  4. "観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値)". JMC. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
  5. Sakai population statistics
  6. 1 2 "Welcome to Sakai!".
  7. 1 2 3 "History".
  8. 1 2 3 The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History edited by Peter Clark https://books.google.com/books?id=z09oAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA331&lpg=PA331&dq=Gaspar+Vilela+sakai+consuls
  9. An Introduction to the History of Japan by Katsuro Hara https://books.google.com/books?id=k-lBAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA241&lpg=PA241&dq=sakai+japan+autonomous+merchant
  10. "Sakai: A keyhole to the history of Osaka". April 11, 2015.
  11. "Japan's oldest 'autonomous' city splits over Osaka Metropolis Plan – Xinhua | English.news.cn". news.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  12. "Japan's oldest "autonomous" city splits over Osaka Metropolis Plan - Xinhua | English.news.cn". news.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2013.
  13. "Tokyo pollsters in the money", Yomiuri Shimbun , February 17, 2007. Accessed March 13, 2007.
  14. "|script-title=ja:ウリハッキョ一覧 |publisher= Chongryon |date=November 6, 2005 |accessdate=October 15, 2015}}}} ([https://www.webcitation.org/6cHKwmz4m?url=http://web.archive.org/web/20051106010302/http://www.chongryon.com/j/cr/link3.html Archive).