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Sakzai (Pashto : سکزی), also called Sagzai, Sagzi, and Sijzi, are a Pashtun tribe of the Ghilzai branch in Afghanistan located around the historical region of Sistan (modern day Nimroz, Helmand and Farah), as well as the Ghor region and the northern parts of the Sistan and Baluchestan Province of Iran. Also they can be found among the Baloch tribes.
The Sakzai are 24 subtribes and 95 or 96 clans and approximately make up around 7.5% of Afghanistans nomadic population.Their name suggests a connection with the historic East Iranian Saka tribes of Central Asia, as well as the historical inhabitants of the region, the Sistani Persians, who are also connected to the Sakas.
The Muslim conquests of Afghanistan began during the Muslim conquest of Persia as the Arab Muslims migrated eastwards to Khorasan, Sistan and Transoxiana. 15 years after the Battle of Nahāvand, they controlled all Sasanian domains except southern and eastern Afghanistan. Fuller Islamization wasn't achieved until the period between 10th and 12th centuries under Ghaznavid and Ghurid dynasty's rule who patronized Muslim religious institutions.
The Durrani Empire, also called the Sadozai Kingdom and the Afghan Empire, was an Iranic empire founded and built by Ahmad Shah Abdali in parts of Central Asia, Middle East and South Asia. At its maximum extent, the empire ruled over the modern-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as parts of northeastern and southeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India.
Pashtuns, historically known as Afghans, are an Iranian ethnic group native to Central and South Asia.
Tajiks are a Persian-speaking Iranian ethnic group native to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Tajiks are the largest ethnicity in Tajikistan, and the second largest in Afghanistan which, together, comprise more than half of the global Tajik population. They speak varieties of Persian, a Western Iranian language. In Tajikistan, since the 1939 Soviet census, its small Pamiri and Yaghnobi ethnic groups are included as Tajiks. In China, the term is used to refer to its Pamiri ethnic groups, the Tajiks of Xinjiang, who speak the Eastern Iranian Pamiri languages. In Afghanistan, the Pamiris are counted as a separate ethnic group.
Bactria, or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia. Bactria proper was north of the Hindu Kush mountain range and south of the Oxus river, covering the flat region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan. More broadly Bactria was the area north of the Hindu Kush, west of the Pamirs and south of the Tian Shan, covering modern-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as well, with the Amu Darya flowing west through the centre.
The Baloch or Baluch are an Iranian people who live mainly in the Balochistan region, located at the southeasternmost edge of the Iranian plateau, encompassing the countries of Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. There are also Baloch diaspora communities in neighbouring regions, including in India, Turkmenistan and the Arabian Peninsula.
Peshawar is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its largest city. It is the sixth-largest in Pakistan. Peshawar is also the largest Pashtun-majority city in Pakistan. Situated in the broad Valley of Peshawar just east of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 BCE, making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest cities in South Asia.
The Helmand River is the longest river in Afghanistan and the primary watershed for the endorheic Sistan Basin.
The Saka, Śaka, Shaka, Śāka or Sacae were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples who historically inhabited the northern and eastern Eurasian Steppe and the Tarim Basin.
Sistan and Baluchestan Province is the second largest province of the 31 provinces of Iran, after Kerman Province. It is in the southeast of the country, bordering Pakistan and Afghanistan and its capital is Zahedan. The province is the second largest province in Iran with an area of 180,726 km2 and a population of 2.5 million. The counties of the province are Chabahar County, Qasr-e Qand County, Dalgan County, Golshan County, Hirmand County, Iranshahr County, Khash County, Konarak County, Nik Shahr County, Saravan County, Sarbaz County, Sib and Suran County, Taftan County, Zabol County, Mehrestan County, Zahedan County, Zehak County, Hamun County, Nimruz County, Bampur County, Mirjaveh County and Fanuj County.
Nimruz or Nimroz is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southwestern part of the country. It lies to the east of the Sistan and Baluchestan Province of Iran and north of Balochistan, Pakistan, also bordering the Afghan provinces of Farah and Helmand. It has a population of about 630,000 people. The province is divided into five districts, encompassing about 649 villages.
The Brahui, Brahvi or Brohi, are a Dravidian-speaking ethnic group principally found in Balochistan, Pakistan.
Khorāsān, sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region which formed the northeast province of Greater Iran. The name signifies "the Land of the Sun" or "the Eastern Province".
The Khanate of Kalat was a Baloch Khanate, that existed from 1512 to 1955 in the centre of the modern-day province of Balochistan, Pakistan. Prior to that they were subjects of Mughal emperor Akbar. Ahmedzai Khan ruled the state independently until 1839, when it became a self-governing state in a subsidiary alliance with British India. After the signature of the Treaty of Mastung by the Khan of Kalat and the Baloch Sardars in 1876, Kalat became part of the Baluchistan Agency. It was briefly independent from 12 August 1947 until 27 March 1948, when the Khan acceded his state to the new Dominion of Pakistan. It remained a princely state of Pakistan until 1955, when it was incorporated into the country. The khanate, a political centralization of the Baloch people, failed to survive through the colonial era and did not lead to standardization of the Baloch language.
Saka or Sakan, was a variety of Scythian language from Eastern Iranian languages family, attested from the ancient Buddhist kingdoms of Khotan, Kashgar and Tumshuq in the Tarim Basin, in what is now Southern Xinjiang, China. It is a Middle Iranian language. The two kingdoms differed in dialect, their speech known as Khotanese and Tumshuqese.
Balochistan is an arid desert and mountainous region in South and Western Asia. It comprises the Pakistani province of Balochistan, the Iranian province of Sistan and Baluchestan, and the southern areas of Afghanistan, including Nimruz, Helmand and Kandahar provinces. Balochistan borders the Pashtunistan region to the north, Sindh and Punjab to the east, and Persian regions to the west. South of its southern coastline, including the Makran Coast, are the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman.
Sistān, known in ancient times as Sakastān, is a historical and geographical region in present-day Eastern Iran and Southern Afghanistan. Largely desert, the region is bisected by the Helmand River, the largest river in Afghanistan, which empties into the Hamun Lake that forms part of the border between the two countries.
Sistani Persians or Sistanis are an ethnic Persian group, who primarily inhabit Sistan in southeastern Iran and historically southwestern Afghanistan as well. They live in the northern part of Sistan and Balouchistan province, where they form a major minority after the Baloch people. Their descendants in Afghanistan are primarily the Pashtun tribe of the Sakzai who are the largest ethnicity in the South-western parts of Afghanistan. Since recent decades many also have migrated to other parts of Iran such as Tehran and Golestan provinces in northern Iran.The largest city of Sistan region is Zabol. Sistanis speak a dialect of Persian known as Sistani or Zaboli.
The majority of the population of Iran consists of Iranic peoples. The largest groups in this category include Persians and Kurds, with smaller communities including Gilakis, Mazandaranis, Lurs, Tats, Talysh, and Baloch.