|⁃ location||Recycled water|
|San Antonio River|
|Length||38 miles (61 km)|
Salado Creek ( // sə-LAY-doh) is a waterway in San Antonio that runs from northern Bexar County for about 38 miles (61 km) to the San Antonio River near Buena Vista.
The San Antonio River is a major waterway that originates in central Texas in a cluster of springs in midtown San Antonio, about 4 miles north of downtown, and follows a roughly southeastern path through the state. It eventually feeds into the Guadalupe River about 10 miles from San Antonio Bay on the Gulf of Mexico. The river is 240 miles long and crosses five counties: Bexar, Goliad, Karnes, Refugio, and Wilson.
In 1992, a well was plugged in Fort Sam Houston that had been used for irrigation for farmers. The well had maintained the ecosystem of the creek since a decline in the number of springs that had fed it. In 1995, plans to revitalize the creek began. Groups such as the Salado Creek Foundation began work to restore the historic significance of the creek as a link of Northern Bexar County to the missions in the South. The creek was affected by the Floods of 1998 causing property damage and unconstructive erosion to the creek bed. In March 2001, the San Antonio Water System's Salado Creek WRC began using recycled water to help the creek flow regularly for the first time in almost ten years.
Fort Sam Houston is a U.S. Army post in San Antonio, Texas. Known colloquially as "Fort Sam," it is named for the U.S. Senator from Texas, U.S. Representative from Tennessee, Tennessee and Texas Governor, and first President of the Republic of Texas, Sam Houston.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.
An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the system through photosynthesis and is incorporated into plant tissue. By feeding on plants and on one-another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. By breaking down dead organic matter, decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be readily used by plants and other microbes.
The creek was given its name in 1716 by Spanish explorer Domingo Ramón. It has been the site of two battles in Texas history, including the 1813 Battle of Rosillo and the 1842 Battle of Salado Creek following the Texas Revolution.
Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation. The Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, and eventually being annexed by the United States.
The Battle of Rosillo Creek (called the Battle of Salado Creek at the time) started as a siege of Presidio La Bahía from November 7, 1812, to February 19, 1813, for the purpose of trying to recapture the fort after the Republican Army of the North under Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara and Samuel Kemper, numbered at 600 to 900 men, had taken over. The Spanish Royal Army of Texas, under Governor Manuel María de Salcedo and Nuevo León Governor Simón de Herrera, had retreated to San Antonio. In March 1813, the Spanish army, numbering 950 to 1,500, had planned an ambush on the republicans as they marched and searched for food along the creek banks. The republicans caught sight of the royal forces first and routed them within an hour, killing between 100 and 330 soldiers and capturing most of their arms and ammunition, six cannons, and 1,500 horses and mules, at the expense of only six men.
The Battle of Rosillo Creek was a conflict of the Mexican War of Independence occurring March 29, 1813 in Coahuila y Tejas, approximately nine miles southeast of San Antonio de Bexar near the confluence of Rosillo Creek and Salado Creek.
The Presidio Nuestra Señora de Loreto de la Bahía, known more commonly as Presidio La Bahia, or simply La Bahia is a fort constructed by the Spanish Army that became the nucleus of the modern-day city of Goliad, Texas, United States. The current location dates to 1747.
Bernardo was an advocate and organizer of Mexican independence and the first constitutional governor of the state of Tamaulipas, and a native of Revilla, today Ciudad Guerrero, Mexico.
After the battle, the Spanish army retreated to San Antonio, signed a truce with Kemper on April 1, and surrendered Salcedo and Herrera. On April 3, Salcedo, Herrera, and 12 prisoners of war were executed by a vengeful Mexican soldier (Capt. Antonio Delgado), near the site of the battle. On April 6, 1813, the first Declaration of Independence and Constitution for Texas were drafted and Gutiérrez was named president, establishing the first Republic of Texas. The new republic was destroyed four months later, at the fateful Battle of Medina.
The Texas Declaration of Independence was the formal declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico in the Texas Revolution. It was adopted at the Convention of 1836 at Washington-on-the-Brazos on March 2, 1836, and formally signed the next day after mistakes were noted in the text.
A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states.
A later Battle of Salado Creek (1842) was fought between the volunteers of the Texas Republic and the Mexican forces of Brig. General and French Mexican soldier Adrián Woll. The conflict began following Brig. General Ráfael Vásquez's incursion into San Antonio in March 1842. The volunteers prepared for battle, but believed that peace was on the horizon after the release of prisoners from the failed Texan Santa Fe Expedition. Because of this, a potential attack was called off by President Sam Houston.
The Battle of Salado Creek was a decisive engagement in 1842 which repulsed the final Mexican invasion of the Republic of Texas. Colonel Mathew Caldwell of the Texas Rangers led just over 200 militia against an army of 1,600 Mexican Army soldiers and Cherokee warriors, and defeated them outside of San Antonio de Bexar along Salado Creek. As a result of this action, French-Mexican commander General Adrián Woll retreated south and back into Mexico.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army. A soldier can be a conscripted or volunteer enlisted person, a non-commissioned officer, or an officer.
However, on September 11, 1842, Brig. Gen. Adrián Woll entered San Antonio with 1,000 regular infantry and 500 irregular cavalry. After this, about 200 volunteers from Gonzales, Seguin, and other lower Colorado River settlements joined together under Capt. Mathew Caldwell on the east bank of Salado Creek. They met with Capt. John C. Hays's regiment of 14 rangers. The men took advantage of their good position on the bank and killed 60 Mexicans, losing only one of their own.
Simultaneously, Capt. Nicholas Mosby Dawson was traveling from La Grange with his 53-man company of volunteers to meet with Caldwell. Cut off from the larger body of their men and surrounded by Mexicans, they surrendered after a brief skirmish. The Mexicans killed 36 Texians and wounded several others, in what Americans called the Dawson Massacre.
According to Texas Parks and Wildlife, bluegill, Rio Grande cichlids, alligator gar, and common carp have been caught in Salado Creek.
The Battle of Medina was fought approximately 20 miles south of San Antonio de Bexar on August 18, 1813, as part of the Mexican War of Independence against Spanish authority in Mexico. Spanish troops led by General José Joaquín de Arredondo defeated republican forces, consisting of Tejano-Mexican and Tejano-American revolutionaries participating in the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition, under General José Álvarez de Toledo y Dubois. It was the deadliest battle in Texas History.
The Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition was an 1812–13 joint Mexican-US filibustering expedition against Spanish Texas during the early years of the Mexican War of Independence.
Samuel Kemper was an American adventurer and filibuster.
The Mier expedition was an unsuccessful military operation launched in November 1842 by a Texian militia against Mexican border settlements; it was related to the Somervell expedition. It included a major battle at Ciudad Mier on December 26 and 27, 1842, which the Mexicans won. The Texian attack was launched partly in hopes of financial gain and partly in retaliation for the Dawson Massacre earlier that year, in which thirty-six Texas militia were killed by the Mexican Army. Both conflicts were part of continuing efforts by each side to control the land between the Rio Grande and Nueces River. The Republic of Texas believed that this territory had been ceded to it in the Treaties of Velasco, by which they gained independence; but Mexico did not agree.
The Dawson massacre, also called the Dawson expedition, was an incident in which 36 Texian militiamen were killed by Mexican soldiers on September 17, 1842 near San Antonio de Bexar. The event occurred during the Battle of Salado Creek, which ended with a Texan victory. This was among numerous armed conflicts over the area between the Rio Grande and Nueces rivers, which the Republic of Texas tried to control after achieving independence in 1836.
Adrián Woll was a French Mexican general in the army of Mexico during the Texas Revolution and the military conflict between Mexico and the Republic of Texas which followed.
Horace Arlington Alsbury (1805–1847) was one of Stephen F. Austin's Old Three Hundred and was also notable for his participation in the siege of San Antonio de Bexar in November–December 1835 and on March 1, 1836, he also accompanied the thirty-two Gonzales, Texas volunteers on their way to the Alamo. Horace Alsbury was also notable as a member of Henry Wax Karnes's company at the Battle of San Jacinto. He is also notable because his wife Juana Navarro Alsbury acted as nurse for Jim Bowie during the Battle of the Alamo and was one of the few survivors of the battle.
Manuel María de Salcedo y Quiroga, (Málaga, Spain,, was a governor of Spanish Texas from 1808 until his execution in 1813. Salcedo gained leadership experience helping his father Juan Manuel de Salcedo, the 11th and last Spanish governor of Louisiana,. In 1807, the younger Salcedo was appointed governor of Texas, and he officially assumed that role on November 7, 1808. As governor, he and his uncle Nemesio Salcedo, the Commandant General of the Interior Provinces, often disagreed, especially on immigration issues.
The Battle of Alazan Creek, occurred on the banks of Alazan Creek in Spanish Texas on June 20, 1813, during the Mexican War of Independence. The location is today in Bexar County, Texas, in the United States, just west of downtown San Antonio.
Rosillo Creek begins at 29°31' N, 98°22' W, approximately 0.5 miles north of FM 1976, in Northeastern Bexar County, Texas, within the city limits of Windcrest, Texas, and flows southwestward for eighteen miles through the Rosillo Creek Basin, with an elevation ranging from 265 meters above sea level, to 155 meters above sea level. The vegetation of the basin is mostly mesquite trees and grasses. Rosillo Creek then empties into Salado Creek in Southeastern Bexar County, Texas.
John Christopher Columbus Hill was a Texan citizen who, at age 13, accompanied his brother and father on the Mier Expedition. He was captured, adopted by the Mexican president Santa Anna, and eventually became a successful engineer in the United States and Mexico.
Hondo Creek is a tributary of the Frio River in Texas that rises in Bandera County northwest of Tarpley and runs approximately 67 miles to its mouth near Pearsall, Texas. The creek crosses through three counties including Bandera, Medina, and Frio.
Francisco Ignacio Elizondo Villarreal,, was a royalist military officer during the Mexican war of independence against Spain. He is mostly known for his capture of insurgent leaders Miguel Hidalgo, Ignacio Allende, José Mariano Jiménez, and Juan Aldama at the Wells of Baján, Coahuila in 1811. Initially a supporter of Mexican independence who converted to the royalist cause, Elizondo is sometimes compared to the American Benedict Arnold. In 1813, after a successful campaign against rebel armies he was assassinated by one of his junior officers.
Manuel Flores served as a volunteer in the Texas army in 1835–1838. Fighting and commanding, he rose through the ranks to reach sergeant status during the fight for Texas independence and was commissioned a captain during the Republic years.
Presidio de Béxar was a Spanish fort built near the San Antonio River, located in what is now San Antonio, Texas, in the United States. It was designed for protection of the mission San Antonio de Valero and the Villa de Bejar. The Presidio de Bejar was founded on May 5, 1718 by Spanish Governor Martin de Alarcon and his 35 Presidio Soldiers. The Villa de Bejar is known for being the first Spanish settlement of San Antonio and consisted of the families of the Presidio Soldiers and those of the prior expeditions. It also served to secure Spain's claim to the region from French, English and American aggression.
Francisco de Castañeda, also spelled Castonado, was a lieutenant in the Mexican army stationed in San Antonio, in the 1830s. He was the commander of the troops involved in the first battle of the Texas Revolution.
Simón de Herrera y Leyva (1754–1813) was a lifelong political and military professional for Spain, primarily in the lands known as New Spain and at times ventured to Europe. He became an interim governor of Spanish Texas at San Antonio and a governor of Nuevo León.