Salamanca

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Salamanca
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Location of Salamanca in Spain
Coordinates: 40°58′N5°40′W / 40.967°N 5.667°W / 40.967; -5.667
Country Spain
Autonomous community Castile and León
Province Salamanca
Area
  Total38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi)
Elevation
802 m (2,631 ft)
Population
 (2018) [1]
  Total143,978
  Density3,700/km2 (9,700/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code(s) 34 (Spain) + 923 (Salamanca)
Website www.salamanca.es
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official nameOld City of Salamanca
Includes
Criteria Cultural: (i)(ii)(iv)
Reference 381rev
Inscription1988 (12th Session)
Area50.78 ha (125.5 acres)
Buffer zone130.3 ha (322 acres)
Salamanca Cathedral Catedral Salamanca.JPG
Salamanca Cathedral

Salamanca (Spanish pronunciation:  [salaˈmaŋka] ) is a city in western Spain that is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León. The city lies on several hills by the Tormes River. Its Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. With a metropolitan population of 228,881 in 2012 according to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), Salamanca is the second most populated urban area in Castile and León, after Valladolid (414,000), and ahead of León (187,000) and Burgos (176,000).

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Province of Salamanca Province of Spain

Salamanca is a province of western Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is bordered by the provinces of Zamora, Valladolid, Ávila, and Cáceres; it is bordered on the west by Portugal. It has an area of 12,349 km ² and in 2018 had a population of 331,473 people. It is divided into 362 municipalities, 11 comarcas, 32 mancomunidades and five judicial districts. Of the 362 municipalities, more than half are villages with fewer than 300 people.

Autonomous communities of Spain first-level political and administrative division of Spain

In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.

Contents

It is one of the most important university cities in Spain and supplies 16% of Spain's market for the teaching of the Spanish language. [2] [3] Salamanca attracts thousands of international students. [4]

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

It is situated approximately 200 kilometres (120 miles) west of the Spanish capital Madrid and 80 km (50 mi) east of the Portuguese border. The University of Salamanca, which was founded in 1218, is the oldest university in Spain and the third oldest western university, but the first to be given its status by the Pope Alexander IV who gave universal validity to its degrees. [5] With its 30,000 students, the university is, together with tourism, a primary source of income in Salamanca. It is on the Via de la Plata path of the Camino de Santiago.

Madrid Capital of Spain

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has almost 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union (EU), smaller than only London and Berlin, and its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris. The municipality covers 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi).

University of Salamanca Spanish university

The University of Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX in 1218. It is the oldest university in the Hispanic world and the third oldest university in the entire world still in operation. The formal title of "University" was granted by King Alfonso X in 1254 and recognized by Pope Alexander IV in 1255.

Pope Alexander IV pope

Pope Alexander IV was Pope from 12 December 1254 to his death in 1261.

History

The city was founded in the pre-Ancient Rome period by the Vaccaei, a Celtic tribe, or the Vettones, a Celtic or pre-Celtic indo-European tribe, as one of a pair of forts to defend their territory near the Duero river. In 220 BC Hannibal laid siege to the city and captured it. [6] With the fall of the Carthaginians to the Romans, the city of Helmantica, as it was known, began to take more importance as a commercial hub in the Roman Hispania due to its favorable location. Salamanca lay on a Roman road, known as the Vía de la Plata, which connected it with Emerita Augusta (present day Mérida) to the south and Asturica Augusta (present-day Astorga) to the north. Its Roman bridge dates from the 1st century, and was a part of this road.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Vaccaei

The Vaccaei or Vaccei were a pre-Roman Celtic people of Spain, who inhabited the sedimentary plains of the central Duero valley, in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania. Its capital was Intercatia in Paredes de Nava.

Vettones

The Vettones were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.

With the fall of the Roman Empire, the Alans established in Lusitania, and Salamanca was part of this region. Later the city was conquered by the Visigoths and included in their territory. The city was already an episcopal see, and signatures of bishops of Salamanca are found in the Councils of Toledo.

Roman Empire Period of Imperial Rome following the Roman Republic (27 BC–476 AD)

The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from Italy, homeland of the Romans and metropole of the empire, with the city of Rome as capital. The Roman Empire was then ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Senate of Rome sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople. The fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

The Alans were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Salamanca diocese of the Catholic Church

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Salamanca is a diocese located in the city of Salamanca in the Ecclesiastical province of Valladolid in Spain.

Salamanca surrendered to the Moors, led by Musa bin Nusair, in the year 712 AD. For years, this area between the south of Duero River and the north of Tormes River, became the main battlefield between the Christian kingdoms and the Muslim Al-Andalus rulers. The constant fighting of the Kingdom of León first, and the Kingdom of Castile and León later against the Caliphate depopulated Salamanca and reduced it to an unimportant settlement. After the battle of Simancas (939) the Christians resettled this area. After the capture of Toledo by Alfonso VI of León and Castile in 1085, the definitive resettlement of the city took place. Raymond of Burgundy, instructed by his father-in-law Alfonso VI of León, led a group of settlers of various origins in 1102.

Moors medieval Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta

The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors initially were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers. The name was later also applied to Arabs.

Al-Andalus name with which historiograficamente is known to the territories of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim rule between 711 and 1492

Al-Andalus, also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain that in its early period occupied most of Iberia, today's Portugal and Spain. At its greatest geographical extent, it occupied the northwest of the Iberian peninsula and a part of present day southern France Septimania and for nearly a century extended its control from Fraxinet over the Alpine passes which connect Italy with the remainder of Western Europe. The name more generally describes the parts of the peninsula governed by Muslims at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly as the Christian Reconquista progressed, eventually shrinking to the south around modern-day Andalusia and then to the Emirate of Granada.

Kingdom of León Former country, from 910-1230 CE

The Kingdom of León was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in AD 910 when the Christian princes of Asturias along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their capital from Oviedo to the city of León. The Caliphate of Córdoba was gaining power, and began to attack León. The kings of León and Navarre allied against Abd-al-Rahman but were defeated in Valdejunquera, in 920. For the next 80 years, the Kingdom of León suffered civil wars, Moorish attack, internal intrigues and assassinations, and the partial independence of Galicia and Castile, thus setting back the date of Spain's reconquest, and weakening the Christian forces.

One of the most important moments in Salamanca's history was the year 1218, when Alfonso IX of León granted a royal charter to the University of Salamanca, although formal teaching had existed at least since 1130. Soon it became one of the most significant and prestigious academic centres in Europe.

During the 16th century, the city reached its height of splendour (around 6,500 students and a total population of 24,000). During that period, the University of Salamanca hosted the most important intellectuals of the time; these groups of mostly-Dominican scholars were designated the School of Salamanca. The juridical doctrine of the School of Salamanca represented the end of medieval concepts of law, and founded the fundamental body of the ulterior European law and morality concepts, including rights as a corporeal being (right to life), economic rights (right to own property) and spiritual rights (rights to freedom of thought and rights related to intrinsic human dignity).

In 1551, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered an inquiry to find out if the science of Andreas Vesalius, physician and anatomist, was in line with Catholic doctrine. Vesalius came to Salamanca that same year to appear before the board and was acquitted.

Salamanca suffered the general downturns of the Kingdom of Castile during the 17th century, but in the 18th century it experienced a rebirth. In this period, the new baroque Cathedral and main square (Plaza Mayor) were finished.

In the Peninsular War of the Napoleonic campaigns, the Battle of Salamanca, in which an Anglo-Portuguese Army led by Wellington decisively defeated the French army of Marmont, was fought on 22 July 1812. The western quarter of Salamanca was seriously damaged by cannon fire. The battle which raged that day is famous as a defining moment in military history and many thousands of men were killed in the space of only a few short hours.

Salamanca City map in 1858, Spanish edition Slm1858.jpg
Salamanca City map in 1858, Spanish edition

During the devastating Spanish Civil War (1936–39) the city quickly went over to the Nationalist side and was used as the de facto capital. Franco was named Generalissimo on 21 September 1937 while at the city, and in the same year was formed, by a decree signed in the city, the official fascist party that ruled Spain until the end of the Francoist regime, officially suppressing any other political party. The Nationalists soon moved most of the administrative departments to Burgos, which being more central was better suited for this purpose. However, some administrative departments, Franco's headquarters (located at the Palacio Episcopal, next to the Old Cathedral) and the military commands stayed in Salamanca, along with the German and Italian fascist delegations, making it the de facto Nationalist capital and centre of power during the entire civil war. [7] [8] Like much of fervently Catholic and largely rural Leon and Old Castile regions, Salamanca was a staunch supporter of the Nationalist side and Francisco Franco's regime for its long duration.

In 1988, the old city was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1998, it was declared a European Capital of Culture for year 2002 (shared with Bruges). During 14 and 15 October 2005, it hosted the XV Ibero-American Summits of Heads of State and Governments.

Since 1996, Salamanca has been the designated site of the archives of the Spanish Civil War (Archivo General de la Guerra Civil Española). The original documents were assembled by the Francoist regime, selectively obtained from the administrative departments of various institutions and organizations during the Spanish Civil War as a repressive instrument used against opposition groups and individuals. [9] The socialist government moved the Catalan part of the archive to Barcelona in 2006 despite opposition from the local authorities and popular protests.

University

Plateresque facade of the University of Salamanca. University of Salamanca Fray Luis de Leon.jpg
Plateresque façade of the University of Salamanca.

The University of Salamanca was founded in 1134 and in 1218 it was given the royal charter of foundation ("Estudio General") by Alfonso IX of León. It was the first university to receive the title of "University" in 1254. Under the patronage of the learned Alfonso X, its wealth and reputation greatly increased (1252–1282), and its schools of canon law and civil law attracted students even from the Universities of Paris and Bologna.[ when? ] In the 16th century, the city's fortunes depended on those of the University. About the time Christopher Columbus was lecturing there on his discoveries, Hernán Cortés took classes at Salamanca, but returned home in 1501 at age 17, without completing his course of study. (About ten years later the conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado was born in Salamanca.)

Climate

With an altitude of over 800 meters, Salamanca has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb) according to the Köppen climate classification, with some cold semi-arid climate (BSk) climatic influences, resulting in large diurnal temperature variations, a slightly hotter summer and colder winter, and nearly-semi-arid levels of precipitation. Nearly all of the year's precipitation falls outside of the summer, with upticks at the end of the spring and during the winter; snow is not common, with only a few days per year on average seeing snow.

Climate data for Salamanca Airport 790m (1981-2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)19.8
(67.6)
25.0
(77.0)
25.8
(78.4)
31.0
(87.8)
34.5
(94.1)
38.6
(101.5)
39.8
(103.6)
41.0
(105.8)
39.0
(102.2)
31.0
(87.8)
24.8
(76.6)
19.7
(67.5)
41.0
(105.8)
Average high °C (°F)8.6
(47.5)
11.2
(52.2)
14.9
(58.8)
16.5
(61.7)
20.6
(69.1)
26.6
(79.9)
30.0
(86.0)
29.5
(85.1)
25.1
(77.2)
18.9
(66.0)
12.8
(55.0)
9.4
(48.9)
18.7
(65.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.0
(39.2)
5.5
(41.9)
8.3
(46.9)
10.1
(50.2)
14.0
(57.2)
18.8
(65.8)
21.5
(70.7)
21.1
(70.0)
17.6
(63.7)
12.6
(54.7)
7.9
(46.2)
4.9
(40.8)
12.2
(54.0)
Average low °C (°F)−0.7
(30.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
1.7
(35.1)
3.8
(38.8)
7.3
(45.1)
11.0
(51.8)
12.9
(55.2)
12.6
(54.7)
10.0
(50.0)
6.4
(43.5)
2.4
(36.3)
0.4
(32.7)
5.6
(42.1)
Record low °C (°F)−15.6
(3.9)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−9.0
(15.8)
−5.5
(22.1)
−2.3
(27.9)
2.0
(35.6)
5.0
(41.0)
4.5
(40.1)
0.4
(32.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−10.6
(12.9)
−12.0
(10.4)
−20.0
(−4.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)30
(1.2)
25
(1.0)
21
(0.8)
38
(1.5)
47
(1.9)
29
(1.1)
11
(0.4)
12
(0.5)
32
(1.3)
46
(1.8)
40
(1.6)
42
(1.7)
372
(14.6)
Average precipitation days65578422477764
Average snowy days2211000000117
Average relative humidity (%)82736362595247515971798365
Mean monthly sunshine hours 1181542112242653173583302511831301042,667
Source: Agencia Española de Meteorología (1981-2010 climatology) [10]

Economy

Founded in 1812, S.A. Mirat, is claimed to be the city's oldest industrial business. Instalaciones MIRAT S.A. Salamanca.JPG
Founded in 1812, S.A. Mirat, is claimed to be the city's oldest industrial business.

The city's economy is dominated by the university and tourism, but other sectors including agriculture and livestock rearing along with construction and manufacturing are also significant. Not surprisingly, in December 2007 83% of the working population, equivalent to 55,838, were employed in the service sector. [11]

Industry

Industrial activity accounted for 5% of the working population, or 3,340 workers employed over 360 businesses. [11] Two of the largest businesses, both of them numbered among the largest 100 enterprises in the region, are the veterinary vaccine manufacturer "Laboratorios Intervet", and the fertilizer specialist manufacturers S.A. Mirat, which is the city's oldest industrial company, having been established originally as a starch factory in 1812. [12]

Communications

A street of the old city of Salamanca Vista de la catedral de salamanca.JPG
A street of the old city of Salamanca

Road

Highways

Roman bridge of Salamanca (1st century BC) Roman bridge salamanca.jpg
Roman bridge of Salamanca (1st century BC)

Other roads

Airport

Salamanca Airport, located in the military base of Matacán, is located about 14 km (9 mi) east of the city.

Public transport

There are 13 bus lines during the day and two night lines. Also, a tram line has been projected. [13]

Culture and sports

The Old City of Salamanca was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. [14] In 2002 Salamanca shared the title of European Capital of Culture with Bruges. In 2005, Salamanca celebrated the 250th anniversary of the construction of the Plaza Mayor with a number of European events (Plaza Mayor de Europa).[ citation needed ]

Festivals

Holy Week procession in Salamanca Procesion Doctrinos.jpg
Holy Week procession in Salamanca

Holy Week

The Holy Week in Salamanca (Semana Santa) is the most well-known of Salamanca's festivals. Salamanca is renowned for the solemn and sober processions celebrated during Holy Week. 16 confraternities, 10.000 brothers or "cofrades", 50 floats or "pasos" celebrate the Passion of Christ with 20 processions and thousands of followers, tourist and visitors.

Some of the celebrations have been performed for centuries. The confraternities carry artistic pasos created by important Spanish artists such as Luis Salvador Carmona, Alejandro Carnicero or Mariano Benlliure. in 2003 the Semana Santa of Salamanca obtained the official declaration of International Touristic Interest. [15]

Other

Salamanca is also famous throughout Spain and the rest of Europe for its celebrations of "Nochevieja Universitaria," loosely translated as "University New Year". [16] [ better source needed ] It is usually held on the Thursday of the last week of school in December and two weeks before the real New Year's Eve. On this day, students congregate in the Plaza Mayor, Salamanca to watch free performances and take part in the countdown to midnight.

Sports

Salamanca offers the amenities of a larger city while retaining an intimate small town atmosphere. From 1923 onward, "Los Charros", formally the Union Deportiva Salamanca, were the Salamanca football team. In 2013, the club went bankrupt and its activities were abandoned. [17] After its dissolution, some managers of the entity decided to refound the farm team to continue competing, maintaining the legacy of the historic club. Thus they created the Club de Fútbol Salmantino.

The first high jump over 8 feet (2.44 m) was made in Salamanca, by Javier Sotomayor in 1993. His jump, of 2.45 m (8 feet 0.46 inch), is still the world record in the event.

Teams based in Salamanca

Cinema

With its old streets being ideal for historical film settings Salamanca has been used several times in cinematic productions, including 1492: Conquest of Paradise by Ridley Scott and Goya's Ghosts by Miloš Forman. Salamanca was also the setting for the 2008 political thriller Vantage Point , although the movie was almost exclusively filmed in Mexico.

Gastronomy

Salamanca has a very interesting and distinctive gastronomy. Among many dishes, Chanfaina (steamed rice with pork) is very popular. Another classic dish of the Salamancan, known as Charreria ("peasant lands"), is a cocido, a slow-cooked casserole including chickpeas. However, Hornazo , a meat pie, is the most popular dish of all.

Notable people

See also

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Salamanca, Spain.

References

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  3. "Salamanca Ciudad del Español". Espanolensalamanca.com. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
  4. "La USAL inaugura los cursos de verano con 2.000 estudiantes extranjeros". Elmundo.es. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  5. "La cristiandad y el reino. Universitas". www.usal.es. December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
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  7. Hugh Thomas, pág. 550
  8. Hugh Thomas, pág. 650
  9. Monfort, César Carreras; Cabrillana, Glòria Munilla (5 August 2017). "Patrimoni digital: un nou mitjà al servei de les institucions culturals". Editorial UOC. Retrieved 5 August 2017 via Google Books.
  10. "Monthly Averages for Salamanca, Spain". Agencia Española de Meteorología. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  11. 1 2 "Salamanca - Datos Económicos y Sociales" (PDF). cajaespana.es. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  12. "MIRAT Historia Antecedentes". mirat.net. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  13. "Presentan un estudio de viabilidad para la implantación del tranvía en Salamanca". 20minutos.es. 16 May 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  14. "Old City of Salamanca". World Heritage Centre. UNESCO . Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  15. Easter | Salamanca. Salamanca.es. Retrieved on 5 September 2013.
  16. "University New Year". Drinkriberawine.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
  17. La RFEF desciende a la UDS por las deudas con los futbolistas - UDS -Noticias de La Gaceta de Salamanca. Lagacetadesalamanca.es (2013-06-29). Retrieved on 5 September 2013.

Bibliography

See also: Bibliography of the history of Salamanca

Museums

Coordinates: 40°57′42″N5°40′03″W / 40.961612°N 5.667607°W / 40.961612; -5.667607