Salihli

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Salihli
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Salihli
Coordinates: 38°28′52″N28°8′21″E / 38.48111°N 28.13917°E / 38.48111; 28.13917 Coordinates: 38°28′52″N28°8′21″E / 38.48111°N 28.13917°E / 38.48111; 28.13917
Country Turkey
Province Manisa
Government
  MayorZeki Kayda (MHP)
   Kaymakam Ertan Peynircioğlu
Area
[1]
  District1,272.90 km2 (491.47 sq mi)
Population
(2012) [2]
   Urban
98,618
  District
155,291
  District density120/km2 (320/sq mi)
Website www.salihli.bel.tr

Salihli is a large town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.

Manisa Province Province of Turkey in Aegean

Manisa Province is a province in western Turkey. Its neighboring provinces are İzmir to the west, Aydın to the south, Denizli to the southeast, Uşak to the east, Kütahya to the northeast, and Balıkesir to the north. The seat of the province is the city of Manisa. Its provincial capital is the city of Manisa. The traffic code is 45.

Aegean Region Region of Turkey

The Aegean Region is one of the 7 geographical regions of Turkey.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Ankara is its capital but Istanbul is the country's largest city. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Contents

Geography

The city of Salihli, the seat of the district, is located on İzmir-Ankara (E 96) highway and the parallel railway connections. The urban zone is situated on the slopes of Bozdağ mountain chain along the southern alluvial plains of the Gediz River. To the north and northeast of the plain extend two other mountain ranges, respectively those of the mounts Dibek (highest altitude 1.120 m) and Üşümüş (highest altitude 1085 m).

İzmir Metropolitan municipality in Aegean, Turkey

İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara. It is the second most populous city on the Aegean Sea after Athens, Greece. In 2017, the city of İzmir had a population of 3,028,323, while İzmir Province had a total population of 4,279,677. İzmir's metropolitan area extends along the outlying waters of the Gulf of İzmir and inland to the north across the Gediz River delta; to the east along an alluvial plain created by several small streams; and to a slightly more rugged terrain in the south.

Ankara Metropolitan municipality in Central Anatolia, Turkey

Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey. With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center (2014) and 5,150,072 in its province (2015), it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul, having outranked İzmir in the 20th century.

Gediz River river in Turkey

The Gediz River is the second-largest river in Anatolia flowing into the Aegean Sea. The ancient names Hermos and Hermus are sometimes still used.

The town lies at an altitude of 125 meters from the sea level. Its advantageous location, smooth and busy intercity connections and the fertile soil allowed Salihli to develop extremely well in recent past. [3]

Four streams, namely Alaşehir, Gümüş, Kurşunlu and Sart cross the district area to join the River Gediz, which flows westward. The climate type is Mediterranean climate. To the 24 km (15 mi) north of the city is Demirköprü Dam, used for irrigation, prevention of overflows, energy production and fishing, and which was built between 1954 and 1960.

Mediterranean climate climate zone

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are generally located on the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 43 degrees north and south of the equator, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles, and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator.

Demirköprü Dam is an embankment dam on the Gediz River in Manisa Province, Turkey. Constructed between 1954 and 1960, the development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works. The dams supports a 69 MW power station and provides water for the irrigation of 99,220 hectares.

The population figures in the 2000 census were 149,150 for the whole district and 83,137 for the urban center of Salihli. (The urban population is 96,304 as of 2009)

Aside from the city of Salihli, the district counts 8 townships with own municipalities. These are (Adala, Durasıllı, Gökeyüp, Mersinli, Poyrazdamları, Sart, Taytan and Yılmaz). Of these Sart corresponds to the location of ancient Sardes, the capital of Lydia.

Sart

Sart is a name for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia and the Middle East, which has had shifting meanings over the centuries. Sarts, known sometimes as Ak-Sart in ancient times, did not have any particular ethnic identification, and were usually town-dwellers.

Yılmaz is a Turkish word that translates to "unshirking", "unbeatable", or "brave", and is a very common surname and occasional male given name.

Lydia Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor

Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian. Its capital was Sardis.

The district area is surrounded by the neighboring districts of Ahmetli to the west, Gölmarmara to the northwest, Gördes and Köprübaşı to the north, Demirci to the northeast, Kula to the east, Alaşehir to the southeast and Ödemiş to the south.

Ahmetli District in Aegean, Turkey

Ahmetli is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 18,852 of which 11,011 live in the town of Ahmetli. The district covers an area of 298 km2 (115 sq mi), and the town lies at an elevation of 501 m (1,644 ft).

Gölmarmara District in Aegean, Turkey

Gölmarmara is a town and district of Manisa Province in Turkey's Aegean at a distance of 66 km (41 mi) from the province center of Manisa. The town owes its name to the nearby Lake Marmara, called under various names throughout history. The town of Gölmarmara itself was a mere village in Ottoman times cited under such names as "Marmaracık" or "Mermere". It was made into a township with its own municipality depending the district center of Akhisar at the time of the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) and in 1987 a district center by its own right and under the same name, Gölmarmara.

Gördes District in Aegean, Turkey

Gördes is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 38,110 of which 10,809 live in the town of Gördes. The district covers an area of 947 km2 (366 sq mi), and the town lies at an elevation of 578 m (1,896 ft).

The distances from Salihli to the seat of neighboring provinces are as follows:

in kmManisaİzmirBalıkesirUşakDenizli
Salihli7296144120110

The distances from Salihli to another cities of Manisa are as the following:

in kmAlaşehirAhmetliAkhisarDemirciGölmarmaraGördesKulaKöprübaşıSaruhanlıSarıgölSelendiTurgutlu
Salihli4018661024088425352538042

History

Salihli is a city with a long history. The fossil footprints discovered near the villages of Sindel and Çarıklar, Manisa, estimated to be between 10,000 and 26,000 years old, are the first traces of prehistory in the region.[ citation needed ] However, the region came to foremost importance with the establishment of the city of Sardes, which is located 7 km (4 mi) west of Salihli center and where the most remarkable historical artifacts and remains of the region are found.

Sardes was the capital city of Lydia until 547 B.C., at which date it was captured by the Persian Empire and governed by satraps until 334 B.C.. After the Persians, the region was governed successively by the Macedonian Empire, the Kingdom of the Attalids, Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire. In the beginning of the 14th century, Turks under the Beylik of Saruhan captured the city and the region and ruled it for a century from their base in nearby Manisa. In 1400 the region passed over to the Ottoman Empire under which Manisa preserved its position as a primary regional center. In the beginning of the Ottoman rule, Salihli was a village of the kaza of Sart, depending the province seat of Aydın, situated more to the south, and was called Evlâd-i Salih (meaning "the children of Salih" in English ). In the 19th century, with the construction of İzmir-Uşak-Afyon railway, Salihli demonstrated a much more rapid pace of progress compared to Sart and gained township status in 1872, when it became a kaza of the sancak of Saruhan (Manisa).

During the Greco-Turkish War, the city was taken by Greek forces on 24 July 1920, then re-taken by the Turkish army on 5 September 1922. According to a number of sources, the retreating Greek army carried out a scorched-earth policy while fleeing from Anatolia during the final phase of the war. [4] According to James Loder Park, the U.S. Vice-Consul in Constantinople at the time, who toured much of the devastated area immediately after the Greek evacuation, 65% of Salihli had been destroyed. [5]

After the war, Salihli became one of the biggest and the most important districts of Manisa. It is not always easy to make estimates on Salihli's population before the establishment of the Republic of Turkey due to the lack of adequate sources. However, a population of 500 people was confirmed for Sart during the 1831 census. The city grew quite fast after the construction of the railway until the Turkish War of Independence. In the yearbook of 1891, 3000 people and in the yearbook of 1908, 4400 people were documented to be living in Salihli. In the first Republican census of 1927, 7191 people were recorded. The departure of the town's minority populations in 1923 also caused the population to decrease.

Salihli has always been an attractive destination for immigrants. In the Ottoman era, the region was a favorite stopover for nomad clans (aşiret). Today, it is still possible to trace the names of some of the region's villages to the original aşiret names such as Karayahşi, Araplı, Burhan, Beylikli, Çökelek, Eldelek, Dombaylı, Durasıllı, Sindel etc. Moreover, some aşiret names refer to unsettled localities, such as Sığıralcısı, Bayındırlı, Karatekeli, Kuşdoğanlı, Kacar, Taras, Karakeçili. After the 1890s until the 1950s, Salihli also attracted many immigrants moving into Turkey from the Balkans, from Yugoslavia and Bulgaria particularly. Many Turkic-speaking immigrants from Xinjiang, China chose to live in Salihli during the Chinese revolutionary disturbances.

By considering the population increase rate according to 1985–1990 census, as of 1995 an approximate number of 170,000 people were living inside the boundary of the city. According to the census of 2009, the population in Salihli (including rural area) is 155 333 where 96 503 people were recorded in the city center. [6]

This part of the population, mainly Kazakhs and known as Türkistanlılar in the city came to Salihli between 1954 and 1955 in the following years. After the 1970s, some immigration from Eastern Anatolia also came to strengthen the ranks of the previous immigrants. Counter movements in the population were towards Turkey's big cities and to Europe, especially to Germany and France).

Economy

The economy of the city is based on agriculture, agricultural commerce and industry.

Agriculture:

The main agricultural products are seedless Sultana grapes, wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco and maize. The fertility of the region's soil also allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. Cherries known as the Napoleon breed grown especially in the villages of Allahdiyen and Gökköy and the potatoes locally known as Bozdağ potatoes are particularly famous.[ citation needed ]

Stockbreeding is another source of income for rural inhabitants, of rising importance especially in the last decade.

Industry:

The recent building of Salihli Organized Industrial Zone (in Turkish Salihli Organize Sanayi Bölgesi), extending over an area of 111 hectares in a triangular zone between the close district centers of Salihli, Alaşehir and Kula, became a great opportunity to provide new employment opportunities in the region and accelerate the pace of industrialization.

Smaller industrial enterprises are concentrated in Salihli self, where there are 32 brick works and tileries drawing on the region's rich reserves in raw materials for bricks, 2 flour mills, 2 valonia oak factories, 10 cotton gin factories, 2 grape operating works, 1 feed grain factory, 1 industrial tube factory, 1 tomato dressing factory, 2 olive oil mills, 2 beverage factories, 1 water bottling factory, 1 mineral water company and 1 emery rock factory.

Tourism:

The remains of Sardis, which notably includes the Lydian King named Giges's tomb, the Artemis Temple and a Marble Court with Gymnasium built by the Romans, as well as other historical vestiges are widely visited by tourists, nationally and internationally.

To the 5 and 14 km (9 mi). south of the town, there are lead and mud baths named Kurşunlu Kaplıcaları, which are famous across the region.[ citation needed ] These thermal springs are visited especially to treat rheumatic disorders, sciatica, lumbago, arthritis, neuralgia, orthopaedic disorders, several skin diseases, some gynecological conditions and kidney disorders. Moreover, a recent geothermal energy production project intends to use these thermal sources and provide heating for the city of Salihli.

There are also many excursion possibilities around Salihli. 'Bozdağ' summits and the Lake Gölcük located near the top of one of the summits is at a very high altitude. The restaurants and cafes situated on the hills around Bozdağ have views over Salihli.[ citation needed ]

Culture and sports activities

Sports activities are also quite developed in and the city was represented for a long time in the Turkish Second League by Yeni Salihlispor. Today, nearly 1500 licensed sportsmen are competing in various sports activities in Salihli, such as football, basketball, volleyball, table tennis, judo, wrestling, oil wrestling, folk dance and chess. There are 10 football clubs representing Salihli in amateur league of Turkey and 1 female volleyball club is in the 2nd league. Under Salihli Municipality's structure, Turkish folk music, Turkish Classical Music and Children's Chorus organizations also have a place and modern ballet and other dance schools, folk dances, piano, drawing and theater lessons are also supported. Especially in Judo, there are several international sporties, Team of judo has got gold, silver and bronze medals in the world championships and countless medals in national tournaments.

Cuisine

Besides other Turkish dishes, Salihli has a particular köfte variety of its own, named Odun Köfte. Gökeyüp village's güveç stews are also particularly famous in the region.[ citation needed ] Production of high quality grapes, especially Sultana grapes is also reflected in the cuisine. In wedding ceremonies held in the villages, dishes like keşkek and topalak are often cooked, and some people make their own rakı with sweet sultana grapes.

Notable people

Related Research Articles

Sardis ancient city at the location of modern Sart

Sardis or Sardes was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart in Turkey's Manisa Province. Sardis was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, one of the important cities of the Persian Empire, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times. As one of the seven churches of Asia, it was addressed by John, the author of the Book of Revelation in the New Testament, in terms which seem to imply that its church members did not finish what they started, that they were about image and not substance. Its importance was due first to its military strength, secondly to its situation on an important highway leading from the interior to the Aegean coast, and thirdly to its commanding the wide and fertile plain of the Hermus.

Akhisar Place in Manisa, Turkey

Akhisar is a county district and its town center in Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Western Turkey. Akhisar is also the ancient city of Thyatira.

Bergama District in Aegean, Turkey

Bergama is a populous district, as well as the center city of the same district, in İzmir Province in western Turkey. By excluding İzmir's metropolitan area, it is one of the prominent districts of the province in terms of population and is largely urbanized at the rate of 53.6%. Bergama center is situated at a distance of 118 km (73 mi) to the north from the point of departure of the traditional center of İzmir and lies at a distance of 27 km (17 mi) inland from the nearest seacoast at the town of Dikili to its west. Bergama district area neighbors the areas of three districts of Balıkesir Province to its north, namely Ayvalık, Burhaniye and İvrindi, İzmir Province district of Kınık and Manisa Province district of Soma, Manisa to its east, while to the south it is bordered by the central provincial of Manisa and two other İzmir Province districts along the coast that are Aliağa and Dikili from its south towards its west. The district area's physical features are determined by the alluvial plain of Bakırçay River.

Mount Sipylus mountain

Mount Spil, the ancient Mount Sipylus, is a mountain rich in legends and history in Manisa Province, Turkey, in what used to be the heartland of the Lydians and what is now Turkey's Aegean Region.

Sultana (grape) grape

The sultana is a "white", oval seedless grape variety also called the sultanina, Thompson Seedless, Lady de Coverly (England), and oval-fruited Kishmish. It is also known as İzmir üzümü in Turkey since this variety has been extensively grown region around İzmir. It is assumed to originate from the Levant, which later became part of the Ottoman Empire. In some countries, especially Commonwealth countries, it is also the name given to the raisin made from it or from larger seedless grapes; such sultana raisins are often called simply sultanas or sultanis. These are typically larger than Zante currants, and the Thompson variety is smaller than many seeded raisins. In the US and Canada, the name "raisin" is applied to all dried grapes, so that the breakfast cereal known as "sultana bran" in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom is called raisin bran in the United States and Canada.

Alaşehir Town in Aegean, Turkey

Alaşehir, in Antiquity and the Middle Ages known as Philadelphia, is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. It is situated in the valley of the Kuzuçay, at the foot of the Bozdağ Mountain. The town is connected to İzmir by a 105 km (65 mi) railway. The longtime mayor is Gökhan Karaçoban.

Çal Place in Denizli, Turkey

Çal is a town and a district of Denizli Province in the inner Aegean region of Turkey. Çal district area occupies a central position in the northern part of its province and neighbors the central district of Denizli to the south-west and the district areas of Güney to the west and Honaz to the south. To the east of Çal district lies clockwise the districts of Bekilli, Çivril and Baklan.

Kemalpaşa Place in İzmir, Turkey

Kemalpaşa is a large town and the center of the district of the same name in İzmir Province, Turkey. Its district area extends immediately to the east of İzmir's eastern-most metropolitan district, Bornova, and Kemalpaşa town being at a distance of only 29 km (18 mi) from the historical and traditional center of İzmir, (Konak), it pulsates along with the rhythm of the big city, with corresponding high levels of development in terms of industry and services. İzmir-Ankara highway crosses the district area 8 km (5.0 mi) to the north of the district center. Kemalpaşa district area borders on the administrative divisions of Manisa center in the north, Manisa's depending district of Turgutlu in the east and İzmir's depending districts of Torbalı and Bayındır in the south. The eastern and southern parts of Kemalpaşa district preserve their markedly rural characteristics, which results in an urbanization rate of only 25.7 for the district area as a whole, despite the presence of a strong industrial base in and to the west of Kemalpaşa town. Kemalpaşa's very large organized industrial zone (KOSBİ) brings together producers of construction materials, rubber and plastic goods, textiles and clothing, leather, paper, packaging materials, machinery and other equipment, including electrical tools and installations, dyes and other chemical substances, marble and car parts, as well as foundries and other metalworks. Agriculture also occupies a portion with high added value in Kemalpaşa's economy, its cherries being of nationwide renown and exported. Literacy is at a high level at 90%, and the neighboring Bornova, where Ege University is based, serves as a nearby pool in terms of trained personnel.

Menemen District in Aegean, Turkey

Menemen, is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey as well as the district's central town. The district extends on a fertile plain formed by the alluvial soil carried by the Gediz River. Menemen's district area neighbors the following district areas from east to west; Aliağa and Foça to the north and Bornova, Karşıyaka and Çiğli to the south, these last two being among İzmir's metropolitan districts. Menemen district also has a 27 km (17 mi) long coastline in the west and neighbors Manisa Province to the east. The town of Menemen is located at a distance of 35 km (22 mi) from İzmir center. Settlement across the district is loosely scattered along the Greater Metropolitan Area of İzmir in the south and consists of isolated villages along prairies in the north, which results in an average urbanization rate of only 42 per cent. The economy still relies on agriculture and stock breeding in large part, although the production and export of leather, ceramic and other earthenware products, as well as potentially of plastic products, based in two separate and specialized organized industrial zones made important steps forward during the last decade. Menemen's earthenware pottery products are famous across Turkey since centuries. These two organized industrial zones as well as activities rebounding from the adjacent İzmir metropolitan area gain an increasing importance in the district's economy. Nevertheless, Gediz River, whose lower basin crosses Menemen plain to join the sea within the district boundaries still constitutes the lifeline of the region and matters relating to the river's flow as well as its present rate of rather high pollution is a matter of constant debate. The level of education is high in Menemen with literacy rate reaching 99%.

Sarıgöl District in Aegean, Turkey

Sarıgöl is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 35,621 of which 12,043 live in the town of Sarıgöl. The district covers an area of 357 km2 (138 sq mi), and the town lies at an elevation of 194 m (636 ft).

Turgutlu District in Aegean, Turkey

Turgutlu, also known as Kasaba is a city and district in Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. According to 2009 census, its district population is 140,753; 115,930 live in the city itself. The district covers an area of 473 km2 (183 sq mi) at an elevation of 68 m (223 ft). The district is the most populous after the provincial center of Manisa and the second most populous district center, in Turkey's Aegean Region.

Çiğli Place in İzmir, Turkey

Çiğli is a metropolitan district of İzmir in western Turkey. It covers the northern end of İzmir Metropolitan Municipality around the mouth of the River Gediz, across the Gulf of İzmir from the main city. The Gediz delta is an Important Bird Area but is under threat from urbanization. IAOIZ, the Izmir Atatürk Organized Industrial Zone, is a significant economic hub and there is a major air force base.

Mount Nif mountain in Turkey

Mount Nif, Turkish: Nif Dağı, is a mountain in the district of Kemalpaşa, towering over the district center, located immediately to the east of the city of İzmir, in western Turkey. It was one of the nineteen mountains which carried the name Olympus in ancient times.

Gölcük, İzmir Town in İzmir Province, Turkey

Gölcük is a little town and a summer resort in İzmir Province, Turkey. The name of the town means Little lake.

Bozdağ Town in İzmir Province, Turkey

Bozdağ is a town in İzmir Province, Turkey

Fire of Manisa

The Fire of Manisa refers to the burning of the town of Manisa, Turkey which started on the night of Tuesday 5 September 1922 and continued until 8 September. It was started and organized by the retreating Greek troops during the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922), and as a result 90 percent of the buildings in the town were destroyed. The number of victims in the town and adjacent region was estimated to be several thousand by US Consul James Loder Park. Turkish sources claim that 4355 people died in the town of Manisa.

References

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. "Stretches to Reduce Sciatica". Sunday, 15 January 2017
  4. Sydney Nettleton Fisher, The Middle East: a history, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969, p. 386
  5. U.S. Vice-Consul James Loder Park to Secretary of State, Smyrna, 11 April 1923. US archives US767.68116/34
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-20. Retrieved 2017-06-25.