|Born|| 19 November 1925 |
Gazipur, South 24 Parganas, Bengal Presidency, British India (present-day West Bengal, India)
|Died||5 September 1995 69) (aged|
Calcutta, West Bengal, India
|Genres||Bengali, folk, film base, western classical fusion, Indian classical fusion|
|Occupation(s)||Singer-Songwriter, Composer, Arranger, Poet, Lyricist, Story-writer|
Salil Chowdhury; 19 November 1925 - 5 September 1995)was an Indian songwriter, music director, lyricist, writer, and poet who predominantly composed for Bengali, Hindi, and Malayalam films. He composed music for films in 13 languages. This includes over 75 Hindi films, 41 Bengali films, around 27 Malayalam films, and a few Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Gujarati, Oriya and Assamese films. His musical ability was widely recognised and acknowledged in the Indian film industry. He was an accomplished composer and arranger who was proficient in several musical instruments, including flute, the piano, and the esraj. He was also widely acclaimed and admired for his inspirational and original poetry in Bengali.
The first Bengali film for which Chowdhury composed music was Paribortan, released in 1949. Mahabharati, released in 1994, was the last of the 41 Bengali films where he rendered his music. He is affectionately called Salilda by his admirers.
Salil Chowdhury was born on 19 November 1922in a village called Gazipur in South 24 Parganas, West Bengal. Salil's childhood was spent in the tea gardens region of Assam. His father was reputed to stage plays with coolies and other low-paid workers of the tea-gardens. From an early age he listened to the Western Classical collection of his father. During the second world war Chowdhury got the opportunity to closely observe human sufferings, hunger and problem of the refugees. He studied in Harinavi D.V.A.S High School and there after graduating from Bangabasi College, affiliated to the University of Calcutta in Kolkata, and during this period his political ideas were formulated along with a considerable maturity in his musical ideas.
As a teenager in school, Chowdhury already had an interest in music, and played the flute, harmonium and esraj. He learnt to play the piano from his elder brother at the age of 6. Once in college, he also began to compose tunes. His first popular song was "Becharpoti tomar bichaar" (lit. the days of new judgement have come because people are now awake), set to a kirtan tune. Chowdhury composed it in 1945 during the Indian National Army trials when the freedom fighters had returned from Andaman jail. Chowdhury shifted to a village in 24 parganas to live with his maternal uncles, when he was witness to a big peasant uprising there in 1943. He got involved with them and began writing songs for the peasant movement. In 1944, while studying for his MA, Chowdhury witnessed people dying on the streets of Calcutta, as 50 lakh Bengalis died during the famine created by the British. The famine was man-made as local rice was instead directed to Britain's war effort overseas, leading to scarcity, aggravated by black marketeers and hoarders. This led Chowdhury to become fully involved in the peasant movement, and he became a full-time member of IPTA and the Communist Party. Subsequently, arrest warrants were issued in his name, and he went underground in the Sunderbans, hiding in paddy fields and supported by local peasants. During this time, he continued writing plays and songs.
In 1944, a young Salil came to Calcutta for his graduate studies. He joined the IPTA(Indian Peoples Theater Association) the cultural wing of the Communist Party of India. He started writing songs and setting tunes for them. The IPTA theatrical outfit travelled through the villages and the cities bringing these songs to the common man. Songs like Bicharpati, Runner and Abak prithibi became extremely popular with the general population at the time.
Songs like Gnaayer bodhu (গাঁয়ের বধূ), which he composed at the age of 20, brought about a new wave of Bengali music.Almost every notable singer at the time from West Bengal had sung at least one of his songs. A few examples are Debabrata Biswas, Hemanta Mukherjee, Shyamal Mitra, Sandhya Mukherjee, Manabendra Mukherjee, Subir Sen, and Pratima Banerjee.
The first Bengali film in which Salil Chowdhury composed music was Paribortan, released in 1949. Mahabharati, released in 1994, was the last of the 41 Bengali films where he rendered his music.
In an interview with All India Radio, Salil Chowdhury described his coming to Bombay in 1953 as a "stroke of luck". He was writing the script for a Bengali film about a peasant who was disowned of his land and had gone to Calcutta to earn money as a Rickshaw puller. Hrishikesh Mukherjee, who heard of it from Chowdhury during a visit to Calcutta, liked it immensely and suggested that he narrate it to the director Bimal Roy. Roy heard it, and asked him to meet him again the next morning. However, when Chowdhury went to meet him the next day, he learnt that Roy had rushed to Bombay on an urgent call. A week later, he received a telegram from Roy that he wanted to turn his script into a movie. This resulted in Chowdhury's debut in the Hindi film industry in 1953as the music director for Do Bigha Zamin (1953). The movie was based on Tagore's poem by the same name, but the story was different and was written by Salil Chowdhury himself. Directed by Bimal Roy, this film took his career to new heights when it became the first film to win the Filmfare Best Movie Award and won the international Prize at the Cannes Film Festival.
After working for about 20 years in Bengali and Hindi films, he entered the Malayalam film industry and, in 1964, composed music for the movie Chemmeen.He went on to compose music for films in 13 languages. This includes over 75 Hindi films, 41 Bengali films, around 27 Malayalam films, and a few Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Gujarati, Oriya and Assamese films. Asked about his method, Chowdhury described it thus – He would usually ask the film maker to explain the situation to him, then Chowdhury would compose a tune to suit the mood, and the lyric writer would set in words. This remained his practice for most of his films including Madhumati, in which Shailendra wrote the lyrics subsequently.
Poet, Playwright, Short story writer, Salil also directed a film Pinjre Ke Panchhi starring Meena Kumari, Balraj Sahani and Mehmood based on his own story and screenplay in 1966. Salil Chowdhury was the Founder of Bombay Youth Choir, the first ever Secular Choir in India in 1958 as its composer and conductor - he inspired scores of secular choir groups to be formed throughout India formulating a new genre of music using vocal polyphony for Indian Folk and Contemporary Music.
Salil Chowdhury was married to the painter Jyoti Chowdhury in July 1953. He had three daughters with her — Aloka, Tulika and Lipika. Later, he moved in with singer Sabita Chowdhury, with whom he had two sons, Sukanta and Sanjoy, and two daughters, Antara and Sanchari. Sanjoy Chowdhury is a successful music composer and has scored music for over 100 feature films. Sabita Chowdhury was a legendary singer and their daughter Antara Chowdhury too a known singer. Smt. Sabita Chowdhury died on 29 June 2017.
|1953||Do Bighaa Zameen|
|1954||Biraaj bahu; Naukri; Manohar|
|1956||Aawaaz; Parivaar; Jaagte Raho|
|1957||Aparadhi Kaun; Ek Gaaon ki Kahaani; LaalBatti; Musaafir, Zamaana|
|1960||Jawaahar; Honeymoon; Qaanoon; Parakh; Usne Kaha Tha|
|1961||Chaardeewaari; Chhayaa; Kaabuliwaalaa; Maayaa; Memdidi; Sapan Suhaane|
|1962||Half Ticket; Jhoola; Prem Patra|
|1965||Chaand Aur Sooraj; Poonam Ki Raat|
|1966||Pinjre Ki Panchhi; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose; Jawaab Aayega|
|1968||Mitti Ka Dev|
|1969||Ittefaaq; Sara Akaash|
|1971||Gehraa Raaz; Mere Apne|
|1972||Annadata; Anokha Daan; Anokha Milan; Mere Bhaiyaa; Sabse Bada Sukh|
|1975||Chhoti si Baat; Sangat|
|1976||Jeevan Jyoti; Mrigayaa; Udaan Chhoo|
|1977||Minoo; Anand Mahal|
|1979||Kalaa Patthar; Jeenaa Yahaan|
|1980||Chehre Pe Chehra; Chemmeen Lahrein; Chirutha; Kuhasaa; Naani Maa; Room no.203; Daisy|
|1981||Plot no. 5; Agni Pareeksha|
|1982||Dil Ka Saathi Dil; Darpok ki Dosti; Artap|
|1984||Kanoon Kya Karega|
|1989||Kamla Ki Maut; Nehru The Jewel of India; Atmadaan; Aakhiri Badlaa|
|1990||Triyaatri; Hamaari Shaadi * (MD: Sanjoy Chowdhury and Salil Chowdhury)|
|1994||Tiriacharittar (or Striyascharittram)|
|Salil Chowdhury Filmography|
|1953||Bhor Hoye Elo|
|1956||Ak din Raatre|
|1959||Baadi Thekey Paaliye|
|1964||Kinu Goaalaar Goli|
|1972||Raktaakto Banglaa (made in Bangladesh)|
|1979||Jibon Je Rakam;Rupaali Soikate (made in Bangladesh)|
|1990/91||Aashrita **(background: Salil) (MD:Hridaynath Mangeskar)|
|1975||Thomasleeha (or St. Thomas)|
|1977||Dweep (background music only)|
|1977||Etho Oru Swapnam|
|1979||E Ganam Marakkumo|
|1984||Vellam (background music only)|
|1990||Vaasthuhaara (background music only)|
|Tamil||1971||Uyir (Salilda composed background music only - MD was Ramana Sridhar)|
|Kannada||1975||Onde Rupa Eradu Guna|
|Kannada||1977||Chinna Ninna Muddaduve; Kokila|
List of some songs for which music or lyrics were composed by Salil Chowdhury (in alphabetical order)
|Salil Chowdhury Discography|
IPTA:: Indian People's Theater Association
A Hindi film directed by Bimal Roy based on a story in Bengali "Rikshawalaa" written by Salil Chowdhury.
1st Filmfare Awards (1954)Winner – Best Film; Winner – Best Director – Bimal Roy;
1st National Film Awards(India) Winner – All India Certificate of Merit for Best Feature Film
7th Cannes Film Festival (1954)Winner – Prix International (International Prize) Nominated – Grand Prize (Best Film)
Karlovy Vary International Film FestivalWinner – Prize for Social Progress
A Malayalam film directed by Ramu Kariat, based on a novel of the same name written by the renowned writer Thakazhy Shivshankar Pillai, where Music Direction was done by Salil Chowdhury.
Recipient of President's Gold Medal in 1965.
Received Filmfare Best Music Director Award along with eight other Filmfare awardsMadhumati won the National Film Awards for Best Feature Film in Hindi
The Uttar Pradesh Film Patrakar Sangh Puraskar in 1966 for his only Hindi directorial film 'Pinjre Ke Panchhi'
The Bengal Films Journalist Award, Kolkata in 1973
The Allauddin Smriti Puraskar in 1985 from the Govt of West Bengal
The Maharahtra Gaurav Puraskar Award in 1990
Posthumously he was awarded the Mukti Judhho Maitreyi Samman Award by the Govt Bangladesh in 2012.
Poet, Playwright, Short story writer, he also directed a film Pinjre Ke Panchhi starring Meena Kumari, Balraj Sahani and Mehmood b
Hemanta Mukhopadhyay, known professionally as Hemant Kumar, was an Indian singer and music director who sang in Bengali, Hindi and other Indian languages like Marathi, Gujarati, Odia, Assamese, Tamil, Punjabi, Bhojpuri, Konkani, Sanskrit and Urdu. He was an artist of Bengali and Hindi film music, Rabindra Sangeet, and many other songs. He was the recipient of two National Awards for Best Male Playback Singer.
Do Bigha Zamin is a 1953 Indian Hindi-language drama film directed by Bimal Roy. Based on Rabindranath Tagore's Bengali poem "Dui Bigha Jomi", the film stars Balraj Sahni and Nirupa Roy in lead roles. Known for its socialist theme, it is considered an important film in the early parallel cinema of India, and a trend setter.
Prabodh Chandra Dey, known by his stage name Manna Dey, was an internationally acclaimed Indian playback singer, music director, musician and Indian classical vocalist. As a classical vocalist, he belonged to the Bhendibazaar gharana. He was trained under Ustad Aman Ali Khan. He is considered one of the most versatile and celebrated vocalists of the Hindi film industry. He was one of the playback singers credited with the success of Indian classical music in Hindi commercial movies. He debuted in the film Tamanna in 1942. After the song "Upar Gagan Bishal" composed by S D Burman he saw success and went on to record more than 4,000 songs till 2013. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 1971, the Padma Bhushan in 2005, Padma Vibhusan in 2012 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2007. He also conferred with the foreign awards including Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the Government of France in 1985.
Bimal Roy was an Indian film director. He is particularly noted for his realistic and socialistic films such as Do Bigha Zamin, Parineeta, Biraj Bahu, Devdas, Madhumati, Sujata, Parakh and Bandini, making him an important director of Hindi cinema. Inspired by Italian neo-realistic cinema, he made Do Bigha Zamin after watching Vittorio De Sica's Bicycle Thieves (1948). His work is particularly known for his mise en scène which he employed to portray realism. He won a number of awards throughout his career, including eleven Filmfare Awards, two National Film Awards, and the International Prize of the Cannes Film Festival. Madhumati won 9 Filmfare Awards in 1958, a record held for 37 years.
Hrishikesh Mukherjee was an Indian film director, editor and writer regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of Indian cinema, known for a number of films, including Anari, Satyakam, Chupke Chupke, Anupama, Anand, Abhimaan, Guddi, Gol Maal, Majhli Didi, Chaitali, Aashirwad, Bawarchi, Khubsoorat, Kissi Se Na Kehna, and Namak Haraam.
Madhumati is a 1958 Indian Hindi-language paranormal romance film directed and produced by Bimal Roy, and written by Ritwik Ghatak and Rajinder Singh Bedi. The film stars Dilip Kumar and Vyjayanthimala in the lead roles, with Pran and Johnny Walker in supporting roles. The plot focuses on Anand, a modern man who falls in love with a tribal woman named Madhumati. They are unable to have a relationship during their lifetimes and are reincarnated.
Calcutta Youth Choir was set up in 1958 by Ruma Guha Thakurta with Salil Chowdhury and Satyajit Ray.
Sujata is a 1959 Hindi language Bimal Roy film. It stars Nutan and Sunil Dutt, supported by Sulochana, Lalita Pawar and Shashikala. Based on a Bengali short story of the same name by writer Subodh Ghosh, the film explored the situation of caste in India. The music is by S. D. Burman and the lyrics by Majrooh Sultanpuri. It was entered into the 1960 Cannes Film Festival.
Dharti Ke Lal is a 1946 Hindustani film, the first directorial venture of the noted film director Khwaja Ahmad Abbas. It was jointly written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and Bijon Bhattacharya, based on plays by Bhattacharya and the story Annadata by Krishan Chander. The film had music by Ravi Shankar, with lyrics by Ali Sardar Jafri, Nemichand Jain, Vamiq, and Prem Dhawan.
Anupam Roy is an Indian singer, lyricist, composer and playback singer from Kolkata, West Bengal. He made his debut with Amake Amar Moto Thakte Dao & Benche Thakar Gaan, which appeared on the soundtrack of the 2010 Bengali film Autograph. Since then, he has gone on to compose, write lyrics and sing for many Bengali films. In 2015, he made his Bollywood debut, composing the songs and score for Piku. He was nominated for the 61st Filmfare Award for Best Music Director, and won the 61st Filmfare Award for Best Background Score for Piku. He is a recipient of 64th National Film Award for Best Lyrics for the song Tumi Jaake Bhalobasho.
Debojyoti Mishra, is an Indian music director and film composer. He became popular with his minimalist classical compositions for the Hindi film Raincoat, directed by Rituparno Ghosh. His work on films like Chokher Bali, Bariwali, Arekti premer golpo, Memories in March was acclaimed. He also worked on Bengali films, Chaturanga and Sesher Kobita, directed by Suman Mukhopadhyay. The songs he composed for the Bengali film Autograph starring Prasenjit Chatterjee, Nandana Sen and Indraneil Sengupta, gained immense popularity. All the songs of this film created a new vibration in Bengali film music. His composition for Titli was immensely praised as well which includes the famous song "Megh Pioner Bager Vitor" sung by Srikanto. He has also composed music for the Malayalam film Calcutta News, which was set in Kolkata.
Antara Chowdhury is an Indian singer and composer. She is a daughter of Late renowned Composer and Poet Salil Chowdhury and famous singer Late Sabita Chowdhury. She started singing at the age of 7. Her first playback was in the Hindi film 'Minoo' along with greats like Manna Dey and Asha Bhonsle. Songs like Teri Galiomein Hum Aye a duet with Manna Dey and solo O Kali Re Kali Re became very popular.
Sudhin Dasgupta was a prolific Bengali music director, lyricist, and singer. He worked in various other Indian languages, such as Hindi, Assamese and Oriya. His contribution opened a new horizon to the Bengali music for both the arenas of Bengali basic song as well as Bengali film song.
Dwijen Mukhopadhyay was an Indian composer and singer whose musical career spanned six decades. He was an accomplished performer of Rabindrasangeet, Bengali basic songs, Bengali and Hindi film songs. He recorded more than 1500 songs, of which about 800 are songs of Rabindranath Tagore. He also directed music in Bengali feature films and composed music for popular Bengali basic songs. He died on 24 December 2018
Sudhendu Roy (1921–1999) was a noted Indian film director, art director and production designer in Hindi cinema, most known for his realistic art direction in auteur Bimal Roy's films, like Sujata (1959), Madhumati (1959) and Bandini (1963), and glitzy work in films Subhash Ghai's Karz (1980) and Karma (1986) to Yash Chopra's Silsila (1981), Chandni (1989) and Lamhe (1991). He won the Filmfare Award for Best Art Direction thrice for, Madhumati (1959), Mere Mehboob (1964) and Sagina (1975).
Kamal Bose (1915–1995) was an Indian cinematographer, who shot most of Bimal Roy classics, including Parineeta (1953), Do Bigha Zamin (1953), Bandini (1963), Devdas (1955) and Sujata (1960). He successful transitioned into the coloured film era, and shot Qurbani (1980), Janbaaz (1986) and Dayavan (1988).
Sabita Chowdhury (1945-2017) was an Indian playback singer. She has sung songs in Bollywood as well as in Bengali films. She was married to Salil Chowdhury and Antara Chowdhury is their daughter.
"Dui Bigha Jomi" is a Bengali language poem written by Rabindranath Tagore. The poem describes a peasant's love towards his land and was the inspiration for the story Rickshawala, on which the Hindi film Do Bigha Zamin, directed by Bimal Roy, was based.
Subir Sen was an Indian playback singer who sang modern songs in Bengali and Hindi. He was also one of the artists of Rabindra Sangeet.
Pinjre Ke Panchhi is a 1966 Indian Hindi-language film starring Meena Kumari, Balraj Sahni and Mehmood in lead roles. The film marks the directorial debut of ace music director Salil Chowdhury who also gave its music. It was a commercial failure at the box office.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Salil Chowdhury .|