City of Saltillo
The Athens of Mexico, The Detroit of Mexico
Location of Saltillo within the municipality
|Founded||July 25, 1577|
|Founded as||Villa de Santiago del Saltillo|
|Founded by||Alberto del Canto|
|• Mayor||Manolo Jiménez Salinas|
|Elevation||1,600 m (5,250 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
Saltillo (American Spanish: [salˈtiʝo] (
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Saltillo is one of the 38 municipalities of Coahuila, in north-eastern Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Saltillo. The municipality covers an area of 6837 km².
The metropolitan areas of Mexico have been traditionally defined as the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city.
Saltillo is one of the most industrialized areas of the country and has one of the largest automotive clusters in Mexico, with plants such as Grupo Industrial Saltillo, General Motors, Fiat Group, Chrysler, Daimler, Freightliner, Delphi, Plastic Omnium, Magna, and Nemak been installed in the region. In 2013, the FDi Intelligence Magazine placed the capital of Coahuila as the best medium-sized city with the best economic potential to invest in Latin America.
The first union between two people of the same sex in Latin America was made in Saltillo. This happened on January 2007, when two women united through the Civil Pact of Solidarity,
Founded in 1577 by Conquistador Alberto del Canto and Spanish colonists, Saltillo is the oldest post-conquest settlement in northern Mexico. Fourteen years later in 1591 the Spanish resettled a community of their Tlaxcaltec allies in a separate nearby village (San Esteban de Nueva Tlaxcala), in order to cultivate the land and aid colonization efforts that had stalled in the face of hostility of the indigenous Chichimeca people to the Spanish presence.Saltillo grew slowly due to hostile Indians and shortages of water. Its population 100 years after its founding was about 300; the population of the adjoining Tlaxcalan town of San Estaban was about 1,750.
Alberto del Canto formally Alberto Vieira do Canto, was a Portuguese conquistador of northern New Spain.
Tlaxcala was a pre-Columbian city and state in central Mexico.
San Esteban de Nueva Tlaxcala was a Tlaxcalan municipality in what is now the Mexican state of Coahuila. San Esteban was the northernmost of the six Tlaxcalan colonies established in 1591 at the behest of the Viceroy of New Spain, Luis de Velasco; its founders came from Tizatlan. In 1834, San Esteban was merged into the adjoining city of Saltillo.
Saltillo was a northern commercial center on the northern frontier which served as a bridge from central Mexico to regions farther northeast, Nuevo León, Nuevo Santander, Coahuila, and Texas.Saltillo supplied the silver mines of Zacatecas with wheat. It never rose to great prominence, but it did develop a commercial core and an agricultural and ranching sector that supplied its own needs, with surpluses that could be sold. Saltillo became administratively more important at the end of the eighteenth century, with the establishment of a branch of the Royal Treasury. Merchants, most of whom were Iberian-born peninsular Spaniards, constituted the most important economic group, handling a wide variety of goods and sold in shops. They were the provincial branch of the transatlantic merchant sector, with ties to Mexico City merchants. Peninsular merchants in Saltillo married into local elite society, acquired rural properties, and sought local office. In the late seventeenth century, an annual trade fair was established, with goods from as far away as China and Europe, but also Mexican manufactures and livestock. Saltillo could produce wheat commercially so long as enterprises had access to water, but as with many other parts of the North, drought was a consistent threat. In the eighteenth century, there was a demand for draft animals, which Saltillo could supply.
In 1824, Saltillo was made the capital of the State of Coahuila y Tejas and included the area which is now the U.S. state of Texas until the Texas War of Independence and the founding of the independent Texas Republic.
Coahuila y Tejas was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.
On 23 October 1840 the Battle of Saltillo took place when 110 Texans and Tejanos crossed the Rio Grande and attacked the city, as part of a campaign to establish the Republic of the Rio Grande, a separatist rebellion in northeastern Mexico which had Texan support.
The Battle of Saltillo was fought between insurgents under the command of Colonel Samuel Jordan fighting for the Republic of the Rio Grande and the Centralists under the command of General Rafael Vasquez fighting for the First Mexican Republic. The result was a victory for the Centralists.
The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States and flows to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its total length was 1,896 miles (3,051 km) in the late 1980s, though course shifts occasionally result in length changes. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is either the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America.
The Republic of the Rio Grande was an independent nation that insurgents against the Central Mexican Republic sought to establish in northern Mexico. The Republic of the Rio Grande was just one of a series of independence movements in Mexico under the unitary government dominated by Santa Anna, including the Republic of Texas, the Republic of Zacatecas, and the Republic of Yucatán. The rebellion lasted from January 17 to November 6, 1840.
The city of Saltillo is the municipal seat of the municipality of Saltillo. The current Mayor is Manolo Jiménez Salinas from the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI).
In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
El Cerro del Pueblo (The People's Hill) and its 4-metre (13 ft) cross overlook the city. The city's elevation makes it cooler and windier than the neighboring city of Monterrey. Saltillo lies near the city of Arteaga and in the Chihuahuan Desert. The city is flanked by the Zapalinamé mountains, which are part of the Sierra Madre Oriental. By looking at the relief of the mountains, one can see, according to local legend, the relief of Zapalinamé, chieftain of the Guachichil tribe.
Saltillo has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh, just avoiding arid designation). Saltillo is located in the Chihuahuan Desert but temperatures are cooler than other desert cities in Mexico because it is located in an altitude of 1,600 meters (5,250 ft). Summers are slightly hot with cool nights, and winters are sunny but cool. Rainfall is scarce but more prominent in summer.
|Climate data for Saltillo (1951–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||36.5|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.7|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.1|
|Average low °C (°F)||4.5|
|Record low °C (°F)||−14.5|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||15.8|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.4||2.7||2.0||3.4||5.1||6.3||8.8||9.2||7.9||5.1||3.0||3.3||60.2|
|Average snowy days||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.2||0.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||55||52||48||50||55||59||62||64||69||66||60||59||58|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||169.5||174.8||195.4||182.3||209.1||215.8||205.7||199.3||169.4||186.0||176.7||152.4||2,236.4|
|Source #1: Servicio Meteorologico Nacional|
|Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados|
Saltillo's most famous exports are Saltillo tile and the locally woven multi-coloured sarapes . Mercedes-Benz and General Motors both have assembly plants here and Chrysler operates a truck assembly plant, a sedan assembly plant, two engine facilities and a car transmissions plant. 37.4% of cars and 62.6% of trucks produced in Mexico are assembled in Saltillo.Saltillo is home to the Grupo Industrial Saltillo, an important manufacturing conglomerate that makes home appliances, silverware, and auto parts.
During the early 20th century, Saltillo was called the Athens of Mexico because of its number of famous intellectuals. At that time, Saltillo was inhabited by a large number of expatriates from Europe, particularly Great Britain and Ireland. It is currently considered the Detroit of Mexico because of the importance of its automotive industry, including the huge Chrysler, General Motors, and Delphi plants.
The General Motors plant, the Complejo Industrial Ramos Arizpe (Ramos Arizpe Industrial Complex) manufactures vehicles for export to Japan, Canada, and Central America as well as for domestic purchase. It builds the Chevrolet C2, Chevrolet Monza, Chevrolet Captiva, Chevrolet HHR, Saturn Vue hybrid, Saab 9-4X and Cadillac SRX.As of 2016 the plant produces about one third of the firm's full-sized pickups.
Alameda Zaragoza, located just west of the downtown plaza, has a pond in the shape of the Mexican Republic.
The Colonial Center of the city is built in pink marble, giving Saltillo's architecture a distinctive flavor. Prominent buildings are the cathedral (built from 1745-1800), the Palacio de Gobierno (state government building), the Ateneo Fuente and the Instituto Tecnológico de Saltillo. The large cathedral is the best example of colonial religious architecture in northeastern Mexico; its facade is mainly Spanish Baroque, with less exuberant areas. The Centro Cultural Vito Alessio Robles (Vito Alessio Cultural Center) is an 18th-century repository of antiquities and documents from historians Vito Alessio Robles and Oscar Davila. The repository is also a temporal museum. The Casa Purcell (Purcell Manor) is a Victorian style mansion built in the 19th century by Irish merchant William Purcell. Today it is a cultural center. Next to Casa Purcell, is Banco Purcell which is also a cultural center.
The city has two world-class museums. The Museo de las Aves de México (Bird Museum),featuring a collection of bird specimens from all over Mexico in realistic displays. The Museo del Desierto (Desert Museum) focuses on the geography, geology, paleontology (with dinosaur fossils) and biodiversity of the Chihuahuan Desert, and the history and culture of the local people through time. It includes a cactus greenhouse and exhibits, with dozens of species.
The Mirador is an amazing place to observe a panoramic view of the city. Underground tunnels start in the Catedral de Santiago and end at the city's limits.
Saltillo's main universities are the Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, the Instituto Tecnológico de Saltillo, the Tec de Monterrey Saltillo Campus, El Instituto de Filologia Hispanica, and the Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro. Other universities include Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV Saltillo), Universidad Interamericana del Norte (Tec Sierra Madre , Universidad Autonoma del Noreste, Universidad Pedagogica Nacional, Universidad del Valle de Mexico, Escuela Normal de Coahuila , and many others.
The following professional clubs are based in Saltillo:
|Dinos Saltillo||American football||2016||LFA||Estadio Olímpico Francisco I. Madero|
|Saraperos de Saltillo||Baseball||1970||Mexican League||Estadio de Béisbol Francisco I. Madero|
Saltillo Metropolitan Area air traffic is served by Plan de Guadalupe International Airport. It takes 15 minutes to get from downtown Saltillo to the airport. It has several flights per day to Mexico City and no flights to international locations. There is a comprehensive bus system in Saltillo along with many taxis.
The following are sister cities of Saltillo:
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Xalapa is the capital city of the Mexican state of Veracruz and the name of the surrounding municipality. In the 2005 census the city reported a population of 387,879 and the municipality of which it serves as municipal seat reported a population of 413,136. The municipality has an area of 118.45 km². Xalapa lies near the geographic center of the state and is the second-largest city in the state after the city of Veracruz to the southeast.
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Torreón is a city and seat of Torreón Municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila. As of 2015, the city's population was 679,288. The metropolitan population as of 2015 was 1,497,734, making it the ninth-biggest metropolitan area in the country and the largest metropolitan area in state of Coahuila, as well as one of Mexico's most important economic and industrial centers. The cities of Torreón, Gómez Palacio, Lerdo, Matamoros, Francisco I. Madero, San Pedro, Bermejillo, and Tlahualilo form the area of La Laguna or the Comarca Lagunera, a basin within the Chihuahuan Desert.
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The Spanish missions in Mexico are a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Franciscans, Jesuits, Augustinians, and Dominicans to spread the Christian doctrine among the local natives. Since 1493, the Kingdom of Spain had maintained a number of missions throughout Nueva España in order to preach the gospel to these lands. In 1533, at the request of Hernán Cortés, Carlos V sent the first Franciscan friarss with orders to establish a series of installations throughout the country.
The Antonio Narro Agrarian Autonomous University or Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro in Spanish (UAAAN) is a public university in Mexico dedicated to the Agricultural, Silvicultural, Animal Production, food and Environmental Sciences. It is located 6 kilometers south of Saltillo, in the Mexican state of Coahuila. The Antonio Narro Agrarian Autonomous University is one of the most important agricultural college of America Latina and the "Narro" have national and international recognition in the agricultural and animal industry and the high academic level. There is also a campus in Torreón, Coahuila. It is also called "Universidad Antonio Narro" for short, or simply, "La Narro". In 2008 the UAAAN has an enrollment of about 4,500 students in both campuses, all in agriculture and related sciences.
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Eliana Menassé is a Mexican painter and member of the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana, an honor society for Mexican artists She was born in New York, but lived in Mexico since she was two years old and considers herself Mexican. As of 2015 she lived and worked at her Mexico City apartment overlooking Parque México.
Prudencio de Orobio Y Basterra (–?) was a Spanish merchant, soldier and government official. He was a native of Saltillo and served as the Interim Governor of Texas between 1737 and 1740/41 and Mayor of Parras de la Fuente, in Coahuila.
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And while Fiat Chrysler is expanding its American output of trucks, it still relies on its factory in Saltillo, Mexico, for 30 to 40 percent of its pickups