Samad bey Mehmandarov

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Samad bey Mehmandarov
General Samed bey Mehmandarov.jpg
Born(1855-10-16)October 16, 1855
Lankaran, Azerbaijan
DiedFebruary 12, 1931(1931-02-12) (aged 75)
Baku, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union
AllegianceFlag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Service/branch Imperial Russian Army
Years of service1875-1918
Rank General
Commands held Minister of Defense of ADR (December 25, 1918 – April 1, 1920)
Battles/wars Conquest of Turkestan
Boxer rebellion
Russo Japanese War
World War I
Awards Order of Saint Stanislaus
Order of St. Anna
Order of St. Vladimir
Order of St. George
Order of the White Eagle
Order of St. Alexander Nevsky
Relations Karim bey Mehmandarov
Other workDefence Minister for the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Defence Advisor to Azerbaijan SSR

Samadbey Sadykhbey oglu Mehmandarov (Azerbaijani : Səməd bəy Mehmandarov Sadıx bəy oğlu, Russian : Самедбек Садыхбек оглы Мехмандаров; October 16, 1855 February 12, 1931) was an Azerbaijani General of the Artillery in the Imperial Russian Army and served as Minister of Defense of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

Azerbaijani language Turkic language

Azerbaijani or Azeri, sometimes also Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a term referring to two Turkic lects that are spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who live mainly in Transcaucasia and Iran. North Azerbaijani and South Azerbaijani have significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords. ISO 639-3 groups the two lects as a "macrolanguage".

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

Azerbaijanis ethnic group

Azerbaijanis or Azeris, also known as Azerbaijani Turks, are a Turkic people living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan. They are the second-most numerous ethnic group among the Turkic peoples after Anatolian Turks. They are predominantly Shi'i Muslims, and have a mixed cultural heritage, including Turkic, Iranian, and Caucasian elements. They comprise the largest ethnic group in the Republic of Azerbaijan and the second-largest ethnic group in neighboring Iran and Georgia. The world's largest number of ethnic Azerbaijanis live in Iran, followed by the Republic of Azerbaijan.

Contents

Early life

Samedbey Mehmandarov was born on October 16, 1855 in Lankaran, Azerbaijan in a noble family originally from Shusha. He graduated from 2nd Constantine Military School in St. Petersburg in 1875, was conferred the rank of podporuchik and assigned to 1st Turkestan artillery brigade. In the course of military service he was promoted to poruchik in 1877 and seconded two years later to 2nd artillery brigade in St. Petersburg.

The Mehmandarovs are noble family of Azerbaijan.

Lankaran Place in Azerbaijan

Lankaran is a city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran. It has a population of 51,300 (2014). It is next to but independent of Lankaran rayon. The city forms a distinct first-order division of Azerbaijan.

Shusha Town in Shusha Raion

Shusha, or Shushi, is a city in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus. It has been under the control of the self-proclaimed Artsakh Republic since its capture in 1992 during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. However, it is a de jure part of the Republic of Azerbaijan, with the status of an administrative division of the surrounding Shusha Rayon. According to the Resolution No.884 of the United Nations Security Council and the United Nations General Assembly by the Resolution No.62/243, the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan was partially recognized and they include a demand of withdrawal of the Armenian forces. Situated at an altitude of 1,400–1,800 metres (4,600–5,900 ft) in the picturesque Karabakh mountains, Shusha was a popular mountain recreation resort in the Soviet era.

Active duty

In 1885 shtabs-kapitan Mehmandarov was assigned to 38th artillery brigade in the Caucasus, where he served 9 years. In 1894, 38th artillery brigade was transferred to Poland, where he became a member of court martial. In 1898, captain Mehmandarov was promoted to lieutenant-colonel and appointed the commander of 1st battery of 3rd artillery battalion. The same year, Mehmandarov’s battery was moved to Transbaikal region and took part in China Relief Expedition in 1901. For the services in battle Mehmandarov was conferred the rank of colonel. In 1903 he completed a course in Tsarskoye Selo Officer's Artillery College.

Caucasus region in Eurasia bordered on the south by Iran, on the southwest by Turkey, on the west by the Black Sea, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the north by Russia

The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, which has historically been considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

Poland Republic in Central Europe

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Artillery battery artillery unit equivalent to an infantry company

In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc., so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems. The term is also used in a naval context to describe groups of guns on warships.

When the Russo-Japanese War broke out in 1904, Mehmandarov was appointed the commander of 7th Eastern Siberia artillery battalion. During the siege of Port Arthur he was the commander of the Eastern Front Artillery. For the services in battle he was promoted to major general and decorated with the Order of Saint George of IV degree. After the capitulation of the fortress the garrison was in Japanese captivity. When Japanese commanders allowed the captured Russian officers to return home in exchange to signing an obligation not to fight against Japan, Mehmandarov refused and preferred to stay with his soldiers.

Russo-Japanese War war between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan

The Russo-Japanese War was fought during 1904-1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea, Japan and the Yellow Sea.

Siege of Port Arthur battle of the Russo-Japanese war

The Siege of Port Arthur, the deep-water port and Russian naval base at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, was the longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War.

Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant.

Upon his return from captivity Mehmandarov was appointed the commander of 7th East Siberian Artillery Brigade in 1906, and became the commander of 3rd Siberian Army Corps artillery a year later. In 1908, he was conferred the rank of lieutenant-general. In 1910, he was appointed the commander of 1st Caucasus Division; in 1913 he became the commander of 21st Infantry Division and in this position entered World War I within 3rd Caucasus Army Corps. Under Mehmandarov’s command the division earned the reputation of one of the best in the Russian Army, and 81st Apsheron and 83rd Samur regiments especially distinguished themselves. He was decorated with the Order of Saint George of III degree for the battles of 27 – 29 September 1914, and Saint George Sword decorated with diamonds for the battle near Ivangorod on 14 February 1915. The latter was a very rare military award, only eight Russian commanders received it during the entire course of the World War I.

The 3rd Siberian Army Corps was an Army corps in the Imperial Russian Army.

The 21st Infantry Division was an infantry formation of the Russian Imperial Army.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

On December 11, 1914 Mehmandarov was appointed the commander of 2nd Caucasus Army Corps. Mehmandarov’s corps was engaged in the fiercest battles with German troops and during the whole war had not surrendered to the enemy a single piece of ordnance. On 22 March 1915 Samedbey Mehmandarov was promoted to the rank of the General of the Artillery. He was decorated with British, French and Romanian orders.

The 2nd Caucasian Army Corps was a division of the military of the Russian Empire which existed from 1879 to 1918, including the time period of World War I.

In the Imperial Russian army, General of the Artillery was the second-highest possible rank, below Generalissimo of Russia or General-Fieldmarshal, produced by splitting General-in-Chief into service branches.

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

S. Mehmandarov (sitting, 3rd from the left) with the members of the 4th Cabinet of Ministers of ADR. December 1919 Kabinet ministrov Azerbaidzhanskoi Respubliki IV-go pravitel'stvennogo sostava.jpg
S. Mehmandarov (sitting, 3rd from the left) with the members of the 4th Cabinet of Ministers of ADR. December 1919

After the February Revolution in Russia Mehmandarov resigned and left for Baku. With the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918, Samedbey Mehmandarov became the third and last Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan. He held this position until 11th Red Army troops invaded Azerbaijan in 1920. After the fall of the national government and establishment of Soviet rule in Azerbaijan Mehmandarov was arrested, but he was released two months later. He taught in military schools and was an advisor to the Commissariat of Military and Naval Forces of the Azerbaijan SSR until his retirement in 1928.

Samedbey Mehmandarov died on February 12, 1931 in Baku.

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References

    This article incorporates material translated from Russian Wikipedia