|Samad bey Mehmandarov|
|Born||October 16, 1855|
|Died|| February 12, 1931 75) (aged|
Baku, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union
|Service/||Imperial Russian Army|
|Years of service||1875-1918|
|Commands held||Minister of Defense of ADR (December 25, 1918 – April 1, 1920)|
|Battles/wars|| Conquest of Turkestan |
Russo Japanese War
World War I
|Awards|| Order of Saint Stanislaus |
Order of St. Anna
Order of St. Vladimir
Order of St. George
Order of the White Eagle
Order of St. Alexander Nevsky
|Relations||Karim bey Mehmandarov|
|Other work|| Defence Minister for the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic|
Defence Advisor to Azerbaijan SSR
Samadbey Sadykhbey oglu Mehmandarov (Azerbaijani : Səməd bəy Mehmandarov Sadıx bəy oğlu, Russian : Самедбек Садыхбек оглы Мехмандаров; October 16, 1855 – February 12, 1931) was an Azerbaijani General of the Artillery in the Imperial Russian Army and served as Minister of Defense of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also sometimes referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a term referring to two Turkic lects that are spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who live mainly in Transcaucasia and Iran. North Azerbaijani and South Azerbaijani have significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords. ISO 639-3 groups the two lects as a "macrolanguage".
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, over two decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris, also known as Azerbaijani Turks, are a Turkic people living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan. They are the second-most numerous ethnic group among the Turkic peoples after Anatolian Turks. They are predominantly Shi'i Muslims, and have a mixed cultural heritage, including Turkic, Iranian, and Caucasian elements. They comprise the largest ethnic group in the Republic of Azerbaijan and the second-largest ethnic group in neighboring Iran and Georgia. The world's largest number of ethnic Azerbaijanis live in Iran, followed by the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Samedbey Mehmandarov was born on October 16, 1855 in Lankaran, Azerbaijan in a noble family originally from Shusha. He graduated from 2nd Constantine Military School in St. Petersburg in 1875, was conferred the rank of podporuchik and assigned to 1st Turkestan artillery brigade. In the course of military service he was promoted to poruchik in 1877 and seconded two years later to 2nd artillery brigade in St. Petersburg.
The Mehmandarovs are noble family of Azerbaijan.
Lankaran is a city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran. It has a population of 51,300 (2014). It is next to but independent of Lankaran rayon. The city forms a distinct first-order division of Azerbaijan.
Shusha, or Shushi, is a city in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus. It has been under the control of the self-proclaimed Artsakh Republic since its capture in 1992 during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. However, it is a de jure part of the Republic of Azerbaijan, with the status of an administrative division of the surrounding Shusha Rayon. According to the Resolution No.884 of the United Nations Security Council and the United Nations General Assembly by the Resolution No.62/243, the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan was partially recognized and they include a demand of withdrawal of the Armenian forces. Situated at an altitude of 1,400–1,800 metres (4,600–5,900 ft) in the picturesque Karabakh mountains, Shusha was a popular mountain recreation resort in the Soviet era.
In 1885 shtabs-kapitan Mehmandarov was assigned to 38th artillery brigade in the Caucasus, where he served 9 years. In 1894, 38th artillery brigade was transferred to Poland, where he became a member of court martial. In 1898, captain Mehmandarov was promoted to lieutenant-colonel and appointed the commander of 1st battery of 3rd artillery battalion. The same year, Mehmandarov’s battery was moved to Transbaikal region and took part in China Relief Expedition in 1901. For the services in battle Mehmandarov was conferred the rank of colonel. In 1903 he completed a course in Tsarskoye Selo Officer's Artillery College.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, which has historically been considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia, but is today accepted by the majority of scholars as being part of Asia.
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc., so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems. The term is also used in a naval context to describe groups of guns on warships.
When the Russo-Japanese War broke out in 1904, Mehmandarov was appointed the commander of 7th Eastern Siberia artillery battalion. During the siege of Port Arthur he was the commander of the Eastern Front Artillery. For the services in battle he was promoted to major general and decorated with the Order of Saint George of IV degree. After the capitulation of the fortress the garrison was in Japanese captivity. When Japanese commanders allowed the captured Russian officers to return home in exchange to signing an obligation not to fight against Japan, Mehmandarov refused and preferred to stay with his soldiers.
The Russo-Japanese War was fought during 1904-1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea, Japan and the Yellow Sea.
The Siege of Port Arthur, the deep-water port and Russian naval base at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, was the longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War.
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant.
Upon his return from captivity Mehmandarov was appointed the commander of 7th East Siberian Artillery Brigade in 1906, and became the commander of 3rd Siberian Army Corps artillery a year later. In 1908, he was conferred the rank of lieutenant-general. In 1910, he was appointed the commander of 1st Caucasus Division; in 1913 he became the commander of 21st Infantry Division and in this position entered World War I within 3rd Caucasus Army Corps. Under Mehmandarov’s command the division earned the reputation of one of the best in the Russian Army, and 81st Apsheron and 83rd Samur regiments especially distinguished themselves. He was decorated with the Order of Saint George of III degree for the battles of 27 – 29 September 1914, and Saint George Sword decorated with diamonds for the battle near Ivangorod on 14 February 1915. The latter was a very rare military award, only eight Russian commanders received it during the entire course of the World War I.
The 3rd Siberian Army Corps was an Army corps in the Imperial Russian Army.
The 21st Infantry Division was an infantry formation of the Russian Imperial Army.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
On December 11, 1914 Mehmandarov was appointed the commander of 2nd Caucasus Army Corps. Mehmandarov’s corps was engaged in the fiercest battles with German troops and during the whole war had not surrendered to the enemy a single piece of ordnance. On 22 March 1915 Samedbey Mehmandarov was promoted to the rank of the General of the Artillery. He was decorated with British, French and Romanian orders.
The 2nd Caucasian Army Corps was a division of the military of the Russian Empire which existed from 1879 to 1918, including the time period of World War I.
In the Imperial Russian army, General of the Artillery was the second-highest possible rank, below Generalissimo of Russia or General-Fieldmarshal, produced by splitting General-in-Chief into service branches.
After the February Revolution in Russia Mehmandarov resigned and left for Baku. With the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918, Samedbey Mehmandarov became the third and last Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan. He held this position until 11th Red Army troops invaded Azerbaijan in 1920. After the fall of the national government and establishment of Soviet rule in Azerbaijan Mehmandarov was arrested, but he was released two months later. He taught in military schools and was an advisor to the Commissariat of Military and Naval Forces of the Azerbaijan SSR until his retirement in 1928.
Samedbey Mehmandarov died on February 12, 1931 in Baku.
Hazi Aslanov was an Azerbaijani major-general of the Soviet armoured troops during World War II. Aslanov was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union title twice. The second Hero title was awarded on July 12, 1991, by Mikhail Gorbachev, at the constant recommendations by Heydar Aliyev.
Ali-Agha Ismail-Agha oglu Shikhlinski, sometimes anglicized as Ali-Agha Shikhlinsky was an Azerbaijani lieutenant-general of the Russian imperial army, Deputy Minister of Defense and General of the Artillery of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and Soviet military officer.
Christophor Araratov, also known as Khachatur Araratian and Kristapor Araratian, was a career officer of the Russian Imperial Army. He was promoted to the rank of Major General of the Armenian army during its fight for independence during and after World War I. Araratov participated in the 1918 battles of Sardarapat and Karakilisa against Turkish invaders.
Ibrahim bey Usubov Musa Agha oglu was an Azerbaijani Major General in Russian Imperial Army and Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
Jamshid Jafargulu oglu Nakhchivanski, also known as Jamshid Khan Nakhichevanski, was a Russian Imperial, Azerbaijani and Soviet military commander. He rose to the rank of Combrig in the Soviet Army.
Nikolai Aleksandrovich Tretyakov was a military engineer and general in the Imperial Russian Army, noted for his heroic role in the Siege of Port Arthur during the Russian-Japanese War.
Mikhail Ivanovich Zasulich was a general in the Imperial Russian Army, noted for his role as commander of the Russian 2nd Siberian Army Corps in the Battle of the Yalu River, of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905.
Nikolay Aleksandrovich Kashtalinsky was a general in the Imperial Russian Army during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He fought in the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, and in World War I.
Pavel Ivanovich Mishchenko was a Imperial Russian career military officer and statesman of Ukrainian ethnicity of the Imperial Russian Army.
Bahram bey Nabibekov was an Azerbaijani colonel in the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic army and one of the leaders of Sheki uprising in 1930.
Habib bey Haji Yusif oglu Salimov was the first Chief of General Staff of Azerbaijani Armed Forces of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
Abdulhamid Bey Sharif Bey oglu Gaytabashi was the last Chief of General Staff of Azerbaijani Armed Forces of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic before its occupation by the Red Army in April 1920.
Mikhail Ivanovich Batyanov was a general in the Imperial Russian Army.
Prince Jaques Bagratuni was an Armenian prince and military commander. He was a Major General of the Russian Empire and First Republic of Armenia during World War I, and later became the Ambassador of Armenia to England.
Aliheydar Aligulu oglu Ibragimov was a Soviet military officer, a participant in the Great Patriotic War, and a participant in the liberation struggle Brest Fortress of the war. He was the Commander of the 4th Guards corps anti-tank fighter division. Guards Major of Red Army.
Habibullah Huseynov was an Iranian Azerbaijani Red Army colonel and a posthumous Hero of the Soviet Union. Huseynov emigrated to Baku, working as a loader and a fitter. He was drafted into the Red Army on a Komsomol direction in 1928 and became an artillery officer. He was arrested and imprisoned as an Iranian spy during the Great Purge. He was released months later and became an anti-aircraft artillery battalion commander, serving in this role during World War II.
Malik Malik oglu Maharramov was an Azerbaijani Soviet Army Colonel and a Hero of the Soviet Union. Maharramov was awarded the title on 15 January 1944 for his leadership of a company during the Battle of the Dnieper. He served in the army postwar and became the military commissar for several districts in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. After graduating from Frunze Military Academy, Maharramov became a regimental chief of staff in 1954. He retired in 1973 with the rank of colonel. After his retirement from the army, he held several positions in the Azerbaijan Communist Party and was secretary of the Baku State University party organization.
Aslan Farhad oglu Vazirov was an Azerbaijani Red Army colonel and Hero of the Soviet Union. Vazirov served in the Red Army's engineer troops during the interwar period. In 1941 and 1942 Vazirov served with the 18th Army's engineering troops. In that year he became commander of the 38th Separate Engineering Regiment. During the Battle of the Caucasus he led the 5th Mountain Mine-Engineer Brigade. In June 1943 he became commander of the 51st Engineer-Sapper Brigade. He commanded the 1st Guards Assault Engineer-Sapper Brigade from May 1944. Vazirov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on 29 June 1945 for his leadership of the brigade during the Berlin Offensive. Vazirov retired in 1947 and lived in Baku. He became a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR and was chairman of the Baku chapter of the Soviet Committee of War Veterans.
Idris Hasan oglu Suleymanov was an Azerbaijani Red Army Lieutenant and Hero of the Soviet Union. During the Battle of the Caucasus near Mozdok in November 1942, he led the 1st Rifle Platoon of the 1st Separate Rifle Battalion in the 43rd Separate Rifle Brigade. He reportedly launched a counterattack and was wounded in the eye and leg but did not leave the front line. Suleymanov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on 13 December 1942. He retired postwar and worked at the local social security department.
The Tatar Cavalry Regiment was one of the regiments of the Caucasian Native Cavalry Division of the Imperial Russian Army, which was formed from Tatars of Elisabethpol and Baku Governorate, and also the Borchaly uyezd of Tiflis Governorate.
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations . (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This article incorporates material translated from Russian Wikipedia