Samarinda

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Samarinda
City of Samarinda
Kota Samarinda
Samarinda Montage.jpg
From top, left to right:
Grand Barumbay Resort, Official government building, Entrance of East Kalimantan main stadium, Lembuswana sculpture (Lembuswana is a legendary creature appearing in Kutai mythology of Samarinda), Catholic Archdiocese of Samarinda Building, Vihara Eka Dharma Manggala, and Samarinda Islamic Center Mosque.
Flag of Samarinda City.png
Coats of arms of Samarinda City.svg
Motto(s): 
Samarinda Kota Tepian
Anthem: "March of Kota Tepian"
Lokasi Kalimantan Timur Kota Samarinda.svg
Location within East Kalimantan
Indonesia Kalimantan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Samarinda
Location in Kalimantan and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Samarinda
Samarinda (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 0°29′59.874″S117°8′15.9324″E / 0.49996500°S 117.137759000°E / -0.49996500; 117.137759000 Coordinates: 0°29′59.874″S117°8′15.9324″E / 0.49996500°S 117.137759000°E / -0.49996500; 117.137759000
CountryIndonesia
Province Flag of East Kalimantan.svg  East Kalimantan
Founded1668
Government
  MayorAndi Harun
  Deputy MayorRusmadi Wongso
  Legislative PresidentSugiyono
  Chief JusticeHongkun Otoh
Area
  Total718.00 km2 (277 sq mi)
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Highest elevation
[1] [2] [3] (Puncak Samarinda)
260 m (850 ft)
Population
  Estimate 
(2020 Census)
827,994
  Rank(19th)
  Density1,153/km2 (2,990/sq mi)
Demographics
  Religion [4] Islam 90.93%
Protestantism 5.25%
Catholic 2.12%
Buddhism 0.86%
Hinduism 0.12%
Confucianism 0.08%
Others 0.01%
Time zone UTC+8 (WITA)
Area code(s) +62541
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Drives on the left

Samarinda is the capital city of the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo. The city lies on the banks of the Mahakam River with a land area of 718 km2 (277 sq mi). Samarinda ranks first on East Borneo Human Development Index [5] and it is the most populous city on the entire Borneo island, with a population of 727,500 at the 2010 Census [6] and 827,994 at the 2020 Census. [7]

Contents

Samarinda is East Borneo's largest exporter [8] and fifth-largest importer. [9] The city has the highest number of bank headquarters in East Borneo. [10]

In the first half of 2021, Samarinda Harbour became the busiest passenger port in East Borneo. [11] The container port in Samarinda is also the busiest in East Borneo, handled more than 271 thousand  twenty-foot equivalent units  (TEU) in 2019. [12] [13]

Samarinda is known for its traditional food amplang , as well as the cloth sarung samarinda. [14] The city also has a bridge connecting its river banks, Mahakam Bridge. The city center is on one side and the other side is named Samarinda Seberang.

Etymology

The name Samarinda originates from the description of the way in which the Bugis houses were constructed. At that time houses were customarily built on a raft and generally had the same height. This provided important social symbolism of equality between residents; no person's house, and thus no person, was seen as higher or lower than another. They named the settlement “Samarenda”, meaning “equally low”. After hundreds of years of use the pronunciation of the name changed slightly and the city became known as Samarinda. [15]

History

At the start of the Gowa War, the Dutch under Admiral Speelman's command attacked Makassar from the sea. Meanwhile, the Netherlands' Bugis ally Arung Palakka led a ground attack. The Kingdom of Gowa was forced to surrender and Sultan Hasanuddin was made to sign the Treaty of Bongaja on 19 November 1667. [16]

The treaty did not quell all trouble for the Dutch however, since the Bugis from Gowa continued their struggle using guerilla tactics. Some Buginese moved to other islands close by such as Kalimantan. A few thousand people led by Lamohang Daeng Mangkona or Pua Ado I, moved to East Kalimantan, known then as Kutai, where they were welcomed by the local Sultan.

Samarinda was a small, sleepy town in 1942 with several small oil fields in the vicinity. It was occupied by the Japanese after the Dutch East Indies had fallen. [17]

In 1955, the Apostolic Vicariate of Samarinda was established in the city. In 1961, it was promoted as the Diocese of Samarinda. In 2003, the diocese was promoted as the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Samarinda. [16]

Administrative districts

At the time of the 2010 Census, Samarinda City was divided into six districts (Indonesian: kecamatan), but four additional districts were subsequently created by splitting of existing ones. The ten districts are tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census [18] and the 2020 Census. [19]

NameArea
in km2
Population
Census 2010
Population
Census 2020
Palaran221.2949,07963,189
Samarinda Ilir
(Lower Samarinda)
17.18120,93669,142
Samarinda Kota
(Samarinda town)
11.12(a)31,719
Sambutan100.95(a)57,941
Samarinda Seberang12.49114,18364,050
Loa Janan Ilir26.13(b)65,892
Sungai Kunjang
(Kunjang River)
43.04114,044133,543
Samarinda Ulu
(Upper Samarinda)
22.12126,651129,806
Samarinda Utara
(North Samarinda)
229.52202,607106,743
Sungai Pinang
(Pinang River)
34.16(c)105,970
Totals718.00727,500827,994

Notes: (a) the 2010 populations of Samarinda Kota and Sambutan Districts are included in the 2010 figure for Samarinda Ilir District, from which they were later split off. (b) the 2010 population of Loa Janan Ilir District is included in the figure for Samarinda Seberang District, from which it was later split off. (c) the 2010 population of Sungai Pinang District is included in the figure for Samarinda Utara District, from which it was later split off.

Climate

Samarinda has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af) with heavy rainfall and hot, oppressively humid temperatures year-round. Hail is extremely rare, it was recorded on 21 November 2019. [20] [21] The lowest recorded temperature in Samarinda is 18.0 °C (64.4 °F) in October 1982. [22]

Climate data for Samarinda
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)30.0
(86.0)
30.3
(86.5)
30.5
(86.9)
30.5
(86.9)
30.5
(86.9)
29.9
(85.8)
29.5
(85.1)
29.9
(85.8)
30.1
(86.2)
30.8
(87.4)
30.5
(86.9)
30.4
(86.7)
30.2
(86.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.5
(79.7)
26.7
(80.1)
26.8
(80.2)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81.0)
26.7
(80.1)
26.3
(79.3)
26.6
(79.9)
26.8
(80.2)
27.3
(81.1)
26.9
(80.4)
26.9
(80.4)
26.8
(80.3)
Average low °C (°F)23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23.9
(75.0)
23.6
(74.5)
23.1
(73.6)
23.4
(74.1)
23.5
(74.3)
23.8
(74.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.4
(74.1)
23.4
(74.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches)166
(6.5)
173
(6.8)
202
(8.0)
236
(9.3)
181
(7.1)
168
(6.6)
160
(6.3)
148
(5.8)
118
(4.6)
145
(5.7)
196
(7.7)
209
(8.2)
2,102
(82.6)
Source: [23]

Demographics

The territory's population in 2020 was 827,994 (422,624 male and 405,370 female), with an annual growth rate of 1.128% in 2019–2020. [24] The majority of the people of Samarinda are of Native Indonesian and Chinese descent. There are also Americans, Canadians, Japanese and Koreans working in Samarinda. Life expectancy in Samarinda was 73.6 years as of 2014.

Nationality / Origin2019 (pre-pandemic)2019%2020
1 Asia 47347.2%315
2 Europe 17217.1%5
3 ASEAN 16816.7%126
4 Oceania 16316.3%15
5 America 232.3%19
6 Africa 40.4%12
Total1,003100.0%
  • As of 31 December 2020
  • Source: Samarinda Statistics Department [5]

Religion

Samarinda's main religions are Islam, Christianity and Buddhism. The Christian community of around 89,000 forms about 10.2% of the total population; Protestants form a larger number than Roman Catholics at a rate of 10:3. There are also Hindu communities. [ citation needed ]

Economy

Samarinda is East Borneo's largest container ports Malampalaran.jpg
Samarinda is East Borneo's largest container ports

Since 2004, trade has been the engine of Samarinda's economic growth. [25] It is also driven by the large amount of logging and oil extraction companies based there. Similar to Balikpapan, many national logging companies are based in Samarinda. There are many abandoned coal mines in Samarinda. Coal mining used to be very popular in Samarinda. However, the Indonesian government revoked many mining licenses due to the use of illegal chemicals and machinery.

Tourism sector also plays an important role in Samarinda's economy; it attracted over 2,000 international tourists and 1.2 million domestic tourists in 2019, [26] making Samarinda the 2nd most popular tourists destination in East Borneo. [27] In 2020, agriculture constituted only 2 per cent of GDP, and consists of growing flower varieties (rose, jasmine, orchid) and fruits (pomelo citrus fruit). [5] Due to all these economical activities in Samarinda, it is one of the richest cities in East Kalimantan. [ citation needed ]

Panoramic Samarinda City From Islamic Centre Tower - panoramio.jpg
Mahakam River day view, viewed from Islamic Centre Tower, a major tourist attraction that offers views of Mahakam River and its surroundings

Transport

Aerial view of Samarinda International Airport in 2018 A bird's eye view of Samarinda International Airport.jpg
Aerial view of Samarinda International Airport in 2018
Seberang Bus Terminus Terminal Bus Samarinda Seberang - panoramio.jpg
Seberang Bus Terminus

The main transport infrastructure of Samarinda is different than every other cities in Kalimantan, characterised by less national government interference: Samarinda International Airport (East Kalimantan government), [28] [29] SkyTrain rapid transit project (public-private partnership), [30] [31] and Port of Palaran (private). [32] Samarinda is connected by Trans-Kalimantan Highway Southern Route from Balikpapan to Samarinda; the highway runs in parallel with the first controlled-access expressway in Borneo, the Samarinda-Balikpapan Expressway, which is now under construction, and expected to be operational by the end of 2018. [33]

APT Pranoto (Samarinda Sungai Siring, AAP) International Airport is the primary airport for the city and has been at Sungai Siring since 2018. With over 1 million passengers annually, it is one of East Borneo's busiest airports in terms of passenger and cargo movements. AAP is an important Australian passenger gateway for East Borneo's wildlife. AAP was built to replace Temindung Airport in Bandara, Sungai Pinang.

The prominent coal loading port of Tanjung Bara (TBCT) lies about 160 kilometres to the north of Samarinda. [34]

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