Samoan culture

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The traditional culture of Samoa is a communal way of life based on Fa'a Samoa, the unique socio-political culture. In Samoan culture, most activities are done together. There are 3 main parts in the Samoan culture, that is faith, family and music. The traditional living quarters, or fale (houses), contain no walls and up to 20 people may sleep on the ground in the same fale. During the day, the fale is used for chatting and relaxing. One's family is viewed as an integral part of a person's life. The aiga or extended family lives and works together. Elders in the family are greatly respected and hold the highest status, and this may be seen at a traditional Sunday umu (normal oven).

Samoa country in Oceania

Samoa, officially the Independent State ofSamoa and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a Sovereign state consisting of two main islands, Savai'i and Upolu, and four smaller islands. The capital city is Apia. The Lapita people discovered and settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed a unique Samoan language and Samoan cultural identity.

Fa'a Samoa in the Samoan language means The Samoan Way, and describes the socio-political and traditional-customary way of life of the Samoan culture.

Culture Social behavior and norms found in society

Culture is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities and habits of the individuals in these groups.

Contents

Traditional art forms

Construction of a Samoan fale, c. 1896 (see: Architecture of Samoa) Seumanutafa's house Apia 1896.jpg
Construction of a Samoan fale, c. 1896 (see: Architecture of Samoa)
Pe'a, traditional male tattoo. Traditional Samoan Tattoo - back.jpg
Pe'a, traditional male tattoo.

Both men and women can be tattooed (tatau). A man's tattoo is called the soga'i miki while a woman's tattoo is called a malu. [1] [2] [3]

Women play an important part in contributing with their skills in items of important cultural value including 'ie toga, finely woven mats used in ceremony and gift exchanges. [4] [5] In terms of material goods, during ritual exchange, women give fine mats 'ie toga and decorated bark cloth siapo while men give woodworking items and red feathers. [6]

Bark cloth, called siapo in Samoa (similar to the Fijian tapa cloth called masi), both of which is made from beaten mulberry bark. [7] [8] Patterns or pictures are painted on with a natural brown dye taken from a tree source. These pictures typically depict abstract and realistic depictions of plant life, shells, fish, turtles, and hibiscus flowers. The siapo may be used for clothing, for wrapping objects and even simply for decorative reasons. Ornaments, jewellery and hair accessories are made from naturally occurring materials such as sea shells, coconut and coir. Traditional Samoan medicine is often practiced as a first-line before hospital medicine. This is a type of alternative medicine using plant leaves to massage the affected area.

Barkcloth Type of non-woven textile

Barkcloth or bark cloth is a versatile material that was once common in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Barkcloth comes primarily from trees of the family Moraceae, including Broussonetia papyrifera, Artocarpus altilis, and Ficus natalensis. It is made by beating sodden strips of the fibrous inner bark of these trees into sheets, which are then finished into a variety of items. Many texts that mention "paper" clothing are actually referring to barkcloth.

Fijians are a nation and ethnic group native to Fiji, who speak Fijian and share a common history and culture.

Tapa cloth is a barkcloth made in the islands of the Pacific Ocean, primarily in Tonga, Samoa and Fiji, but as far afield as Niue, Cook Islands, Futuna, Solomon Islands, Java, New Zealand, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea and Hawaii. In French Polynesia it has nearly disappeared, except for some villages in the Marquesas.

Wooden figurative sculpture was extremely rare in pre-Christian Samoa, and shares some similarities with Fijian and Tongan sculpture. [9]

'Ava ceremony

The 'ava ceremony is the least significant ritual which takes place before all important occasions, including the bestowal of matai chiefly titles. [10] The overall ceremony is highly ritualized, with specific gestures and phrases to be used at various times. Ceremonial items for the 'ava ceremony include the tanoa (round wooden bowl) similar to those used in the kava cultures of other Polynesian societies. The tanoa are made of varying sizes supported by many short legs around it. These bowls and other related instruments are often highly decorated. Known as kava in other parts of Polynesia, the 'ava is a beverage produced from a plant that is drunk throughout the western Pacific region. The drinking of ʻava in Samoa is generally done through highly ritualized ʻava ceremonies. The kava is prepared by a group of people called aumaga. It is brought to each participant by the tautuaʻava, or ʻava server, in the order proscribed by the tufaʻava, or ʻava distributor. Usually, the highest chief of the visiting party is served first, followed by the highest chief of the host party, and then service proceeds based on the rank of the rest of the participants. The drink is served in a polished coconut half shell.

Kava cultures are the religious and cultural traditions of western Oceania which consume kava. There are similarities in the use of kava between the different cultures and islands, but each one also has its own traditions.

Polynesia Subregion of Oceania

Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians, and share many similar traits including language family, culture, and beliefs. Historically, they had a strong tradition of sailing and using stars to navigate at night. The largest country in Polynesia is New Zealand.

Dance

Boy performing a Samoan fire dance (siva afi). Samoa fire dance - siva afi.jpg
Boy performing a Samoan fire dance (siva afi).

The traditional Samoan dance is the siva. The female siva is with gentle movements of the hands and feet in time to music. The sasa is a group dance performed sitting to a drum rhythm. Samoan males traditionally perform the fa'ataupati (slap dance), usually performed in a group with no music accompaniment. Other types of dance are modern dance by the younger generations. Traditional Samoan dance is arguably the one area of Samoan culture that has not been touched by Western Civilization. The maulu'ulu is a group dance performed by female counterparts only, also the taualuga is the main Samoan traditional dance that is performed by a village chief (manaia) or village chiefess (taupou). It is often performed at weddings, birthdays and other Samoan celebrations. [11]

In the Samoan culture the Taualuga is used for special celebrations, started by the village chief's son (manaia) or village chief's daughter (taupou). The Tuiga is a Samoan Traditional headpiece(crown) that is made out of different types of things like feathers, human hair, and a variety of different types of shells. Also it’s now a privilege to wear the Tuiga because in the 19th century it was only to be worn by the high chief’s son, daughter, and also by extended families. Before they start the taualuga, he or she must bow their head and spread out their hands to the people, to thank the people for coming out and for their support. This happens before and after the taualuga. The way we prepare the outfit is stressful. But the outfit is made from fine woven mats that symbolizes time, honor, and traditions, then we add red feathers from the birds of the islands. Next the outfit with a Tapa is made from the bark of the tree and it represents the art and the craft of the Samoan culture. Then there was The Ula Nifo it's a necklace that is made from whale-tooth that is worn by the head chief or worn by the person who dances the taualuga. It was also a symbol of wealth. Finally, the meaning of the dance. Back in Samoa in the 19th century the person who performed the dance was the high chief’s son or daughter that was a virgin.

Languages

In American Samoa, most people are bilingual; they speak both English and Samoan. People in Samoa are also bilingual, but Samoan is stronger and more widely spoken, although the inhabitants of Swains Island speak Tokelauan.samoan primary language is Samoa and their secondary language is English even though they speaked both English and Samoan they are still a Samoan

Names

The meaning of a given name is important when naming a child in the Samoan community:

Dress

The traditional ladies clothing is the puletasi which is a matching skirt and tunic with Samoan designs. The lava-lava is a sarong which may be worn by men or women. They are of different patterns and colors, but tend to be plain for men who may wear it as part of an official uniform. Some men have intricate and geometrical patterns that are tattooed onto their lower body and upper legs. The tattooing process is performed without any anaesthesia and is extremely painful. Ceremonial attire includes a headdress called tuiga which is made of shells and feathers. [13] [14]

Religion

A church in Matavai village, Savai'i Church 2, Matavai village, Savaii, Samoa.JPG
A church in Matavai village, Savai'i

Religion in Samoa encompasses a range of groups, but nearly 100% of the population in Samoa is Christian. [15] The 2001 Census revealed the following distribution of Christian groups: Congregational Christian, 34.8 percent; Roman Catholic, 19.6 percent; Methodist, 15 percent; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , 12.7 percent; Assemblies of God, 6.6 percent; and Seventh-day Adventist, 3.5 percent. [15] These statistics reflected continual growth in the number and size of Mormons and Assemblies of God and a relative decline in the membership of the historically larger denominations. [15] The following groups constitute less than 5 percent of the population: Nazarene, Anglican, Congregational Church of Jesus, Worship Centre, Jehovah's Witnesses, Full Gospel, Peace Chapel, Elim Church, Voice of Christ, and Baptist. [15]

Historic Methodist Chapel at Piula Theological College on Upolu island Piula Theological College, Upolu island, Samoa, 2009.jpg
Historic Methodist Chapel at Piula Theological College on Upolu island

There are also members of other religions such as Islam and the Baha'i Faith; the shared estimate of the Bahá'í population in Samoa circa 2000 according to a profile by the World Council of Churches and the online encyclopedia Encarta was 2% of the nation—some 3600 people—and the only non-Christian community of any number. [16] [17] The country hosts one of only seven Baha'i Houses of Worship in the world. [15] The Baha'i Houses of Worship was dedicated by Malietoa Tanumafili II, King of Samoa (1913-2007), who was the first reigning Bahá'í monarch. [18] Although there were no official data, it is generally believed that there are also some practicing Hindus, Buddhists, and Jews in the capital city. [15]

All religious groups are multiethnic; none are composed exclusively of foreign nationals or native-born (Western) Samoans. [15] There are no sizable foreign national or immigrant groups, with the exception of U.S. nationals from American Samoa. [15] Missionaries operated freely within the country. [15] There is strong societal pressure at the village and local level to participate in church services and other activities, and financially support church leaders and projects. [15] In some denominations, such financial contributions often total more than 30 percent of family income. [15] The constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the government generally respected this right in practice. [15] The US government found there to be no reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious belief or practice in 2007. [15]

Sports

Samoa performing their Siva Tau before playing South Africa at the 2007 Rugby World Cup. Samoan Siva Tau.jpg
Samoa performing their Siva Tau before playing South Africa at the 2007 Rugby World Cup.

The main sports played in Samoa are rugby union and Samoan cricket (kilikiti). In rugby there are the 3 D's. 1 defence, 2 discipline, and the 3rd one is the DAKKLE. About 30 ethnic Samoans, many from American Samoa, currently play in the NFL. A 2002 article from ESPN estimated that a Samoan male (either an American Samoan, or a Samoan living in the 50 United States) is 40 times more likely to play in the NFL than a non-Samoan American. A number have also ventured into professional wrestling. Soccer is a popular sport in Samoa, with the national team being ranked 149th in the world.

Rugby union is the most popular sport in Samoa. The national team is consistently competitive against teams from vastly more populous nations. Samoa have competed at every Rugby World Cup since 1991, and have made the quarter finals in 1991, 1995 and 1999. Samoa also play in the Pacific Nations Cup. The sport is governed by the Samoa Rugby Football Union, who are members of the Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance, and thus, also contribute to the international Pacific Islanders rugby union team. At club level, there is the National Provincial Championship and Pacific Rugby Cup. Prominent Samoan players include Pat Lam and Brian Lima. In addition, there are many Samoans that have played for or are playing for the All Blacks.

Rugby league is a popular sport in Samoa, with the national team reaching the quarter finals of the 2000 Rugby League World Cup. Australian rules football is a popular sport in Samoa, played as Samoa Rules with the national team, the Bulldogs, competing at the Arafura Games and the 2002 and 2005 Australian Football International Cup.

Samoans have been very visible in American professional wrestling, despite the relatively small population of the islands. Dwayne Johnson, Peter Maivia, Yokozuna, Umaga/Jamal, Manu, Rosey, Samoa Joe, The Wild Samoans, The Headshrinkers, Rikishi, Roman Reigns, and Sonny Siaki all have a Samoan heritage.

Sports in American Samoa

Sports in American Samoa are influenced by American culture and American football and its league, NFL are popular. For the Independent State of Samoa, New Zealand and British influences has led to the popularity of rugby union, soccer, netball and volleyball.

Fa'aaloaloga

The most salient and perhaps the most prominent part of Samoan culture at formal events is the process of Fa'aaloaloga (formal presentation of gifts). At weddings, chiefly installations (sa'ofaiga), funerals, opening of houses / churches, or any other public gathering of Samoans, Fa'aaloaloga will always be performed.

Ever since the formalisation of Christianity in Samoa and the inclusion of the Christian taeao or mornings into the general recitation of 'mornings' in Samoan speeches, the set protocol has been that the first presentations are always presented to the religious representatives present at the event. This is followed by the highest ranking chiefs by order of rank.

A standard set of presentation is called the sua. This is usually made up of vailolo (drink with money in it; originally it was a coconut and a coconut frond called tuaniu), amoamosa (tray of biscuits and material or a combination of other small foodstuffs like a can of corned beef), and a suatalisua (a box of corned beef and chicken or similar). This is followed by a fine mat or several fine mats (mats of state - ie o le malo), which could vary from 5 metres (16 ft) long to 25–30 metres (82–98 ft) long and 10 metres (33 ft) high. Depending on the occasion and the rank of the person, each of those elements above could be magnified several times by the addition of numbers, and could also include a huge tapa cloth being tied to the young lady presenting the vailolo or draped several metres behind her as she presents it.

Cuisine

Samoan umu, an oven of hot rocks above ground Pig on the Samoan Umu.jpg
Samoan umu , an oven of hot rocks above ground

Sundays are traditionally a day of rest, and many families congregate to share an umu together for a Sunday afternoon meal. In a traditional household, the older members of the family will sit and eat first, and as the meal continues the younger members and then children are invited to eat. The umu contains an abundance and variety of dishes ranging from a whole pig, fresh seaweed and crayfish to baked taro and rice. Coconut appears in many Samoan dishes, for example, luau, a parcel of coconut cream wrapped in taro leaves baked in the umu. This dish is eaten in its entirety including the leaves and is rich in taste due to its coconut content.

See also

Related Research Articles

Samoan is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa. It is an official language, alongside English, in both jurisdictions.

Hula Polynesian dance

Hula is a Polynesian dance form accompanied by chant (oli) or song. It was developed in the Hawaiian Islands by the Polynesians who originally settled there. The hula dramatizes or portrays the words of the oli or mele in a visual dance form.

Music of Tuvalu

The traditional music of Tuvalu consists of dances, including fatele, fakanau and fakaseasea. The influence of the Samoan missionaries sent to Tuvalu by the London Missionary Society from the 1860s resulted in the suppression of songs about the traditional religions or magic and many songs were lost. As the influence of the missionaries diminished in the 20th century the traditional dances were revived and the siva dance tradition from Samoa also became popular. The fatele, in its modern form, is performed at community events and to celebrate leaders and other prominent individuals.

The Polynesian Cultural Center (PCC) is a Polynesian-themed theme park and living museum located in Laie, on the northern shore of Oahu, Hawaii. Owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and dedicated on October 12, 1963, the PCC occupies 42 acres owned by nearby Brigham Young University–Hawaii (BYU-Hawaii).

Lavalava

A lavalava, also known as an 'ie, short for 'ie lavalava, is an article of daily clothing traditionally worn by Polynesians and other Oceanic peoples. It consists of a single rectangular cloth worn as a skirt. The term lavalava is both singular and plural in the Samoan language.

Samoans ethnic group

Samoans or Samoan people are the indigenous Polynesian people of the Samoan Islands, an archipelago in Polynesia, who speak the Samoan language. The group's home islands are politically and geographically divided between the Independent State of Samoa and American Samoa, an unincorporated territory of the United States of America. Though divided by government, the culture and language remain the same.

Culture of Tonga

The Tongan archipelago has been inhabited for perhaps 3000 years, since settlement in late Lapita times. The culture of its inhabitants has surely changed greatly over this long time period. Before the arrival of European explorers in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the Tongans were in frequent contact with their nearest Oceanic neighbors, Fiji and Samoa. In the 19th century, with the arrival of Western traders and missionaries, Tongan culture changed dramatically. Some old beliefs and habits were thrown away and others adopted. Some accommodations made in the 19th century and early 20th century are now being challenged by changing Western civilization. Hence Tongan culture is far from a unified or monolithic affair, and Tongans themselves may differ strongly as to what it is "Tongan" to do, or not do.

The culture of Fiji is a tapestry of indigenous Fijian, Indian, European, Chinese, and other nationalities. Culture polity traditions, language, food costume, belief system, architecture, arts, craft, music, dance, and sports which will be discussed in this article to give you an indication of Fiji's indigenous community but also the various communities which make up Fiji as a modern culture and living. The indigenous culture is an active and living part of everyday life for the majority of the population.

Samoan Americans are Americans of Samoan origin, including those who emigrated from the Independent State of Samoa or American Samoa to the United States. However they are not American Citizens. Samoan Americans are Pacific Islanders in the United States Census, and are the second largest Pacific Islander group in the U.S., after Native Hawaiians.

Earth oven A simple pit for cooking

An earth oven, ground oven or cooking pit is one of the simplest and most ancient cooking structures. At its most basic, an earth oven is a pit in the ground used to trap heat and bake, smoke, or steam food. Earth ovens have been used in many places and cultures in the past, and the presence of such cooking pits is a key sign of human settlement often sought by archaeologists. Earth ovens remain a common tool for cooking large quantities of food where no equipment is available. They have been used in various civilizations around the world and are still commonly found in the Pacific region to date.

Malu Samoan female-specific tattoo

Malu is a word in the Samoan language for a female-specific tattoo of cultural significance. The malu covers the legs from just below the knee to the upper thighs just below the buttocks, and is typically finer and delicate in design compared to the Pe'a, the equivalent tattoo for males. The malu takes its name from a particular motif of the same name, usually tattooed in the popliteal fossa behind the knee. It is one of the key motifs not seen on men. According to Samoan scholar Albert Wendt and tattooist Su'a Suluape Paulo II, in tattooing the term ‘malu’ refers to notions of sheltering and protection. Samoan women were also tattooed on the hands and sometimes the lower abdomen. These practices have undergone a resurgence since the late 1990s.

Hawaiian art

The Hawaiian archipelago consists of 137 islands in the Pacific Ocean that are far from any other land. Polynesians arrived there one to two thousand years ago, and in 1778 Captain James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to visit Hawaii. The art created in these islands may be divided into art existing prior to Cook’s arrival; art produced by recently arrived westerners; and art produced by Hawaiians incorporating western materials and ideas. Public collections of Hawaiian art may be found at the Honolulu Museum of Art, the Bishop Museum (Honolulu), the Hawaii State Art Museum and the University of Göttingen in Germany.

Leone, American Samoa Village in American Samoa, United States

Leone is a village on the south-west coast of Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Leone was the ancient capital of Tutuila Island. Leone was also where the Samoan Islands’ first missionary, John Williams, visited on October 18, 1832. A monument in honor of Williams has been erected in front of Zion Church. Its large church was the first to be built in American Samoa. It has three towers, a carved ceiling and stained glass. Until steamships were invented, Leone was the preferred anchorage of sailing ships which did not risk entering Pago Pago Harbor. Much early contact between Samoans and Europeans took place in Leone.

‘ie toga Samoan mat

A ʻie tōga is a special finely woven mat that an important item of cultural value in Samoa. They are commonly referred to in English as "fine mats" although they are never used as 'mats' as they only have a purely cultural value. ʻIe tōga are valued by the quality of the weave and the softness and shine of the material. They are made by women and form an important part of their role, identity and skill in their community.

Pea Traditional male tatau (tattoo) of Samoa

The Pe'a is the popular name of the traditional male tatau (tattoo) of Samoa, also known as the malofie, a term used in the Samoan language chiefly vocabulary and "respect" register.

Architecture of Samoa

The architecture of Samoa is characterised by openness, with the design mirroring the culture and life of the Samoan people who inhabit the Samoa Islands. Architectural concepts are incorporated into Samoan proverbs, oratory and metaphors, as well as linking to other art forms in Samoa, such as boat building and tattooing. The spaces outside and inside of traditional Samoan architecture are part of cultural form, ceremony and ritual.

The Taualuga is a traditional Samoan dance, considered the apex of Samoan performance art forms and the centerpiece of the Culture of Samoa. This dance form has been adopted and adapted throughout western Polynesia, most notably in the Kingdom of Tonga, Uvea, Futuna, and Tokelau. The renowned Tongan version is called the tau'olunga.

Dan Taulapapa McMullin is an American Samoan artist, known for his poetry, visual art and film. His major themes are his indigenous Samoan heritage and his fa'afafine gender identity. McMullin has been creating literary and artistic works for over 35 years, and has received numerous awards, fellowships, and grants. He works in a variety of literary styles and visual art modes. In his adult life, he has spent time in Los Angeles, and now live with his partner in Laguna, California, and Hudson, New York.

References

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  2. Sowell, Teri (2000). Worn With Pride: Celebrating Samoan Artistic Heritage. Oceanside, CA, USA: Oceanside Museum of Art. pp. 10–17.
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  5. Sowell, Teri (2000). Worn With Pride: Celebrating Samoan Artistic Heritage. Oceanside, CA, USA: Oceanside Museum of Art. pp. 30–35.
  6. Kaeppler, Adrienne (2010). Polynesia: The Mark and Carolyn Blackburn Collection of Polynesian Art. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. p. 76. ISBN   978-1-883528-40-9.
  7. Pritchard, Mary (1984). Siapo: Bark Cloth of Samoa. American Samoa: Council on Culture, Arts and Humanities, Special Publication Number 1.
  8. "siapo.com". siapo.com. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
  9. Hooper, Steven (2006). Pacific Encounters: Art and Divinity in Polynesia 1760-1860. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 245. ISBN   0824830849.
  10. Mallon, Sean (2002). Samoan Art and Artists. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 93–94. ISBN   0824826752.
  11. Samoan Sensation. http://www.samoa.co.uk/dance.html
  12. NamepediA Blog - Names Under the Dome: a Peek into Samoan Culture, article about Samoan culture and naming traditions
  13. Mallon, Sean (2002). Samoan Art and Artists / O Measina a Samoa. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 172–175. ISBN   0824826752.
  14. Sowell, Teri (2000). Worn With Pride: Celebrating Samoan Artistic Heritage. Oceanside, CA, USA: Oceanside Museum of Art. pp. 36–37.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Samoa. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  16. "Samoa". WCC > Member churches > Regions > Pacific >. World Council of Churches. 2006-01-01. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
  17. "Samoa Facts and Figures from Encarta - People". Encarta. Online. Microsoft. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-09-13. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
  18. Bahá'í International Community (2007-05-14). "Funeral and memorial service planned for Samoan head of state". Bahá'í World News Service. Retrieved 2007-05-14.

Further reading