Samogitia

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Samogitia
Žemaitija
Žemaitėjė
Tveru seniunija, 2007-06-12.jpg
Samogitian landscape near Tverai
Flag of Zemaitija.svg
Grand Coat of Arms of Samogitia.svg
Motto(s): 
Patria una
Zemaitija location Lithuania.svg
Location of Samogitia within Lithuania
Coordinates: 56°00′0″N22°15′0″E / 56.00000°N 22.25000°E / 56.00000; 22.25000 Coordinates: 56°00′0″N22°15′0″E / 56.00000°N 22.25000°E / 56.00000; 22.25000
Country Lithuania
Capital Telšiai
Largest city Šiauliai
Area
  Total21,000 km2 (8,000 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)
  Total~400,000 [1]
  Ethnicity
Samogitians Lithuanians
  Languages
Lithuanian (Samogitian)
Demonym(s)

Samogitia or Žemaitija (Samogitian: Žemaitėjė; Lithuanian : Žemaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania and formerly one of the 2 core administrative divisions of Grand Duchy of Lithuania alongside Lithuania Proper. [2] Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai. Žemaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect. [2] [3]

Contents

Etymology and alternative names

Ruthenian sources mentioned the region as жемотьская земля, jemotskaia zemlia; this gave rise to its Polish form, Żmudź, and probably to the Middle High German Sameiten, Samaythen. In Latin texts, the name is usually written as Samogitia, Samogetia etc. [4] The area has long been known to its residents and to other Lithuanians exclusively as Žemaitija (the name Samogitia is no longer in use within Lithuania and has not been used for at least two centuries); Žemaitija means "lowlands" in Lithuanian. [5] The region is also known in English as Lower Lithuania or, in reference to its Yiddish names, זאַמעט Zamet or Zhamot. [4] [6] [7] [8]

Geography

Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania in the territories of:

Eastern parts of:

Western part of:

The largest city is Šiauliai, or Klaipėda if the latter is considered in the region. Telšiai is the capital, although Medininkai (now Varniai ) was once the capital of the Duchy of Samogitia.

The largest cities are (Samogitian name, if different, is provided after slash):

Demographics and language

Samogitian sub-dialects are marked in brown, red, pink, yellow and orange Map of dialects of Lithuanian language.png
Samogitian sub-dialects are marked in brown, red, pink, yellow and orange
In the context of the other Baltic tribes, Zemaiciai (Samogitians) are shown as an ethnic group of Lithuanians. Baltic Tribes c 1200.svg
In the context of the other Baltic tribes, Žemaičiai (Samogitians) are shown as an ethnic group of Lithuanians.

The people of Žemaitija speak Samogitian, a dialect of the Lithuanian language that was previously considered one of 3 main dialects (modern linguists have determined that it is one of two dialects, the other being Aukštaitian and that both of these dialects have 3 subdialects each). Samogitian has northern and southern subdialects (which are further subdivided). A western subdialect once existed in the Klaipėda region, but it became extinct after World War II after its inhabitants fled the region as a result of being expelled or persecuted by the Soviet authorities. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Samogitians of the Klaipėda region called themselves "Lietuvininkai",[ citation needed ] whereas at the end of the 19th century when the area, known in German as the Memelland, was part of Prussia (Germany), they were known as "Prūsai." After World War II, the territory of the western subdialect was resettled mainly by northern and southern Žemaičiai and by other Lithuanians. Samogitian has a broken intonation ("laužtinė priegaidė", a variant of a start-firm accent) similar to that of the Latvian language. [9] In 2010, the Samogitian dialect was assigned with an ISO 639-3 standard language code ("sgs"), as some languages, that were considered by ISO 639-2 to be dialects of one language, are now in ISO 639-3 in certain contexts considered to be individual languages themselves. [10]

Žemaitija is one of the most ethnically homogeneous regions of the country, with an ethnic Lithuanian population exceeding 99.5% in some districts. During the first part of the 19th century, Žemaitija was a major center of Lithuanian culture (Žemaičiai traditionally tended to oppose any anti-Lithuanian restrictions). The local religion is predominantly Roman Catholic, although there are significant Lutheran minorities in the south.

The use of the Samogitian dialect is decreasing as more people tend to use standard Lithuanian, although there have been some minor attempts by local councils, especially in Telšiai, to write certain roadside information in Samogitian as well some schools teach children Samogitian dialect in schools.

History

"We do not know on whose merits or guilt such a decision was made, or with what we have offended Your Lordship so much that Your Lordship has deservedly been directed against us, creating hardship for us everywhere. First of all, you made and announced a decision about the land of Samogitia, which is our inheritance and our homeland from the legal succession of the ancestors and elders. We still own it, it is and has always been the same Lithuanian land, because there is one language and the same inhabitants. But since the land of Samogitia is located lower than the land of Lithuania, it is called as Samogitia, because in Lithuanian it is called lower land [ Žemaitija ]. And the Samogitians call Lithuania as Aukštaitija , that is, from the Samogitian point of view, a higher land. Also, the people of Samogitia have long called themselves as Lithuanians and never as Samogitians, and because of such identity (sic) we do not write about Samogitia in our letter, because everything is one: one country and the same inhabitants."

Vytautas the Great, excerpt from his 11 March 1420 Latin letter sent to Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, in which he described the core of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, composed from Žemaitija (lowlands) and Aukštaitija (highlands). [11] [12] Term Aukštaitija is known since the 13th century. [13]

Borders of Samogitia in 1659 En Samogitia; be Zhamoits'; ru Zhmud' (1659).jpg
Borders of Samogitia in 1659

The modern concept of "dialectological" Žemaitija appeared only by the end of the 19th century. The territory of ancient Samogitia was much larger than current ethnographic or "dialectological" Žemaitija and embraced all of central and western Lithuania.

The very term "Samogitians" is a Latinized form of the ancient Lithuanian name for the region's lowlanders, who dwelt in Central Lithuania's lowlands. The original subethnic Samogitia, i.e. Central Lithuania's flat burial grounds culture, was formed as early as the 5th–6th centuries. Before that, it was inhabited by southern Semigallians and southern Curonians. The western part of historical Žemaitija became ethnically Lithuanian between the 13th and 16th centuries. The primal eastern boundary of historical Samogitia was the Šventoji River (a tributary of the Neris River) since the end of the 13th century (at about that time, the Lithuanian ruler Vytenis had expanded the territory of his domain in Aukštaitija along the Nevėžis River at the expense of Žemaitija).

Because during the 13th through 16th centuries the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order bordered Žemaitija, it was always threatened by their expansionist aims. As such, the Samogitian territory was offered to these orders, or exchanged in peace treaties, a number of times. Lithuania would then regain Žemaitija during subsequent conflicts.

For more than two hundred years, old Samogitia played a central role in Lithuania's wars against the crusading order of the Teutonic Knights (Knights of the Cross and Knights of the Sword). Invasions started in Lithuania in 1229. Combined military forces undertook numerous campaigns against Samogitians and Lithuanians. Saule (1236), Skuodas (1259), Durbe (1260), Lievarde (1261) are just a few of the battles that took place. Since Žemaitija was the last pagan region in Europe left to be invaded and christened, the Teutonic Order set their sights on this last mission. Between 1345 and 1382, the Knights of the Cross attacked from Prussia some 70 times, while the Livonian Knights of the Sword made 30 military forays. Year after year, fortresses were attacked, farms and crops were put to the torch, women and children enslaved and men killed. Despite all their effort, the Žemaičiai managed to defend their lands until 1410 decisive Battle of Grunwald or Žalgiris, where united Polish-Lithuanian forces defeated the Teutonic Order and ended their crusading era. [14]

In the 15th century, Žemaitija was the last region in Core Europe to be converted to Christianity. During the 15–18th centuries, it was known as the Duchy or Eldership of Žemaitija, which included some territories of what is now considered Aukštaitija and Suvalkija as well. The Duchy of Žemaitija was an autonomous administrative unit in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with some similarities to a voivodeship.

After the partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Žemaitija was incorporated into the Russian Empire along with the rest of Lithuania. Žemaitija was the main source of the Lithuanian cultural revival during the 19th century and was a focal point for the smuggling of books printed in the Lithuanian language, which was banned by the occupying Russians.

In 1883, Edmund Veckenstedt published a book Die Mythen, Sagen und Legenden der Zamaiten (Litauer) (English: The myths, sagas and legends of the Samogitians (Lithuanians)). [15]

After World War I, Žemaitija became a part of the newly re-established Lithuanian State. The Žemaičiai resisted the Bolsheviks and the Bermontians. During World War II, Lithuania was occupied in turn by both Nazi Germany and Soviet Russians as the Eastern Front shifted. At the end of the war, all of Lithuania was surrendered to the Soviet Union, along with the other Baltic states of Latvia and Estonia, as a consequence of the Yalta Agreement. Although the United States maintained after Yalta that the Baltic states had been illegally annexed to the Soviet Union, this meant little until the administration of Mikhail Gorbachev conceded that the departure of the Baltic states was inevitable, and the Soviet Union, at last, recognized their independence on 6 September 1991. The last Soviet troops withdrew in August 1994.

In 1945, the Soviets denied the existence of the Lithuania Minor ethnographic region, out of political advantage, and declared the Klaipėda region a part of Žemaitija.

Tourism

Samogitian Alkas - reconstructed pagan observatory in Sventoji Zemaiciu Alka (Samogitian Alka).jpg
Samogitian Alkas – reconstructed pagan observatory in Šventoji
Windmill in Lazdininkai Lazdininku malunas.jpg
Windmill in Lazdininkai

Tourist destinations in Samogitia include Palanga, Kretinga and Žemaičių Kalvarija. The majority of tourists come from Latvia, Poland, Belarus, Russia, Germany, Spain, Finland and Sweden.[ citation needed ]

Palanga is a tourist destination among tourists from the United Kingdom, Germany and Russia.[ citation needed ]

Žemaičių Kalvarija (or New Jerusalem as it used to be called) is visited by pilgrims from all around the world, due to its annual The Great Žemaičių Kalvarija Church Festival (usually in June or July).

Politics

Žemaitija historically was an autonomous region in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, although it lost this status once Lithuania was annexed by the Russian Empire following the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795 as a part of the Vilnius Governorate. In 1843, Žemaitija was incorporated into the Kaunas Governorate, with a minor part attached to the Courland Governorate. Since then, Žemaitija has not had separate political status, but there were attempts to create a separate state during the uprising in February 1831.

Currently, Žemaitija is represented by the Samogitian cultural society, a group interested in preserving Samogitian culture and language.

Symbols

Small Coat of Arms of Samogitia.svg
Grand Coat of Arms of Samogitia.svg
Small and greater coats of arms of Samogitia.
Flag of Samogitia.svg
Flag of Zemaitija.svg
Variants of the Samogitian flag with small and greater coat of arms.

The coat of arms depicts a black bear with silver claws and collar on a red shield topped with a crown. The greater arms are supported by a knight with a sword and a woman with an anchor, and has the motto Patria Una (Latin: One Fatherland). The current emblazonment of the arms was created by artist Algis Kliševičius. [16]

The flag of Žemaitija depicts the coat of arms on a white background. It is a swallowtail flag. [17] A variant of the flag charged with the greater coat of arms additionally has a red border around the flag. [18]

Both symbols are assumed to have been used for centuries, especially the coat of arms (differing claims assert it was first used in the 14th or 16th centuries). The symbols were used by the Eldership of Žemaitija. These are the oldest symbols of the Lithuanian ethnographic regions. On 21 July 1994, these symbols were recognized by the government of Lithuania.

Because Žemaitija (Samogitia) does not correspond to any current administrative division of Lithuania, these symbols are not officially used anymore. However the Samogitian bear was used in the coats of arms of Šiauliai County and Telšiai County. It also appears on the arms of the city of Šiauliai.

Emblem of the Lithuanian Armed Forces Motorized Infantry Brigade Žemaitija (Samogitia) is the griffin with a sword in his right hand and a shield, which features the Samogitian bear, in his left hand. [19]

See also

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References

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  19. "Dėl krašto apsaugos ministro 2012 m. birželio 13 d. įsakymo Nr. V-630 „Dėl Krašto apsaugos sistemos medalių ir pasižymėjimo ženklų nuostatų patvirtinimo" pakeitimo". e-seimas.lrs.lt (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 9 April 2021.