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|King of Lan Xang|
|Reign||1374 - 1416|
|Successor||Lan Kham Deng|
Muang Sua, Lan Xang
Muang Sua, Lan Xang
|Spouse||Queen Keo Lot Fa (Ayutthaya)|
Queen Bua Then Fa (Muang Sua)
Queen Noi On Sor (Lan Na)
Queen Keo Yot Fa (Ayutthaya)
Queen Keo Sida (Sip Song Panna)
|Issue||Prince Lusai |
Prince Lan Kham Deng
Prince Kham Tam Sa
Prince Khon Kham
Prince Vang Buri
Princess Keo Kumari
|Mother||Keo Kang Ya|
Samsenethai(Lao : ສາມແສນໄທ) also called Oun Huan(Lao : ອຸ່ນເຮືອນ) was the second king of Lan Xang in Laos. He succeeded his father, Fa Ngum.[ citation needed ]
He ruled from 1372 until 1417. The origin of the name Samsenethai is thought to be a reflection of the political and social upheaval occurring within the area at the time of his rule. Samsenethai literally means "300,000 Thai," thus reflected the result of a census conducted in his reign. It is unclear whether the census included the entire population or just men capable of bearing arms. [ citation needed ]
There is also discussion as to whether during this period, the terms "Thai" and "Lao" were interchangeable, whether the term "Lao" yet[ further explanation needed ] existed, or whether "Thai" was used in his name to refer to the fact that the census included all Tai groups. Local Thai history records that Samsenethai's Mother was a high born lady of Ayuttaya (Siam - Thailand) and that she had brought Thai Ministers for the government of Lan Xiang (Lan Chiang). Also noteworthy, the flag adopted for Lan Xiang is a near copy of the flag of Ayuttaya. Red background with a White elephant in the center. For the duration of his 43-year reign, Lan Xang did not fight a single battle. [ citation needed ]
Wat Manorom, Wat Oubôsôt, and Wat Xiang Kham were built in Samsenethai's reign. He was succeeded by his son Lan Kham Deng.
The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao existed as a unified kingdom from 1353 to 1707.
Luang Phabang, or Louangphabang, commonly transliterated into Western languages from the pre-1975 Lao spelling ຫຼວງພຣະບາງ as Luang Prabang, literally meaning "Royal Buddha Image", is a city in north central Laos, consisting of 58 adjacent villages, of which 33 comprise the UNESCO Town Of Luang Prabang World Heritage Site. It was listed in 1995 for unique and "remarkably" well preserved architectural, religious and cultural heritage, a blend of the rural and urban developments over several centuries, including the French colonial influences during the 19th and 20th centuries.
Chao Anouvong, or regnal name Xaiya Setthathirath V, , led the Lao rebellion (1826–28) as the last monarch of the Kingdom of Vientiane. Anouvong succeeded to the throne in 1805 upon the death of his brother, Chao Inthavong, Xaiya Setthathirath IV, who had succeeded their father, Ong Bun or Phrachao Siribounyasan Xaiya Setthathirath III. Anou was known by his father's regal number until recently discovered records disclosed that his father and brother had the same regal name.
Setthathirath or Xaysettha is considered one of the great leaders in Lao history. Throughout the 1560s until his death, he successfully defended his kingdom of Lan Xang against military campaigns of Burmese conqueror Bayinnaung, who had already subdued Xieng Mai in 1558 and Ayutthaya in 1564. Setthathirath was a prolific builder and erected many Buddhist monuments including Wat Xieng Thong in Luang Prabang, Haw Phra Kaew, Wat Ong Teu Mahawihan and the Pha That Luang in Vientiane.
Photisarath son of King Visoun of Lanxang, is considered to be the most devout of the Lao kings. He banned spirit worship and built temples upon the sites of spirit shrines. His elephant fell and crushed him while he sought to display his prowess to the diplomatic corps. His son Setthathirath returned from Chiang Mai to succeed him to the throne of Lan Xang.
Somdetch Brhat-Anya Fa Ladhuraniya Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Maharaja Brhat Rajadharana Sri Chudhana Negara ລາວ: ສົມເດັດ ພຣະບາດ ອັນຍາ ຟ້າ ລັດທຸຣັນຍາ ສຣີ ສັດຕະນາ ຄະນະຍຸດທາ ມະຫາຣາຊ໌ ພຣະບາດ ຣາຊະທໍຣະນາ ສຣີ ສັດຕະນະ ນະຄອນ, better known as Fa Ngum, established the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang in 1353.
Muang Phuan or Xieng Khouang was a historical principality on the Xiangkhoang Plateau, which constitutes the modern territory of Xiangkhouang Province, Laos.
'Phra Lak Phra Ram' is the national epic of the Lao people, and is the Lao adaptation of the Dasaratha Jataka, a story narrating one of the previous life of Buddha as a Bodhisatta named Rama. It was brought to Laos and other Southeast Asia by propagation of Buddhism. The story reached Laos much later than Cambodia and Thailand (Siam) and thus was affected by local adaptation.
Lan Kham Deng was the third king of the Lao state of Lan Xang. He was the oldest son of Samsenethai.
Phommathat was the fourth king of Lan Xang (Laos). He was Lan Kham Deng's oldest son. He was king for only 10 months. He was assassinated by Nang Keo Phimpha. He was succeeded by Yukhon.
Kham Tam Sa was a king of Lan Xang who ruled for five months, before he was assassinated by Nang Keo Phimpha. His father was Samsenthai and his mother was Queen Keo Sida of Sip Song Panna. Kham Tam Sa succeeded his brother Khon Kham. Before he was king he was appointed Governor of Pak Houei Luang, where he later fled before his assassination.
Nang Keo Phimpha (1343–1438), an epithet meaning literally "The Cruel", was Queen of Lan Xang in 1438, taking the regnal name Samdach Brhat-Anya Sadu Chao Nying Kaeva Bhima Fa Mahadevi(Lao: ສົມເດັຈ ພຣະຍາ ສາທຸເຈົ້າຍິງ ແກ້ວພິມພາມະຫາເທວີ). She is also known by her title Maha Devi, and may have been the only reigning female sovereign of the kingdom of Lan Xang. According to some chronicles, she briefly occupied the throne for a few months, before she was deposed and killed at ninety-five years old. Her brief reign was the culmination of a ten-year period of regicide, which she orchestrated through a series of puppet kings.
Setthathirath II, also called Ong Lo and Sai Ong Hue, grandson of the great ruler Suliyavongsa, was the king of the Lao Kingdom of Lān Xāng. In Vietnamese records, he was called Triều Phúc (朝福).
The people of Laos have a rich literary tradition dating back at least six hundred years, with the oral and storytelling traditions of its peoples dating back much earlier. Lao literature refers to the written productions of Laotian peoples, its émigrés, and to Lao-language works. In Laos today there are over forty-seven recognized ethnic groups, with the Lao Loum comprising the majority group. Lao is officially recognized as the national language, but owing to the ethnic diversity of the country the literature of Laos can generally be grouped according to four ethnolinguistic families: Lao-Tai (Tai-Kadai); Mon-Khmer (Austroasiatic); Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao), and Sino-Tibetan. As an inland crossroads of Southeast Asia the political history of Laos has been complicated by frequent warfare and colonial conquests by European and regional rivals. As a result, Laos today has cultural influence from France, Thailand, China, Vietnam, Burma, and Cambodia.
Chakkaphat Phaen Phaeo (1415–1481) reigned as King of Lan Xang from 1442 to 1480, succeeding the Maha Devi after an interregnum of several years. He was born in 1415 as Prince Vong Buri, the youngest son of King Samsenthai by Queen Nan Keo Yot Fa daughter of King Intharacha of Ayutthaya. When he came of age he was appointed as Governor of Vientiane. He was invited to ascend the throne several times during the succession dispute orchestrated by the Maha Devi, but refused. The Council of Ministers finally persuaded him to become king in 1441, after they had failed to find any other candidate. He still refused to be crowned and avoided the ceremony for many years. Finally bowing to custom in 1456, he was formally coroneted and assumed the reign name and title of Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Sanaka Chakrapati Raja Phen-Phaeo Bhaya Jayadiya Kabuddha. The regnal name is significant because it translates in Pali to cakkavattin, meaning "Universal Buddhist Monarch." Vong Buri, and the court, were claiming enough political and religious power to unify the kingdom, and warn surrounding kingdoms, despite the upheaval caused by the Maha Devi and interregnum in Lan Xang from 1428-1442.
Souvanna Banlang (1455-1486) was king of Lan Xang from 1479-1486 taking the regnal name Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Suvarna Panya Lankara Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha. His reign was marked as a period of peace and reconstruction, following a massive invasion by the Đại Việt forces of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông. He became king in 1479 after the abdication of his father Chakkaphat Phaen Phaeo, who had fled the capital of Muang Sua ahead of the Đại Việt armies. Prior to his accession he served as Governor of Muang Dansai, according to the Lao chronicles he commanded Lao forces at the Battle of Pakphun where the invading forces were halted and forced to retreat to Vietnam.
Mon Keo was the king of the Laotian Kingdom of Lan Xang between 1627 and 1633, Reigning with the regnal name of Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Manikya Kaeva Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha, he was the son of King Voravongsa II and brother of King Ouphagnauvarath I.
| King of Lan Xang |
Lan Kham Deng