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Samsun genel kolaj.JPG
In order: Artificial lake near Liberation wharf, Statue of Honor in Belediye Park, Istiklal Street, bottom: View of SS Bandırma museum ship, Samsun tram, wall of covered market.
Turkey adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of Samsun within Turkey
Coordinates: 41°17′25″N36°20′01″E / 41.29028°N 36.33361°E / 41.29028; 36.33361 Coordinates: 41°17′25″N36°20′01″E / 41.29028°N 36.33361°E / 41.29028; 36.33361
CountryFlag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Region Black Sea
Province Samsun
  MayorYusuf Ziya Yılmaz (AKP)
   Metropolitan municipality 1,055 km2 (407 sq mi)
4 m (13 ft)
  Density573/km2 (1,480/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+3 (FET)
Postal code
Area code(s) (+90) 362
Licence plate 55
Climate Cfa

Samsun (Pontic Greek: Σαμψούντα : Sampsúnta, Ottoman Turkish: صامسون : Ṣāmsūn) is a city on the north coast of Turkey with a population over half a million people. It is the provincial capital of Samsun Province and a major Black Sea port. The growing city has two universities, several hospitals, shopping malls, a lot of light manufacturing industry, sports facilities and an opera.

Pontic Greek is a Greek dialect originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece. Its speakers are referred to as Pontic Greeks or Pontian Greeks.

Ottoman Turkish, or the Ottoman language, is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows extensively, in all aspects, from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, words of foreign origin heavily outnumbered native Turkish words, with Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounting for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, the part of Turkey in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city while Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk began the Turkish War of Independence here in 1919.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Founder of the Republic of Turkey

Kemal Atatürk, commonly referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, was a Turkish field marshal (Mareşal), revolutionary statesman, author, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. His leadership undertook sweeping liberal reforms, which modernized Turkey into a secular, industrial nation. Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became known as Kemalism.

Turkish War of Independence war fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies

The Turkish War of Independence was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western Front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern, the royalists and the separatists in various cities, and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.


The present name of the city may come from its former Greek name of Amisós (Αμισός) by a reinterpretation of eís Amisón (meaning "to Amisós") and ounta (Greek suffix for place names) to [eí]s Am[p]s-únta (Σαμψούντα : Sampsúnta) and then Samsun [1] (pronounced  [samsun] ).

The early Greek historian Hecataeus wrote that Amisos was formerly called Enete , the place mentioned in Homer's Iliad . In Book II, Homer says that the ἐνετοί (Enetoi) inhabited Paphlagonia on the southern coast of the Black Sea in the time of the Trojan War (c. 1200 BC). The Paphlagonians are listed among the allies of the Trojans in the war, where their king Pylaemenes and his son Harpalion perished. [2] Strabo mentioned that the inhabitants had disappeared by his time. [3]

Hecataeus of Miletus, son of Hegesander, was an early Greek historian and geographer.

The Eneti was a people that inhabited a region close to Paphlagonia, mentioned by Homer and Strabo.

<i>Iliad</i> Epic poem attributed to Homer

The Iliad is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles.

It has also been known as Peiraieos by Athenian settlers and even briefly as Pompeiopolis by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. [4]

Pompey 1st/2nd-century BC Roman general

Gnaeus Pompey Magnus , usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility. Pompey's immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a military commander in Sulla's second civil war resulted in Sulla bestowing the cognomen Magnus, "the Great", upon him. His Roman adversaries insulted him as adulescentulus carnifex, "the teenage butcher", after his Sicilian campaign. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs.

The city was called Simisso by the Genoese and during the Ottoman Empire the present name was written in Ottoman Turkish : صامسون (Ṣāmsūn).

Republic of Genoa former state on the Apennine Peninsula between 1005–1797

The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as Rome (Rûm), and known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. Although initially the dynasty was of Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.


Ancient history

Parts of goose-headed and camel-headed Phrygian pottery vessels Frig-samsun.JPG
Parts of goose-headed and camel-headed Phrygian pottery vessels
People from Samsun. National costumes in Ottoman era, 1910s Samsunlular-kostum.jpg
People from Samsun. National costumes in Ottoman era, 1910s

Paleolithic artifacts found in the Tekkeköy Caves can be seen in Samsun Archaeology Museum.

The earliest layer excavated of the höyük of Dündartepe revealed a Chalcolithic settlement. Early Bronze Age and Hittite settlements were also found there [5] and at Tekkeköy.

Samsun (then known as Amisos, Greek Αμισός, alternative spelling Amisus) was settled in about 760–750 BC by Ionians from Miletus, [6] who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. The city's ideal combination of fertile ground and shallow waters attracted numerous traders. [7]

Amisus was settled by the Ionian Milesians in the 6th century BC, [8] it is believed that there was significant Greek activity along the coast of the Black Sea, although the archaeological evidence for this is very fragmentary. [9] The only archaeological evidence we have as early as the 6th century is a fragment of wild goat style Greek pottery, in the Louvre. [10]

The city was captured by the Persians in 550 BC and became part of Cappadocia (satrapy). [4] In the 5th century BC, Amisus became a free state and one of the members of the Delian League led by the Athenians; [11] it was then renamed Peiraeus under Pericles. [12] Starting the 3rd century BC the city came under the control of Mithridates I, later founder of the Kingdom of Pontus. The Amisos treasure may have belonged to one of the kings. Tumuli, containing tombs dated between 300 BC and 30 BC, can be seen at Amisos Hill but unfortunately Toraman Tepe was mostly flattened during construction of the 20th century radar base. [13]

The Romans took over in 71 BC [14] and Amisos became part of Bithynia et Pontus province. Around 46 BC, during the reign of Julius Caesar, Amisus became the capital of Roman Pontus. [8] From the period of the Second Triumvirate up to Nero, Pontus was ruled by several client kings, as well as one client queen, Pythodorida of Pontus, a granddaughter of Marcus Antonius. From 62 CE it was directly ruled by Roman governors, most famously by Trajan's appointee Pliny. Pliny the Younger's address to the Emperor Trajan in the 1st century CE "By your indulgence, sir, they have the benefit of their own laws," is interpreted by John Boyle Orrery to indicate that the freedoms won for those in Pontus by the Romans was not pure freedom and depended on the generosity of the Roman emperor. [15]

The estimated population of the city around 150 AD is between 20,000 and 25,000 people, classifying it as a relatively large city for that time. [16] The city functioned as the commercial capital for the province of Pontus; beating its rival Sinope (now Sinop) due to its position at the head of the trans-Anatolia highway [11]

In Late Antiquity, the city became part of the Dioecesis Pontica within the eastern Roman Empire; later still it was part of the Armeniac Theme. [17] Samsun Castle was built on the seaside in 1192, it was demolished between 1909 and 1918.

Early Christianity

Though the roots of the city are Hellenistic, [8] it was also one of the centers of an early Christian congregation. [8] Its function as a commercial metropolis in northern Asia Minor was a contributing factor to enable the spread of Christian influence. As a large port city – the commercial capital of Pontus [18] – travel to and from Christian hotbeds like Jerusalem was not uncommon. [19] According to Josephus, there was large Jewish diaspora in Asia Minor,. [20] Given that the early evangelist Christians focused on Jewish diaspora communities, and that the Jewish diaspora in Amisus was a geographically accessible group with a mixed heritage group, it is not surprising that Amisus would be an appealing site for evangelist work. The author of 1 Peter 1:1 addresses the Jewish diaspora of the province of Pontus, along with four other provinces: "Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To God's elect, exiles scattered throughout the provinces of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia." (Peter 1:1) As Amisus would have been the largest commercial port-city in the province, it is believed certain that the spread of Christianity in the region would have begun there. [20] In the 1st century Pliny the Younger documents accounts of Christians in and around the cities of Pontus. [21] His accounts center on his conflicts with the Christians when he served under the Emperor Trajan and describe early Christian communities, his condemnation of their refusal to renounce their religion, but also describes his tolerance for some Christian practices like Christian charitable societies. [22] Many great early Christian figures had connections to Amisus, including Caesarea Mazaca, Gregory the Illuminator (raised as a Christian from 257 CE when he was brought to Amisus) and Basil the Great (Bishop of the city 330–379 CE). [23]

Christian bishops of Amisus include Antonius, who took part in the Council of Chalcedon in 451; Erythraeus, a signatory of the letter that the bishops of Helenopontus wrote to Emperor Leo I the Thracian after the killing of Patriarch Proterius of Alexandria; the late 6th-century bishop Florus, venerated as a saint in the Greek menologion; and Tiberius, who attended the Third Council of Constantinople (680), Leo, the Second Council of Nicaea (787), and Basilius, the Council of Constantinople of 879. The diocese is no longer mentioned in the Greek Notitiae Episcopatuum after the 15th century and thereafter the city was considered part of the see of Amasea. However, some Greek bishops of the 18th and 19th centuries bore the title of Amisus as titular bishops. [24] In the 13th century the Franciscans had a convent at Amisus, which became a Latin bishopric some time before 1345, when its bishop Paulus was transferred to the recently conquered city of Smyrna and was replaced by the Dominican Benedict, who was followed by an Italian Armenian called Thomas. [25] No longer a residential diocese, it is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. [26]

Medieval and modern history

Replica of the cargo ship SS Bandirma, which carried Ataturk from Istanbul and arrived in Samsun on May 19, 1919, the date which traditionally marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. Bandirma.jpg
Replica of the cargo ship SS Bandırma, which carried Atatürk from Istanbul and arrived in Samsun on May 19, 1919, the date which traditionally marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence.

Samsun was part of the Seljuk Empire, [27] the Sultanate of Rum, the Empire of Trebizond, and was one of the Genoese colonies. After the breakup of the Seljuk Empire into small principalities (beyliks) in the late 13th century, the city was ruled by one of them, the Isfendiyarids. It was captured from the Isfendiyarids at the end of the 14th century by the rival Ottoman beylik (later the Ottoman Empire) under sultan Bayezid I, but was lost again shortly afterwards.

The Ottomans permanently conquered the town in the weeks following August 11, 1420. [28]

In the later Ottoman period, it became part of the Sanjak of Canik (Turkish : Canik Sancağı), which was at first part of the Rûm Eyalet. The land around the town mainly produced tobacco, with its own type being grown in Samsun, the Samsun-Bafra, which the British described as having "small but very aromatic leaves", and commanding a "high price." [29] The town was connected to the railway system in the second half of the 19th century, and tobacco trade boomed. There was a British consulate in the town from 1837 to 1863. [30]

Samsun, then home to an Armenian community numbering over 5,000, was heavily affected during the Armenian Genocide of 1915. According to local eyewitnesses, such as Hafiz Mehmet, many of the Samsun Armenians were drowned in the Black Sea. [31] Others were deported from Samsun and ultimately massacred in provinces further south. After the Armenian Genocide, there remained eleven islamicized Armenians and two Armenian physicians. Armenian orphans who had survived were given to Turkish families. [32]

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established the Turkish national movement against the Allies in Samsun on May 19, 1919, the date which traditionally marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. Atatürk, appointed by the Ottoman government as Inspector of the Ninth Army Troops Inspectorate of the Empire in eastern Anatolia, left Constantinople aboard the now-famous SS Bandırma May 16 for Samsun. Instead of obeying the orders of the Ottoman government, then under the control of the occupying Allies, he and a number of colleagues declared the beginning of the Turkish national movement. As a result of this, the Greek population of Samsun was subject to looting, massacre and deportation by Turkish irregular groups, as noted by representatives of the American Near East Relief. However these groups couldn't operate freely in Samsun as they did in adjacent region of Merzifon and Bafra due to the presence of the Allied fleet. [33] Being alarmed due to the presence of Greek warships in the vicinity of Samsun the Turkish national movement undertook the deportation of 21,000 local Greeks to the interior of Anatolia. [34] Later, in early June 1922, the city was bombarded by the Allied navy.

By 1920, Samsun's population totaled about 36,000. [35]


During the Tanzimat period and the subsequent wars, Ottoman Muslims were exiled from the Balkans [36] and Circassians were expelled from the Caucasus region. [37] Many of the present inhabitants trace their origins from further west or east on the Black Sea coast. The overwhelming majority of people are Muslims.


The council has various service units. [39] There is a 2010 to 2014 strategic plan. [40] Samsun has a budget deficit of TL 323 million. [41]


Samsun is a long city which extends along the coast between two river deltas which jut into the Black Sea. It is located at the end of an ancient route from Cappadocia: the Amisos of antiquity lay on the headland northwest of the modern city center.

The city is growing fast: land has been reclaimed from the sea and many more apartment blocks and shopping malls are currently being built. Industry is tending to move (or be moved) east, further away from the city center and towards the airport.

Kizilirmak, an important Wetland in the Black Sea area of Turkey Kizilirmak Delta,Bafra.Samsun.JPG
Kızılırmak, an important Wetland in the Black Sea area of Turkey


To Samsun's west, lies the Kızılırmak ("Red River", the Halys of antiquity), one of the longest rivers in Anatolia and its fertile delta. To the east, lie the Yeşilırmak ("Green River", the Iris of antiquity) and its delta. The River Mert reaches the sea at the city.


Samsun has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa), like most of the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey. [42]

Spring temperatures can vary by over 10 degrees from one day to the next. Summers are warm and humid, and the average maximum temperature is around 27 °C (81 °F) in August. Winters are cool and damp, and the lowest average minimum temperature is around 3 °C (37 °F) in January.

Precipitation is heaviest in late autumn and early winter. Snow sometimes occurs between the months of December and March, but never more than a few centimeters of snow falls in the city, and temperatures below the freezing point rarely last more than a couple of days.

The water temperature, as in the whole Turkish Black Sea coast, is always cool, fluctuating between 8–20 °C (46–68 °F) throughout the year.

Climate data for Samsun (1929–2017)
Record high °C (°F)24.2
Average high °C (°F)10.6
Daily mean °C (°F)7.0
Average low °C (°F)4.0
Record low °C (°F)−8.1
Average precipitation mm (inches)70.6
Average precipitation days13.513.515.213.612.
Mean monthly sunshine hours 83.790.4108.5135.0186.0246.0269.7251.1189.0142.6111.083.71,896.7
Mean daily sunshine hours
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service [43]




AnsaldoBreda Sirio in Samsun Samsun tram Gara 20110714.jpg
AnsaldoBreda Sirio in Samsun

Long distance buses the bus station is outside the city centre, but most bus companies provide a free transfer there if you have a ticket. Passenger and freight trains run to Sivas via Amasya. The train station is in the city center. Freight trains are taken by ferry to railways at Kavkaz in Russia, and will later see service to the port of Varna in Bulgaria and Poti in Georgia. [45]

Modern trams run between the train station and Ondokuz Mayıs University. There is a plan to run electrically powered bus rapid transit between the railway station and Tekkekoy. City buses carry passengers actively. Dolmuş , the routes are numbered 1 to 4 and each route has different color minibuses. The 320 m (1,050 ft) long Samsun Amisos Hill Gondola serves from Batıpark the archaeological area on the Amisos Hill, where ancient tombs in tumuli were discovered.

Samsun-Çarşamba Airport is 23 km (14 mi) east of the city center. It is possible to reach the airport by Havas service buses: they depart from the coach park close to Kultur Sarayi in the city center. [46] Horse-drawn carriages, (Turkish:fayton) run along the seafront. There was automated bike rental along the seafront, but it is not currently operational.


Hospital of Ondokuz Mayis University's Faculty of Medicine in Samsun. Omu - Tip Fakultesi.JPG
Hospital of Ondokuz Mayıs University's Faculty of Medicine in Samsun.

Samsun has a mixed economy [47] with a cluster of medical industries. [48]

Ports and shipbuilding

Former Ottoman Bank branch in Samsun. Ottoman Bank in Samsun.jpg
Former Ottoman Bank branch in Samsun.

Samsun is a port city. In the early 20th century, the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey funded the building of a harbor. Before the building of the harbor, ships had to anchor to deliver goods, approximately 1 mile or more from shore. Trade and transportation was focused around a road to and from Sivas. [35] The privately operated port fronting the city centre handles freight, including RORO ferries to Novorossiysk, whereas fishing boats land their catches in a separate harbour slightly further east. A ship building yard is under construction at the eastern city limit. Road and rail freight connections with central Anatolia can be used to send inland both the agricultural produce of the surrounding well rained upon and fertile land, and also imports from overseas.

Coal imports from Donbass

Donbass anthracite, imported via the Russian ports of Azov and Taganrog, is said to be illegally exported Ukrainian coal. [49] In 2019 some crew were rescued but 6 died after a ship sank in the Black Sea. [50]

Manufacturing and food processing

There is a light industrial zone between the city and the airport. The main manufactured products are medical devices and products, furniture (wood is imported across the Black Sea), tobacco products (although tobacco farming is now limited by the government), chemicals and automobile spare parts.

Flour mills import wheat from Ukraine and export some of the flour.

Local government and services

Provincial government and services (e.g. courts, prisons and hospitals) support the surrounding region. Agricultural research establishments support provincial agriculture and food processing.


Samsun Piazza Mall Samsun Piazza AVM ic (2).JPG
Samsun Piazza Mall

Most of the many new shopping malls are purpose built, but the former tobacco factory in the city center has been converted into a mall.


The Atatürk Culture Center

Atatürk Kültür Sarayı (AKM - Palace of Culture). Concerts and other performances are held at the Kultur Sarayi, which is shaped much like a ski jump. "Samsun State Opera and Ballet" performs in The Atatürk Culture Center. Founded in 2009 it is one of the six state opera houses in Turkey. The Samsun Opera have performed Die Entführung (W. A. Mozart) in the annual Istanbul Opera Festival. In collaboration with The Pekin Opera, The Samsun Opera performed Puccini's Madama Butterfly in the Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival in 2012. Other performances include La bohème, La traviata, Don Quijote, Giselle. The current musical director is Lorenzo Castriota Skanderbeg.


Gazi Museum Gazi Muzesi cephe.JPG
Gazi Museum

Folk dancing

There is an annual international festival. [51]


There are two universities in Samsun: the state run Ondokuz Mayıs University and the private sector Canik Başarı University. There is also a police training college [52] and many small private colleges.

Parks, nature reserves and other greenspace

Statue of Ataturk by the Austrian sculptor Heinrich Krippel in Samsun's city center. Onur Aniti.JPG
Statue of Atatürk by the Austrian sculptor Heinrich Krippel in Samsun's city center.
Nature reserves
Other greenspace

There are several army bases in the city (Esentepe Kışlası, Gökberk Kışlası, 19 Mayis Kışlası and others). Should they become surplus to military requirements in future, for example due to reduced conscription in Turkey, it is currently unclear whether they would become urban open space or be further built on.


In ancient Roman times gladiator sword fighting [55] apparently took place in Amisos, as depicted on a tombstone dating from the 2nd or 3rd century CE.

Tekkeköy Yaşar Doğu Arena opened in 2013.

Football is the most popular sport: in the older districts above the city center children often kick balls around in the evenings in the smallest streets. The city's football club is Samsunspor, which plays its games at the Samsun 19 Mayıs Stadium.

Basketball, volleyball, tennis, swimming, cable skiing (in summer), horse riding, go karting, paintballing, martial arts and many other sports are played. Cycling and jogging are only common along the sea front, where recreational fishing is also popular.

International relations

Twin towns—Sister cities

Sister city of Samsun. Kardes sehirler.JPG
Sister city of Samsun.

Samsun is twinned with:

Notable people

See also

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Greeks in Georgia

The Greek diaspora in Georgia, which in academic circles is often considered part of the broader, historic community of Pontic Greeks or—more specifically in this region—Caucasus Greeks, is estimated at between 15,000 and 20,000 people to 100,000 down from about 100,000 in 1989. The community has dwindled due to the large wave of repatriation to Greece, as well as emigration to Russia, and in particular Stavropol Krai in the North Caucasus region of southern Russia. The community has established the Union of Greeks in Georgia and there is a Cultural Centre and a newspaper entitled Greek Diaspora.

History of Turkey aspect of history

The history of Turkey, understood as the history of the region now forming the territory of the Republic of Turkey, includes the history of both Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.

Refet Bele Ottoman Army officer

Refet Bele also known as Refet Bey or Refet Pasha was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the Turkish Army, where he retired as a general.

Amasya trials

The Amasya trials in 1921, were special ad hoc trials, organized by the Turkish National Movement, with the purpose to kill en masse the Greek representatives of Pontus region under a legal pretext. They occurred in Amasya, modern Turkey, during the final stage of the Pontic Greek genocide. The total number of the executed individuals is estimated to be ca. 400-450, among them 155 prominent Pontic Greeks.

The Samsun deportations were a series of death marches orchestrated by the Turkish National Movement as part of its extermination of the Greek community of Samsun, a city in northern Turkey, and its environs. It was accompanied by looting, the burning of settlements, rape, and massacres. As a result, the Greek population of the city and those who had previously found refuge there—a total of c. 24,500 men, women and children—were forcibly deported from the city to the interior of Anatolia in 1921–1922. The atrocities were reported by both American Near East Relief missionaries and naval officers on destroyers that visited the region.


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  1. "December 2013 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by".