This article needs additional citations for verification . (October 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Samuel Baldwin Marks Young
|Born||January 9, 1840|
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US
|Died||September 1, 1924 84) (aged|
Helena, Montana, US
|Allegiance|| Union |
|Service/|| Union Army |
United States Army
|Years of service||1861–1865|
|Commands held||Chief of Staff of the United States Army|
|Battles/wars|| American Civil War |
Samuel Baldwin Marks Young (January 9, 1840 – September 1, 1924) was a United States Army general. He also served as the first president of Army War College between 1902 and 1903. He then served from 1903 until 1904 as the first Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
Young was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to John Young Jr. and Hannah Scott Young. He was educated at Jefferson College (now Washington & Jefferson College) and married Margaret McFadden in 1861.
On the outbreak of the Civil War, he joined the 12th Pennsylvania Infantry in April 1861 as a private. After the expiration of his term he was commissioned captain, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry in September. He served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac throughout the war, receiving promotion to major in September 1862, to lieutenant colonel in October 1864 and to colonel in December 1864. Young was wounded four times in 1864 and 1865.He served in brigade command in the cavalry corps during the last days of the Appomattox Campaign. He was mustered out of the volunteers on July 1, 1865.
After the war, Young joined the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States—a military society for officers who had served the Union in the Civil War. He was also a member of the Society of the Army of the Potomac.
After the Civil War he rejoined the Regular Army as a first lieutenant in May 1866, and was promoted to captain of the 8th Cavalry in July 1866. On December 11, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Young for appointment to the brevet rank of brigadier general of volunteers, to rank from April 9, 1865, in recognition for his services in the Siege of Petersburg and the Appomattox Campaign. The U.S. Senate confirmed the appointment on February 6, 1867.
Young served with distinction throughout the Indian Wars and was regularly promoted (to major in 1883 and to lieutenant colonel in 1892), rising to the rank of colonel of the 3rd Cavalry in 1897.
On the commencement of hostilities with Spain, he was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers in May 1898. In Cuba during the war, he commanded one of two cavalry brigades that were part of the Cavalry Division under Major General Joseph Wheeler. Young's brigade included Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders, the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment. In July 1898, after the American victory of the Battle of San Juan Hill, Young assumed command of the Wheeler's Cavalry Division and was made major general of volunteers while he commanded that same division in Cuba after the Santiago Campaign of the Spanish–American War. That same year, Young became a Veteran Companion of the Missouri Commandery of the Military Order of Foreign Wars.
During the Philippine–American War, he returned to the rank of brigadier general of volunteers and commanded brigades in the Northern Luzon District, of which he was made military governor.
From February 1901 to March 1902, he commanded the military district of California from the Presidio of San Francisco. Under the new General Staff System, he was appointed as the first chief of staff of the General Staff in August 1903, a position he held until retirement in January 1904.
From 1909 to 1910, he was president of the board of inquiry that investigated the alleged riot of black soldiers of the 25th U.S. Infantry at Brownsville, Texas, August 13, 1906, and affirmed the subsequent dishonorable discharge of 159 men by order of President Theodore Roosevelt.
As Acting Superintendent of Yellowstone National Park at Fort Yellowstone in 1897 (after a stint in the same role at Yosemite in 1896) Colonel Young introduced fish conservation measures. In 1907 after his retirement, he was appointed full Superintendent by the Secretary of the Interior. He served as full Superintendent for two years.He died at his house in Helena, Montana, and was honored with a state funeral in Washington, D.C., and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Samuel and Margaret Young were the parents of seven children, six daughters and a son: Edith (1865–1940); Burton (called Hannah) (1866–1944); Lillian (1868–1956); Marjorie (1872–1956); Eliza (1880–1883); Ranald Mackenzie (1880–1882); and Elizabeth (1883–1966).
In 1886, his daughter Burton (Hannah) married George Windle Read, who attained the rank of major general and was a division and corps commander of the American Expeditionary Force during World War I.Their children included Burton Young Read (1889–1981), a career soldier who served from the early 1900s through World War II before retiring as a colonel, and George Windle Read, Jr., a career soldier who served in both world wars and attained the rank of lieutenant general as commander of the US Army Armor Center and the Second United States Army.
In 1886, his daughter Edith became the wife of army officer John Thornton Knight. Their son, John Thornton Knight, Jr. (1894–1989), was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism in action while serving in France during World War I.
In 1901, his daughter Marjorie married army surgeon John Heysham Gibbon, the nephew of Civil War and Indian War commander John Gibbon. John H. and Marjorie Gibbon were the parents of John Heysham Gibbon.
In 1903, Young's daughter Elizabeth became the wife of Army officer John Robert Rigby Hannay.
In 1913, his daughter Lillian, who had become active in the Christian Science church, married Eugene R. Cox (1856–1921), a Chicago attorney and businessman who later relocated to New York and also played a prominent role in the operations of the Christian Science church.
|No insignia||Private||25 April 1861||Volunteers|
|Captain||6 September 1861||Volunteers|
|Major||20 September 1862||Volunteers|
|Lieutenant Colonel||1 May 1864||Volunteers|
|Colonel||25 June 1864||Volunteers|
|Brevet Brigadier General||9 April 1865||Volunteers|
|First Lieutenant||11 May 1866||Regular Army|
|Captain||28 July 1866||Regular Army|
|Major||2 April 1883||Regular Army|
|Lieutenant Colonel||16 August 1892||Regular Army|
|Colonel||19 June 1897||Regular Army|
|Brigadier General||4 May 1898||Volunteers|
|Major General||8 July 1898||Volunteers|
|Brigadier General||2 January 1900||Regular Army|
|Major General||2 February 1901||Regular Army|
|Lieutenant General||8 August 1903||Regular Army|
John Buford, Jr. was a United States Army cavalry officer. He fought for the Union as a brigadier general during the American Civil War. Buford is best known for having played a major role in the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, by obtaining the 'high ground' while in command of a division.
Nelson Appleton Miles was an American military general who served in the American Civil War, the American Indian Wars, and the Spanish–American War. From 1895 to 1903, he served as the last Commanding General of the United States Army before the office was abolished.
Samuel Storrow Sumner (1842–1937) was a United States Army general during the Spanish–American War, Boxer Rebellion, and Philippine-American War.
John Cleveland Robinson had a long and distinguished career in the United States Army, fighting in numerous wars and culminating his career as a Union Army brigadier general of volunteers and brevet major general of volunteers in the American Civil War. In 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated and the U.S. Senate confirmed Robinson's appointment to the brevet grade of major general in the regular army. He was a recipient of the Medal of Honor for valor in action in 1864 near Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia, where he lost a leg. When he retired from the U.S. Army on May 6, 1869, he was placed on the retired list as a full rank major general, USA. After his army service, he was Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1873 to 1874 and served two terms as the president of the Grand Army of the Republic.
Andrew Jackson Smith was a United States Army general during the American Civil War, rising to the command of a corps. He was most noted for his victory over Confederate General Stephen D. Lee at the Battle of Tupelo, Mississippi, on July 14, 1864. In retaliation for Forrest’s raid on Fort Pillow, north of Memphis, Union General Andrew Jackson (Whiskey) Smith, with a large military force, arrived in Oxford, MS on August 24, 1864, and in one day burned the Lafayette County Courthouse, all the business houses on the Square, except one, and all homes in the immediate area.
Samuel Davis Sturgis was an American military officer who served in the Mexican–American War, as a Union general in the American Civil War, and later in the Indian Wars.
Samuel Peter Heintzelman was a United States Army general. He served in the Seminole War, the Mexican–American War, the Yuma War and the Cortina Troubles. During the American Civil War he was a prominent figure in the early months of the war rising to the command of a corps.
James William Forsyth was a U.S. Army officer and general. He was primarily a Union staff officer during the American Civil War and cavalry regimental commander during the Indian Wars. Forsyth is best known for having commanded the 7th Cavalry at the Wounded Knee Massacre on December 29, 1890 during which more than 150 men, women, and children of the Lakota were killed and 51 were wounded.
Thomas Casimer Devin was a United States Army officer and general. He commanded Union cavalry during the American Civil War and during the Indian Wars.
John Irvin Gregg was a career U.S. Army officer. He fought in the Mexican–American War and during the American Civil War as a colonel and near the end of the war as a brevet general in the Union army. In 1866, he was nominated and confirmed as a brevet major general of volunteers and a brevet brigadier general in the Regular Army, both to rank from March 13, 1865.
Eli Long was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
Henry Dana Washburn was a U.S. Representative from Indiana and a colonel and brevet brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
Edward Winslow Hincks was a career United States Army officer who served as a brigadier general during the American Civil War.
Alexander Cummings McWhorter Pennington Jr., was an artillery officer and brigadier general in the United States Army and a veteran of both the American Civil War and Spanish–American War.
James Sanks Brisbin was an American educator, lawyer, historian, author and soldier. He served as a Union Army general during the American Civil War. After the conflict he remained in the military for the rest of his life, and authored several works on a variety of subjects.
John Elisha Phelps was a Union Army officer during the American Civil War.
Henry Brevard Davidson was a graduate of the United States Military Academy and an officer in the United States Army in the West before the American Civil War. At the outbreak of the war, he resigned his commission and served in various staff positions in the Confederate States Army. On August 18, 1863, he was promoted to brigadier general and first commanded brigades of cavalry in the Western Theater, particularly in Tennessee and Georgia. In 1864, he was transferred to Virginia and served in the Valley Campaigns of 1864. At the end of the war, he served under General Joseph E. Johnston in the Carolina Campaign. After the war, he became a civil engineer in California and in 1887 was deputy secretary of state in California. Later in life, he was an agent for the Southern Pacific Railroad in Danville, California.
Major General George Windle Read was a senior United States Army officer who was prominent as a corps and division commander in World War I. Read also oversaw the departure of US forces from Europe at the end of the war as commander of the American Embarkation Center at Le Havre, France.
Edwin Vose Sumner Jr. was a general in the United States Army. Born at Carlisle, Pennsylvania; he was the son of General Edwin Vose Sumner, one of the oldest generals to serve during the American Civil War.
Robert Huston Carnahan was a grain merchant before the American Civil War and a mine superintendent after the war. He was a Union Army officer during the Civil War. He was appointed a captain of the 3rd Regiment Illinois Volunteer Cavalry on August 24, 1861, lieutenant colonel on September 20, 1864 and colonel on April 9, 1865.
Nelson A. Miles
(Commanding General of the United States Army)
| Chief of Staff of the United States Army |