Samuel Dexter

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Samuel Dexter
Samuel Dexter.jpg
3rd United States Secretary of the Treasury
In office
January 1, 1801 May 13, 1801
President John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Preceded by Oliver Wolcott
Succeeded by Albert Gallatin
4th United States Secretary of War
In office
June 1, 1800 January 31, 1801
President John Adams
Preceded by James McHenry
Succeeded by Henry Dearborn
United States Senator
from Massachusetts
In office
March 4, 1799 May 30, 1800
Preceded by Theodore Sedgwick
Succeeded by Dwight Foster
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Massachusetts's 1st district
In office
March 4, 1793 March 3, 1795
Preceded by Fisher Ames
Succeeded by Theodore Sedgwick
Personal details
Born(1761-05-14)May 14, 1761
Boston, Massachusetts, British America
DiedMay 4, 1816(1816-05-04) (aged 54)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Political party Federalist
Education Harvard University (BA)
Signature Samuel Dexter Signature.svg

Samuel Dexter (May 14, 1761 May 4, 1816) [1] was an early American statesman who served both in Congress and in the Presidential Cabinets of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.


Early life and education

Born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Samuel Dexter, a Massachusetts politician, he was the grandson of Samuel Dexter, the fourth minister of Dedham. he graduated from Harvard University in 1781 and then studied law at Worcester under Levi Lincoln Sr., the future Attorney General of the United States. [2] After he passed the bar in 1784, he began practicing in Lunenburg, Massachusetts.

Congressional career

Line engraving of Dexter from a US Treasury specimen book, c. 1902 DEXTER, Samuel-Treasury (BEP engraved portrait).jpg
Line engraving of Dexter from a US Treasury specimen book, c.1902

He was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives and served from 1788 to 1790. [1] He was elected to the United States House of Representatives as a Federalist, serving in the 3rd Congress. [3] He served in the United States Senate from March 4, 1799, to May 30, 1800 (the 6th Congress). [4]

During a House discussion on a Naturalization Bill in 1795, Virginia Representative William Branch Giles controversially suggested that all immigrants be forced to take an oath renouncing any titles of nobility they previously held. Dexter responded by questioning why Catholics were not required to denounce allegiance to the Pope, because priestcraft had initiated more problems throughout history than aristocracy. Dexter's points caused an infuriated James Madison to defend American Catholics, many of whom, such as Charles Carroll of Carrollton, had been good citizens during the American Revolution, and to point out that hereditary titles were barred under the Constitution in any event. [5]

In December 1799, he wrote the Senate eulogy for George Washington. [6] Dexter served in the Senate for less than a year, and resigned in order to accept his appointment as United States Secretary of War in the administration of President John Adams. [7]

Tenures as Secretary of War and Secretary of the Treasury

During his time at the War Department he urged congressional action to permit appointment and compensation of field officers for general staff duty.

When Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott Jr. resigned in December 1800, Adams appointed Dexter as interim Secretary, and Dexter served from January to May 1801. [1] With incoming President Thomas Jefferson wanting to delay his choice for Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin, for a recess appointment in May, Dexter agreed to retain his duties as Secretary of the Treasury for the first two months of Jefferson's term. [8] In a letter to his wife on March 5, 1801, Gallatin said that Dexter had behaved "with great civility." [9]

Later career

Dexter depicted on US fractional currency US-Fractional (4th Issue)-$0.50-Fr.1379.jpg
Dexter depicted on US fractional currency

He returned to Boston in 1805 and resumed the practice of law. [1] He left the Federalists and became a Democratic-Republican because he supported the War of 1812. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 1814, 1815 and 1816. [3] [2]

Dexter was an ardent supporter of the temperance movement and presided over its first formal organization in Massachusetts. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1800. [10]

Death and legacy

Dexter died on May 4, 1816, shortly before his 55th birthday and is buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. [4]

Simon Newton Dexter and Andrew Dexter Jr. were his nephews.

Samuel W. Dexter, founder of Dexter, Michigan, was his son.

Samuel Dexter is the namesake of Dexter, Maine. [11] The USRC Dexter (1830) was named in his honor.

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  1. 1 2 3 4 "Samuel Dexter (1801)". Miller Center. 2016-10-04. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
  2. 1 2 "Samuel Dexter". Retrieved 2019-12-03.
  3. 1 2 "DEXTER, Samuel - Biographical Information". Retrieved 2019-12-03.
  4. 1 2 History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, “DEXTER, Samuel,”,-Samuel-(D000296)/ (December 03, 2019)
  5. Irving Brant, James Madison: Father of the constitution, 1787-1800, Indianapolis, Ind. and New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1950, pp. 420–21.
  6. Johnson, Elizabeth Bryant (1895). George Washington Day by Day. Cycle Publishing Company. p. 188. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
  7. "1787: From the Senate to the Cabinet, May 13, 1800". United States Senate. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
  8. Dumas Malone, Jefferson The President: First Term, 1801-1805, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1970, pp. 34–36.
  9. Dumas Malone, Jefferson The President: First Term, 1801-1805, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1970, p. 36n.
  10. "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter D" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  11. Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 105.
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Fisher Ames
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
Massachusetts's 1st congressional district

Succeeded by
Theodore Sedgwick
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Theodore Sedgwick
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Massachusetts
Served alongside: Benjamin Goodhue
Succeeded by
Dwight Foster
Political offices
Preceded by
James McHenry
United States Secretary of War
Succeeded by
Henry Dearborn
Preceded by
Oliver Wolcott
United States Secretary of the Treasury
Succeeded by
Albert Gallatin