Samuel Jameson Gholson
Samuel J. Gholson
|Born||May 19, 1808|
|Died||October 16, 1883 75) (aged|
|Place of burial|
Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery, Aberdeen, Mississippi
|Allegiance||Confederate States of America|
|Service/||Confederate States Army|
|Years of service||1861–1865|
|Unit||Army of Tennessee|
|Commands held||Gholson's Brigade (cavalry)|
|Battles/wars||American Civil War|
|Other work||Attorney, judge, U.S. Congressman|
Samuel Jameson Gholson (May 19, 1808 – October 16, 1883) was a U.S. Representative from Mississippi, as well as a Confederate general during the American Civil War. He also served as a United States federal judge and a multiple-term member of the Mississippi House of Representatives.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they comprise the legislature of the United States.
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most extensive and 34th most populous of the 50 United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, and Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is largely defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of approximately 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city.
The Confederate States Army (C.S.A.) was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, and colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War. He had also been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U.S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U.S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.
Born near Richmond, Kentucky, Gholson moved with his father to Franklin County, Alabama, in 1817. He attended the common schools and later read law. He was admitted to the bar at Russellville, Alabama, in 1829. He moved to Athens, Mississippi, and commenced the practice of law in 1830. He served as member of the state House of Representatives in 1835, 1836, and 1839.
Richmond is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Madison County, Kentucky, United States. It is named after Richmond, Virginia, and is the home of Eastern Kentucky University. The population was 33,533 in 2015. Richmond is the third-largest city in the Bluegrass region and the state's sixth-largest city. Richmond serves as the center for work and shopping for south-central Kentucky. Richmond is the principal city of the Richmond–Berea Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Madison and Rockcastle counties.
Franklin County is a county of the U.S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 31,704. Its county seat is Russellville. Its name is in honor of Benjamin Franklin, famous statesman, scientist, and printer. It is a dry county, although the city of Russellville is wet.
Russellville is a city in Franklin County in the U.S. state of Alabama. At the 2010 census, the population of the city was 9,830, up from 8,971 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Franklin County.
Gholson was elected as a Jacksonian Democrat to the Twenty-fourth U.S. Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of David Dickson and served from December 1, 1836, to March 3, 1837. His often stormy tenure was marked by a severe dispute with Henry A. Wise of Virginia that nearly resulted in a duel. Gholson presented credentials as a Democratic member-elect to the Twenty-fifth Congress and served from July 18, 1837, until February 5, 1838, when the seat was declared vacant. He was later replaced by Thomas J. Word.
David Dickson was a U.S. Representative from Mississippi.
Henry Alexander Wise was an American lawyer and politician from Virginia. He was a U.S. Representative and Governor of Virginia, and US Minister to Brazil. During the American Civil War, he was a general in the Confederate States Army. He was the father of Richard Alsop Wise and John Sergeant Wise, who both served as U.S. Representatives.
Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2017 is over 8.4 million.
On February 9, 1839, Gholson was nominated by President Martin Van Buren to a jointly-held seat on both the Northern and Southern Districts of Mississippi, both vacated by the resignation of George Adams. Gholson was confirmed by the United States Senate on February 13, 1839, and received his commission the same day. While on the bench, he was a Lieutenant in the Mississippi State Militia in 1846. He served on the bench until his resignation on January 10, 1861, when Mississippi seceded from the Union. A fiery advocate of states' rights, he served as member of the state secession convention in 1861 and voted for the ordinance of secession.
Martin Van Buren was an American statesman who served as the eighth president of the United States from 1837 to 1841. He was the first president born after the independence of the United States from the British Empire. A founder of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the ninth governor of New York, the tenth United States secretary of state, and the eighth vice president of the United States. He won the 1836 presidential election with the endorsement of popular outgoing President Andrew Jackson and the organizational strength of the Democratic Party. He lost his 1840 reelection bid to Whig Party nominee William Henry Harrison, due in part to the poor economic conditions of the Panic of 1837. Later in his life, Van Buren emerged as an elder statesman and important anti-slavery leader, who led the Free Soil Party ticket in the 1848 presidential election.
The United States District Court for the Northern District of Mississippi is a federal court in the Fifth Circuit with facilities in Aberdeen, Ackerman, Clarksdale, Cleveland, Corinth, Greenville, and Oxford.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi is a federal court in the Fifth Circuit with facilities in Gulfport, Hattiesburg, Natchez, Meridian, and Jackson.
With the subsequent outbreak of war, Gholson enlisted as a private in the Monroe Volunteers of Monroe County, Mississippi, (which became Company I, 14th Mississippi Infantry). He served from 1861 until 1863 in the state troops, rising successively through the ranks to captain, colonel, and then to brigadier general. During the Battle of Fort Donelson in Tennessee, he was badly wounded by a bullet that passed through his right lung. He was among the thousands of troops who were surrendered to the Union forces under Ulysses S. Grant. After his exchange, Gholson returned to active duty and fought at Iuka and then at Corinth, both in Mississippi.
A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank.
Monroe County is a county on the northeast border of the U.S. state of Mississippi next to Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 36,989. Its county seat is Aberdeen.
In the United States uniformed services, captain is a commissioned-officer rank. In keeping with the traditions of the militaries of most nations, the rank varies between the services, being a senior rank in the naval services and a junior rank in the ground and air forces.
By mid-1863, Gholson held the rank of major general of Mississippi State Troops. He was awarded the grade of brigadier general in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States to rank from May 6, 1864. He was placed in command of a brigade of cavalry attached to the division of Brig. Gen. James Chalmers under Maj. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest. While serving in the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, Gholson was severely wounded in a fight with Union cavalry on December 27, 1864, at Egypt, Mississippi. His left arm had to be amputated, ending his combat duty for the duration of the war.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is roughly equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment. Two or more brigades may constitute a division.
Cavalry or horsemen are soldiers or warriors who fight mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman, dragoon, or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry divisions during the World Wars ranged between 8,000 and 30,000 in nominal strength.
After the war, Gholson was again a member of the Mississippi House of Representatives in 1865, 1866, and 1878, serving as Speaker of the House from 1865 to 1867. He opposed the government's controversial Reconstruction policies, a political move that eventually cost him his position. After leaving the state legislature, he continued the practice of law in Aberdeen, Mississippi.
Samuel J. Gholson died in Aberdeen on October 16, 1883, and was interred in the town's Odd Fellows Cemetery.
Albert Rust was an American politician who served as a delegate from Arkansas to the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1862. A member of the Democratic Party, Rust was the U.S. Representative from Arkansas's 2nd congressional district, serving from 1859 to 1861. Rust also served as a senior officer of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
Milledge Luke Bonham was an American politician and Congressman who served as the 70th Governor of South Carolina from 1862 until 1864. He was a Confederate General during the American Civil War.
John Gregg was an American politician who served as a Deputy from Texas to the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1862. He served as a senior officer of the Confederate States Army and was killed in action during the Siege of Petersburg.
John Stuart Williams was a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War and a postbellum Democratic U.S. Senator from Kentucky.
William Read Scurry was a general in the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War.
Edward Cary Walthall was a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War and a postbellum United States Senator from Mississippi.
Mosby Monroe Parsons was a senior officer of the Missouri State Guard and the Confederate States Army who commanded infantry in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War.
Albert Gallatin Jenkins was an attorney, planter, representative to the United States Congress and First Confederate Congress, and a Confederate brigadier general during the American Civil War. The commander of a brigade of cavalry from what would become West Virginia, he was mortally wounded at the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain near Dublin, Virginia.
Thomas Green was an American soldier and lawyer, who took part in the Texan Revolution of 1835–36, serving under Sam Houston, who rewarded him with a land grant. Green was clerk of the Texas Supreme Court until the outbreak of the Civil War, when he became a Confederate cavalry leader. After winning several victories, including the Battle of Valverde and the recapture of Galveston, he was promoted brigadier and assigned command of the cavalry division of the Trans-Mississippi Department. In the Red River Campaign, he was mortally wounded while charging a fleet of Federal gunboats. The Union naval commander David Dixon Porter paid tribute to Green as a serious loss to the Confederacy.
James Ronald Chalmers was an American lawyer and politician, a state senator in Mississippi and United States Congressman for several terms from the state's 6th congressional district, beginning in 1876.
William Preston was an American lawyer, politician, and ambassador. He also was a brigadier general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.
During the American Civil War, Arkansas was a Confederate state, though it had initially voted to remain in the Union. Following the capture of Fort Sumter in April 1861, Abraham Lincoln called for troops from every Union state to put down the rebellion, and Arkansas and several other states seceded. For the rest of the war, Arkansas played a major role in controlling the vital Mississippi River and neighboring states, including Tennessee and Missouri.
Alexander Early Steen was a career American soldier from Missouri who served in the United States Army in the Mexican–American War. He rejoined the army in 1852 and served until he resigned to join the Confederate forces on May 10, 1861. He served as a general in the secessionist Missouri State Guard forces and as a colonel and acting brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He was killed in the Battle of Prairie Grove.
Samuel W. Ferguson was a senior officer of the Confederate States Army who commanded cavalry in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. After the war, he also served as a member of the Mississippi River Commission.
William Thompson Martin was an American lawyer and politician who became a Confederate States Army major general during the American Civil War. He later served in the Mississippi state senate, and was a delegate to four Democratic National Conventions. Martin was the president of the Natchez, Jackson, and Columbus Railroad, of which he oversaw the construction in 1884.
Samuel Benton (1820–1864) was an American attorney, newspaper publisher and politician. He served as a colonel in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He was promoted to brigadier general but died two days later before the notification of his promotion reached him.
Joseph Lewis Hogg was a politician and a Confederate States Army general from Texas during the American Civil War. He was also the father of Texas Governor Jim Hogg.
James Edward Harrison was a Confederate States Army brigadier general during the American Civil War. He served in the Trans-Mississippi Department and fought in campaigns in Louisiana. Before the war, he was a two-term Mississippi state senator before moving to Texas in 1857. After the war, he was a trustee of Baylor University.
Thomas Harrison was a Confederate States Army brigadier general during the American Civil War. He had a law practice in Waco, Texas after moving to Texas in 1843. He was a Mexican–American War veteran and Texas state legislator before the war. After the war, he was a district judge at Waco and was a Democratic Party politician and Presidential elector.
| Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Mississippi |
Robert Andrews Hill
| Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi |
Robert Andrews Hill
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from Mississippi's at-large congressional district
December 1, 1836 –March 3, 1837
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from Mississippi's at-large congressional district
July 18, 1837 –February 5, 1838