Samuel van Houten (17 February 1837 – 14 October 1930) was a Dutch liberal politician, who served as Minister of the Interior from 1894 to 1897.
Van Houten was born in Groningen into a wealthy Mennonite family.His parents were Derk van Houten, a timber merchant and local politician, and his wife Barbara Elizabeth Meihuizen. After attending a Latin school from 1849 to 1854, he studied Law at the University of Groningen, obtaining a degree in 1859. He then worked as a lawyer. He quickly became involved in the city's politics, getting elected to the municipal council in 1864 and becoming one of the city's aldermen in 1867. About this time Van Houten left the Mennonite Church and became an agnostic.
In 1869, van Houten was first elected to the House of Representatives for the electoral district Groningen. In the House of Representatives, Van Houten quickly established himself as an independent liberal, not reluctant to criticise the Thorbeckian liberal establishment. He denounced what he saw as a centralist tendency in the ideology of their leader, Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, jokingly referring to the latter's views as Bonapartism in 1872. Van Houten, in contrast, adhered to the belief that the historical development of different sectors of society should be respected, in this sense sharing semblance to Abraham Kuyper's theory of sphere sovereignty. This belief led him to take a different position on the issue of the school struggle than most of his fellow liberals.In 1887, he was one of only seven liberals to vote to allow for the equal funding of confessional schools.
Van Houten adhered to the principle of autonomy regarding the individual as well. On the issue of social policy, he believed government intervention was necessary to eliminate barriers to development of the individual so as to create equality of opportunity and thus to promote individual liberty. In this spirit, Van Houten introduced a bill that forbade child labour for children younger than 12 years. This bill, nicknamed the Kinderwetje van Van Houten, became the first social law of the Netherlands in 1874.Nonetheless, van Houten who started out as very progressive gradually became more conservative and opposed further social laws and any egalitarianism by the state. On individual issues, he continued to sponsor progressive causes, writing about feminism, prostitution and birth control. He was president of a Neo-Malthusian society in 1888.
While initially supportive of expansion of suffrage, Van Houten gradually became more conservative on the issue over time, fearing that an enfranchised proletariat would threaten the social balance. His opposition to Johannes Tak van Poortvliet's proposal to extend suffrage to all men except beggars and servants led him to lose re-election in the progressive district of Groningen in the general election of 1894. He was defeated by the Takkian liberal Hendrik Lodewijk Drucker.
While Van Houten lost his seat in 1894, the anti-Takkians won the general election, after which Joan Röell was asked to form a government. In this conservative liberal government, which was installed on 9 May 1894, Van Houten succeeded Tak van Poortvliet as Minister of the Interior. As such, he was responsible for preparing a new Election Act. While more modest than Tak van Poortvliet's previous proposal, Van Houten's bill still doubled the electorate to roughly half the male adult population, a figure that would gradually rise to 68% in 1913.Aside from the suffrage issue, Van Houten introduced a bill that gave municipalities more financial support. He also allowed for the territorial expansion or large municipalities, such as Rotterdam in 1894 and Amsterdam and Leiden in 1896, necessitated by urbanisation.
Van Houten's ministership lasted until 27 July 1897, when he was succeeded by Hendrik Goeman Borgesius. Although he was not re-elected to the House of Representatives, he sat in the Senate for Friesland between 1904 and 1907. He strongly opposed the government of Abraham Kuyper, but also criticised liberal policy; his voting behaviour led some fellow liberals to call him an "honorary member of the right".Critical of the new electoral system and the expansion of government, the 85-year old Van Houten founded the short-lived Liberal Party in 1922 and became its lijsttrekker in the general election in that year. The party won one seat, but Van Houten chose not to accept it, allowing instead Lizzy van Dorp to take the seat.
Van Houten married Elisabeth van Konijnenburg on 29 June 1861, and the couple had five daughters and two sons. She died on 16 June 1872, after which Van Houten remarried Hermine Leendertz on 3 June 1873. With her, Van Houten had another five daughters and two sons. He had three well known grandsons. One was Hans van Houten, State Secretary for Foreign Affairs in The Netherlands between 1959 and 1963.Also, through his daughter Sina, her two sons, Sir Frederick William Leith Ross, who was chief economic advisor to the UK government from 1932-1945 and Harry Leith Ross, who was a well-known artist who lived and worked in the US.
The Christian Democratic Appeal is a Christian-democratic political party in the Netherlands. It was originally formed in 1977 from a confederation of the Catholic People's Party, the Anti-Revolutionary Party and the Christian Historical Union, since becoming a unitary party; it has participated in all but three cabinets since then.
The Anti-Revolutionary Party was a Protestant conservative and Christian democratic political party in the Netherlands. The party was founded in 1879 by Abraham Kuyper, a neo-Calvinist theologian and minister. In 1980 the party merged with the Catholic People's Party (KVP) and the Christian Historical Union (CHU) to form the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).
Abraham Kuyper, "with a 'y', not an 'ij'", was Prime Minister of the Netherlands between 1901 and 1905, an influential neo-Calvinist theologian and also a journalist. He established the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, which upon its foundation became the second largest Reformed denomination in the country behind the state-supported Dutch Reformed Church.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on 6 March 1888. The Liberal Union emerged as the largest party, winning 46 of the 100 seats in the House of Representatives.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on 10 April 1894. The Liberal Democratic League remained the largest party, winning 57 of the 100 seats in the House of Representatives.
Liberalism in the Netherlands started as an anti-monarchical effort spearheaded by the Dutch statesman Thorbecke, who almost single-handedly wrote the 1848 Constitution of the Netherlands that turned the country into a constitutional monarchy.
The Christian Historical Union was a Protestant Christian democratic political party in the Netherlands. The CHU is one of the predecessors of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), into which it merged in September 1980.
Gijsbert van Tienhoven was a liberal Dutch politician. He started his political career in the municipal council and executive of Amsterdam, and served as mayor of Amsterdam from 1880 to 1891. He spent one year in the House of Representatives and eleven years in the Senate before being appointed formateur after the 1891 general election. For three years, he served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of Foreign Affairs before his cabinet fell in 1894. He also served as Queen's Commissioner of North Holland for fourteen years, between 1897 and 1911.
The Liberal Party was a Dutch conservative liberal political party. The LP played only a marginal role in Dutch politics.
The League of Free Liberals was a Dutch classical liberal political party and a predecessor of the Liberal State Party which is historically linked to the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, the major Dutch liberal party. The party's name League of Free Liberals was supposed to convey that the party was not a classical political party, with party discipline and a centralised organisation but a league of independent MPs. The conservative liberals were called free liberals before they had founded a separate party.
The Liberal State Party, "the Freedom League", was a conservative liberal political party in the Netherlands from 1921 to 1948. It is historically linked to the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), a major Dutch political party.
The Liberal Union was a conservative liberal political party in the Netherlands. A major party in its time, the Liberals were one of the historic predecessors of the Liberal State Party, and therefore of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy.
The Free Anti Revolutionary Party was a Dutch conservative Reformed political party, which existed from 1898 to 1903. The VAR is historically linked to the Christian Democratic Appeal which is currently one of the major parties of the Netherlands.
This article gives an overview of Christian democracy in the Netherlands, which is also called confessionalism, including political Catholicism and Protestantism. It is limited to Christian democratic parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having had a representation in parliament. The sign ⇒ means a reference to another party in that scheme.
The Pacification of 1917 was a political agreement between liberals and socialists on the left and some Christian parties on the right in the Netherlands, ending both the suffrage issue and the school struggle. The Christian parties involved would later present themselves as "Christian-democrats".
Aeneas, Baron Mackay Jr. was a Dutch Anti-Revolutionary politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1888 to 1891. Born into a noble family from Gelderland, he studied Law in Utrecht and worked as lawyer and a judge. He was elected into the House of Representatives in 1876, and retained his seat for twelve years before his premiership. In his cabinet, he served as minister of the Interior and minister of Colonial Affairs. After another thirteen years in the House, he became a member of the Council of State, receiving the honorary title Minister of State.
Jhr. Alexander Frederik de Savornin Lohman was a Dutch politician and leader of the Christian Historical Union during the first quarter of the 20th century.
Johannes Pieter Roetert Tak van Poortvliet, lord of the manor of Poortvliet and Cleverskerke, was a Dutch politician.
Partial general elections were held in the Netherlands on 13 June 1871 to elect half the seats in the House of Representatives.
|House of Representatives of the Netherlands|
Johan Herman Geertsema
| Member for Groningen |
With: Jacob Dirk Veegens 1888–1894
Hendrik Lodewijk Drucker
Johannes Tak van Poortvliet
| Minister of the Interior |
Hendrik Goeman Borgesius