Coordinates: San Carlos is a beachfront subdivision within the port city of Guaymas, in the northern state of Sonora in Mexico. It is noted for the exceptional clarity and warmth of the ocean water in its shallow bays. It lies on the Sea of Cortez. Given the size of the city, with nearly 7,000 inhabitants, there is a remarkable number of RV parks, resorts and stores. There is also a very large and active diving community.
There are also other outdoors activities like climbing, San Carlos is a beautiful place because it is an encounter of the desert with the sea, that gives life to many places to enjoy watching, like the most popular local mountain called "cerro del tetakawi", that in native Yaqui language means in English "rocky mountain", not only the mountain by itself is beautiful once its formed with rocks and desertic vegetation, but it is also an excellent option for those who enjoy climbing, and enjoying the view from the mountain top of this beautiful bay, and all the magic that surrounds it.
There are also many Americans and Canadians who live in San Carlos during the winter as the summer months are very hot and humid, much like Texas. There are many opportunities to fish, scuba dive, and relax on the beach.
San Carlos is about a six-hour drive from the United States along Mexican interstate Highway 15. Another popular sport in San Carlos is sailing and it is the sailing capital of northern Baja.
The community of San Carlos was founded on lands that previously were a large cattle ranch known as the Baviso de Navarro. This was later subdivided in four great estates known as Rancho Los Algodones, Rancho San Carlos, Rancho El Baviso and Rancho El Represo. In the mid-1950s, Mr. Rafael T. Caballero acquired the ranches Los Algodones, San Carlos and El Baviso, contracting the services of City planners who designed the first stages of a gradual and carefully planned tourist development that in time would become one of the first and most important tourist and recreational communities in the State.
When the private investors began the initial works for this development, in support of this vision, the State Congress of Sonora during the governorship of Luis Encinas Johnson issued a declaration establishing the official incorporation of the Township of San Carlos, Nuevo Guaymas, Municipality of Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, through a Decree published on 28 September 1963, with an endowment of 27.746 square kilometres of privately owned lands located in the Southern portion of the estate Ranch El Baviso.
To complement the Township Land Endowment, the State Congress, during the office of Governor Faustino Felix Serna, increased the Legal Land Fund by adding the estates known as Ranch San Carlos and Ranch Los Algodones, both with a surface of 22.04 km², as published in the Official State Bulletin no. 23, on 21 March 1973. A total of 49.79 km² of privately owned lands constitute the territorial reserves of this development.
On 1 July 1976, The Agrarian reform Secretariat, through the Director of Legal Affaires, declared by means of official notification no. 240-438155, Reference XV; that the mentioned privately owned lands located in the remaining lands of the estates El Baviso and San Carlos, have no agrarian legal claims upon them, and consequently the proprietors are free to lien, to encumber, to contribute to societies, to merge, to cede on trusteeship and to freely dispose of these lands. In that same official notice it is recognized that the proprietors of these four estates, voluntarily ceded to the Federal Government part of their lands for the creation of the new center of population and for the formation of the Ejido 13 July, affecting the Northern and the western portions of the estates San Carlos, El Baviso, Los Algodones and El Represo. The above in accordance to the Presidential Resolution of 15 July 1968, was published in the Official Gazette of the Federation on 27 August 1968.
In support of the objectives set forth by the private investors for the development of a new tourist destination, the Agrarian Reform Secretariat, the Secretary of Human Settlements and Public Works, and the Secretary of Tourism, altogether issued a Declaration of High-priority Tourist Zoning, for all the effects of law; in favor of the estates El Baviso, San Carlos and Los Algodones, owned by Grupo Caballero. The cited declaration was published in the Official Gazette of the Federation No. 34 on 15 August 1980.
In the State of Sonora as well as its personable cities and towns, is a diversity of 'real time' leisure attractions, as well as a strong historical perspective. Filled with great presidential traditions, Guaymas is the birthplace of three former Republic of Mexico presidents: Abelardo Rodriguez, Plutarco Elías Calles and Adolfo de la Huerta.
San Carlos has been used for many films, including:
The hotel/resorts of Club Med (now closed ) and the San Carlos Plaza were built on beach frontage. A major alternative to the hotels in San Carlos are vacation rentals.
The waters of the Gulf of California in the San Carlos area offer a multitude of diving opportunities at all skill levels year-round. Average surface temperatures are 85°F(29.4°C)-90°F(32.2°C) (often even warmer) June–August, 80°F(26.6°C)-89°F(31.6°C) September and October, 63°F(17.2°C)-71°F(21.6°C) in the winter months November–March, Then warms-up again 72°F(22.2°C)-77°F(25°C) in April and May.
Underwater visibility of over 100 ft. (30m) is very common. Sometimes visibility exceeds 200 ft. (61 m) as is often the case at San Pedro Nolasco Island. However, a consultation with a local shop dive shop or divemaster is recommended, and can provide accurate and detailed information on current conditions at specific dive sites.
Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border primarily with the state of Arizona with a small length with New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
Cajemé / Kahe'eme, born and baptized José María Bonifacio Leyba Pérez, was a prominent Yaqui military leader who lived in the Mexican state of Sonora from 1835 to 1887.
Hermosillo, formerly called Pitic, is a city located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. It is the capital and largest city as well as the main economic center for the state and region. As of 2015, the city has a population of 812,229 inhabitants, making it the 16th largest city in Mexico. The recent city population spur is due to its recent strong industrialization, especially in the automotive industry.
A presidio is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence. The term is derived from the Latin word praesidium meaning protection or defense.
Guaymas is a city in Guaymas Municipality, in the southwest part of the state of Sonora, in northwestern Mexico. The city is 134 km south of the state capital of Hermosillo, and 389 kilometres (242 mi) from the U.S. border. The municipality is located on the Gulf of California and the western edge of the Sonoran Desert and has a hot, dry climate and 117 km of beaches. The municipality's formal name is Guaymas de Zaragoza and the city's formal name is the Heróica Ciudad de Guaymas.
Empalme is a city surrounded by a municipality located on the south-central coast of the Mexican state of Sonora. According to the 2005 census the population of the city was 40,630 inhabitants, while the municipality, which has an area of 708.53 km², reported 50,663 inhabitants. Except for its coastline on the Gulf of California, the municipality is entirely surrounded by the much larger municipality of Guaymas.
Tejon Ranch Company, based in Lebec, California is one of the largest private landowners in California. The company was incorporated in 1936 to organize the ownership of a large tract of land that was consolidated from four Mexican land grants acquired in the 1850s and 60s by ranch founder General Edward Fitzgerald Beale. The company now owns over 270,000 acres (1,093 km2) in the southern San Joaquin Valley, Tehachapi Mountains, and Antelope Valley. It is the largest contiguous piece of private property in the state. Tejon Ranch’s agricultural operation primarily grows almonds, pistachios, and wine grapes, along with some alfalfa and the occasional row crop. Cattle leases cover about 250,000 acres (1,012 km2), and depending on the season, up to 12,000 head of cattle can be found grazing on the ranch.
Juan Bautista Valentín Alvarado y Vallejo was a Californio and Governor of Las Californias from 1837 to 1842. In 1836, he led a coup that seized Monterey and declared himself governor, backed by other northern Californios, with help from Capt. Isaac Graham and his "Tennessee Rifles". Alvarado declared independence for California but, after negotiations with the territorial Diputación (Legislature), was persuaded to rejoin Mexico peacefully in exchange for more local autonomy. As part of the agreement, in 1837 he was appointed governor of Las Californias, and served until 1842.
Bahía de Kino is a town in the Mexican state of Sonora, Hermosillo (municipality), on the Sea of Cortez ; it was named after Eusebio Kino. The name also applies to the adjacent bay between Tiburón Island and Punta San Nicolás, Sonora. The names Bahía de Kino, Bahía Kino and Kino Bay are used interchangeably.
Jack Powers,, whose real name was John A. Power, was an Irish born immigrant brought to New York as a child, a soldier in the Mexican American War, serving in the garrison of California. During the California Gold Rush he was a well known professional gambler and a famed horseman, in San Francisco, Santa Barbara and Los Angeles. He had two brushes with the law. Once being tried as a member of The Hounds, in San Francisco in 1849, and once in a dispute over land ownership of a ranch in Santa Barbara County in 1853. In 1856, at Santa Barbara, Powers had protected a fugitive from the vigilantes of San Francisco and helped him to escape. After his role was revealed the following year he had difficulties with the vigilantes at Los Angeles, who accused him of being the leader of a criminal gang there. Long known for his skills as a horseman, on May 2, 1858, his skills were demonstrated in a record breaking 150-mile time over distance race. Soon after this race, he was accused by San Luis Obispo vigilantes of complicity in the 1857 murder of two men, and of being the head of the bandit gang, that plagued the southern central coastal region of California, along the El Camino Real with robberies and murders in San Luis Obispo County and Santa Barbara County between 1853 and 1858. This gang was later named the Jack Powers Gang in 1883, by Jesse D. Mason in his History of Santa Barbara County California. Escaping the vigilantes, by fleeing to Sonora, Powers attempted to return to California in 1860, but was murdered and robbed by his vaqueros at Calabasas just inside Arizona Territory.
Jonathan Temple, or Don Juan Temple came to Mexican California in 1828 and became a large California rancho landowner, cattle rancher, and one of the region's wealthiest citizens.
Rancho Santa Ana del Chino was a 22,193-acre (89.81 km2) Mexican land grant in the Chino Hills and southwestern Pomona Valley, in present-day San Bernardino County, California.
John Forster was born in England; became a Mexican citizen of early California, and was one of the largest landowners in California.
Charles Rene Gaston Gustave de Raousset-Boulbon was a French adventurer, filibuster and entrepreneur and, by some accounts a pirate, and a theoretician of colonialism.
Rancho El Escorpión was a 1,110-acre (4.5 km2) Mexican land grant in present day Los Angeles County, California given in 1845 by Governor Pío Pico to three Chumash Native Americans - Odón Chijulla, Urbano, and Mañuel. The half league square shaped Rancho El Escorpión was located at the west end of the San Fernando Valley on Bell Creek against the Simi Hills, and encompassed parts of present day West Hills and Woodland Hills.
San Pedro Nolasco Island, sometimes called Seal Island, is a small and rugged Mexican island in the Gulf of California. It is 4.2 km long by 1 km wide, and lies 15 km from the nearest point of the Mexican coast and about 28 km west of the resort town of San Carlos on the coast of the Sonoran Desert. The island is protected as a nature reserve and its coastal waters are well known as a sport fishing and diving site.
The Yaqui Wars, were a series of armed conflicts between New Spain, and the later Mexican Republic, against the Yaqui Indians. The period began in 1533 and lasted until 1929. The Yaqui Wars, along with the Caste War against the Maya, were the last conflicts of the centuries long Mexican Indian Wars. Over the course of nearly 400 years, the Spanish and the Mexicans repeatedly launched military campaigns into Yaqui territory which resulted in several serious battles and massacres.
El Camino Viejo a Los Ángeles, also known as El Camino Viejo and the Old Los Angeles Trail, was the oldest north-south trail in the interior of Spanish colonial Las Californias (1769–1822) and Mexican Alta California (1822–1848), present day California. It became a well established inland route, and an alternative to the coastal El Camino Real trail used since the 1770s in the period.
Rancho Leonero is a Mexican vacation resort located on the East Cape of Baja California Sur, approximately 60 miles Northeast of Cabo San Lucas.