San Luis Potosí
Estado Libre y Soberano de San Luis Potosí
|Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí|
State of San Luis Potosí within Mexico
|Capital||San Luis Potosí|
|Largest City||San Luis Potosí|
|Admission||December 22, 1823|
|• Governor|| Juan Manuel Carreras López |
|• Parliament||Congress of San Luis Potosí|
|• Total||61,137 km2 (23,605 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,180 m (10,430 ft)|
|• Density||44/km2 (120/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||20th|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||MX-SLP|
|GDP||US$ 22,825,212.99 th [a]|
|^ a. The state's GDP was $281,040,000 thousand of pesos in 2012, amount corresponding to $22,825,212.99 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.32 pesos (value of May 21, 2012).|
San Luis Potosí (Spanish pronunciation: [san ˈlwis potoˈsi] (
It is located in North-Central Mexico and is bordered by seven other Mexican states: Nuevo León to the north; Tamaulipas to the north-east; Veracruz to the east; Hidalgo, Querétaro and Guanajuato to the south; and Zacatecas to north-west.
In addition to the capital city, the state's largest cities include Ciudad Valles, Matehuala, Rioverde, and Tamazunchale.
In pre-Columbian times, the territory now occupied by the state of San Luis Potosí contained the cultural areas of Mesoamerica and Aridoamerica. Its northern and western-central areas were inhabited by the Otomi and Chichimeca tribes. These indigenous groups were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Although many indigenous people died during Spanish colonization, Huasteco groups still live, along with Pame and Náhua peoples.
In 1592, gold and silver deposits were discovered, which triggered the establishment of the state.[ citation needed ] Spanish miners established the first town known as “San Luis de Mezquitique”, modern location of the capital San Luis Potosí. This led to Juan de Oñate being appointed as the first mayor.
The State was given the name "San Luis Rey", King Saint Louis, in honor of Louis IX of France, and "Potosí" because the wealth of the state compared to the rich silver mines in Potosí, Bolivia. Settlers hoped of rivaling the Bolivian mine wealth, but this was never truly accomplished. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Franciscans, Augustinians, and Jesuits arrived in the area and settled, then began to build churches and buildings, many of which are still standing and have been turned into museums and universities.
In mid-1821, after the Independence of Mexico, General Jose Antonio Echavarri intimidated and threatened the Mayor and the City Council to surrender the city of San Luis to the Army of the Three Guarantees of Agustín de Iturbide (Ejercito de las Tres Garantias de Iturbide), who at the time was emperor of Mexico. They submitted to his demand, as there was no way to resist, and thus proclamation of Independence of San Luis Potosí was declared. The first Constitution of San Luis Potosí was then written on October 16, 1826, and this was in effect until 1835 when Congress proclaimed it centralist. At this point, local legislatures disappeared and state governors were appointed by the central government. This situation lasted until the promulgation of the 1857 Constitution.[ citation needed ]
The state participation in the Mexican–American War in the years of 1846-1847 gave it the name "San Luis de la Patria",which translates into English, Saint Louis of the Homeland, for having contributed important leaders and ideas during the struggle with the United States. During the Reform War, state involvement was very prominent, and during the French Intervention in 1863, the city of San Luis Potosí became the capital of the country under the order of President Benito Juárez.
During the regime of Maximilian, San Luis became an important location. The city was held by the Imperialists until late 1866. In that year, the telegraph line was opened between San Luis Potosí and Mexico City, which opened up communication lines and helped begin the industrialization of the state.
The state lies mostly on the Mexican Plateau, with the exception of the eastern part of the state, where the tableland breaks down into the tropical valley of the Tampaon River (which continues flowing northwestward until it becomes the Pánuco River, which divides San Luis Potosí from the north-eastern state of Tamaulipas). The surface of the plateau is comparatively level, with some low mountainous wooded ridges. The Sierra Madre Oriental runs north and south through the state, and separates the Mexican Plateau from the Gulf Coastal Plain to the east. The Sierra Madre Oriental is home to the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests. The easternmost portion of the state lies on the Gulf Coastal Plain, and covered by the Veracruz moist forests. The eastern part is included in the region commonly referred to as "La Huasteca".
The Tampaón river and its tributaries drain the southern and southeastern portion of the state. The northern and central portion of the state, including the capital, lie on an interior drainage basin which does not drain to the sea.
The mean elevation is about 6,000 ft ensuring a temperate climate for the most part. The state lies partly within the arid zone of the north, while the southern half receiving more rainfall through the influence of the Nortes, which deliver significant amounts of rain. The rainfall, however, is uncertain at the western and northern regions, and much of the state does not have major rivers. The soil is fertile and in favorable seasons large crops of wheat, maize, beans and cotton are grown on the uplands. In the low tropical valleys, sugar, coffee, tobacco, peppers and fruit are staple products. Livestock is an important industry and hides, tallow and wool are exported. Fine cabinet and construction woods are also made and exported to a limited extent.
Potosí (in Bolivia) was believed to have enough gold to build a bridge between Potosí and Spain. San Luis Potosí was compared to it upon the discovery of the mines and therefore named after it.
At one time San Luis Potosí ranked among the leading mining provinces of Mexico, but the revolts following independence resulted in a great decline in that industry. The area around Real de Catorce has some of the richest silver mines in the country. Other well-known silver mining districts are Peñón Blanco, Ramos and Guadalcázar. The development of Guadalcazar dates from 1620 and its ores yield gold, copper, zinc and bismuth, as well as silver. In the Ramos district, the Cocinera lode was said to have had a total yield of over $60,000,000 in the first decade of the 20th century.
The State of San Luis Potosí is divided into 58 municipalities (Spanish : municipios), each headed by a municipal president (mayor). These are similar in function to counties. Is it so divided into four zones municipalities Altiplano (Highlands), Centro (centre), Media and Huasteca zone
The coat of arms of the state shows Louis IX of France, after whom the state was named, standing on a hill in the town of Cerro de San Pedro, where gold and silver were discovered. The state was well known for its gold and silver mines, so there are two gold bars on the left and two silver bars on the right. The blue and yellow backgrounds represent night and day, respectively.
The state has several protected elements included in the federal system of protected areas administered by the National Commission of Natural Protected Areas (CONANP):
It also has a declared place Ramsar site (n. Ref 1766, declared in 2008), Arrochas y Manantiales de Tanchachín.
In addition, it has 12 other natural areas protected by state competition managed by the SEGAM (Secretariat of Ecology and Environmental Management):
In 1996, Minera San Xavier (MSX), a subsidiary of Canadian company New Gold, announced plans to start open pit mining at Cerro San Pedro.There was major opposition to the project, but in 2007, the mine started operating, and was still both active and disputed as of 2016.
One of the mountains within the state's declared National Sacred Site, Wirikuta, is being purchased for silver mining by a Canadian company, First Majestic Silver . grams to kill a person. In April 2010 the company also opened a new cyanidation plant in Coahila, Mexico where it has started producing 3500 tons of cyanide a day to help them expand their mining efforts. Currently the Huichol people are trying to find outside groups to help them in the conservation of their land and culture by protecting this mountain.The mountain is an important site for the Huichol ceremonial migration, Peyote hunt, and deer dance. On October 27, 2000 United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) claimed this site as a protected area for its importance as a cultural route and endemic flora and fauna species. Later on June 9, 2001 it was declared as a National Sacred Site under the State of San Luis Potosí's Natural Protection act. Canada's First Majestic Silver Corp still decided to purchase mineral rights on November 13, 2009 with 80% of their interest within the protected land. The company's current methods includes open pit mining and leaching through cyanide, using two kilograms of NaCN per tonne of ore. While open pit mining itself removes entire habitats and landscapes, the addition of sodium cyanide, NaCN, is a lethal method requiring only 0.2
The current governor is Juan Manuel Carreras López (2015–2021) of the PRI party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional)
The State has a unique position within the country, since it is located in between three major cities; Mexico City, Monterrey, and Guadalajara, and near four major ports; Tampico, Altamira, Manzanillo, and Mazatlán. Its varied climate patterns and territory along with extensive communications networks enabled it to maintain attractive business environments.
Traditionally, the Real de Minas potosino has driven the industrial engines in the state of San Luis Potosí, and as such, nowadays basic metallurgy still has the largest contribution within the Gross Domestic Product of the entity.[ citation needed ] The main metals and products extracted across mines are zinc, copper, lead, gold, silver, mercury, manganese, and arsenic. Other major industries following the mining lead are in the sectors of chemicals, foods, beverages, tobacco, and textiles.
The services sector, also known as tertiary, is second regarding contribution to the state's income with a 21%, followed by commerce, hotels and restaurants with 18%. These combined activities employ 51% of the economically active population or EAP.
Agriculture has been a traditional activity, sometimes still practiced in the Huasteca region. Currently, even if it contributes very little to the state GDP, it nevertheless employs as much as 20% of the EAP of the entity. The main agricultural products grown on Potosí soil are maize, beans, barley, sugar cane, oranges, coffee, sour lemon, prickly pear, and mango. Livestock activities are focused on raising sheep, cattle, and pigs.
The state is also a contributor to the large automotive industry of Mexico. General Motors now has a plant under construction, San Luis Potosí Assembly, to employ up to 1,800 people which will have the capacity to produce up to 160,000 vehicles per year, or about 440 cars per day.
The new plant in San Luis Potosi is an important pillar of the BMW Group’s global production strategy who aim to achieve a balance in our production and sales in the different world regions. Its grand opening in June 7, 2019 created 1,500 jobs, eco friendly by being supplied with 100% of CO2 free electricity, and produce 150,000 (3 series model only) vehicles annually. Cummins has also had a manufacturing presence in San Luis Potosí since 1980 and employs nearly 2,000 people there.
ABB Group multinational in Mexico moved its headquarters from Mexico City to San Luis Potosí in 2007.
Throughout the state, major industrial parks can be seen, especially in highly urbanized areas such as the capital, San Luis Potosí, and other major cities.
The minimum wage in the state is 66.45 pesos per day as of 2015In July 2014 BMW announced it was establishing a $1 billion plant in San Luis Potosí which will employ 1,500 people, and produce 150,000 cars annually, commencing in 2019.
The state of San Luis Potosí reports a population of about 2,678,231 people, according to the latest projection which took place in 2013. The population growth rate from 2010 to 2013 was about 3.6%.
The state's population is relatively young, 60% of its residents being under 30 years of age. The state reports a life expectancy rate similar to the national average, that is, 72 years for men, and 77 years of age for women.
Regarding cultural and ethnic diversity, 15% of the state population is indigenous, and the most representative language is Nahuatl, followed by Huasteco. The native people of the state include the Huastec and Pame people s. [ citation needed ]
Concerning immigrants and people of European ancestry, 89% of the population has some form of European roots, mostly from Spain. During the colonization and establishment of Mexico, there was a constant flow of Spanish immigrants. There have also been large influxes during instabilities in Spain, such as during the Spanish Civil War. Besides Spanish people, there is also a significant population of descendants of Italian immigrants, especially in cities such as Rio Verde and Cerritos. Most of the European peoples have arrived through the state of Veracruz to the East.
Nonetheless, due to its relative isolation, the state is one of the nine states in Mexico which report high rates of migration into the United States.[ citation needed ]
The average schooling rate for those over 15 years of age lies at 7.7 years of education, considerably lower than the 8.1 found nationally. The same portion of those older than the age of 15 yield a 28% dropout rate of primary school. Children under the age of 14 years have a 4% school dropout rate. The literacy rate is about 90.8%, most of the illiterate being the older generation. There is only one major university in the state, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí (UASLP).
Other higher education institutions include:
Newspapers of San Luis Potosí include: Diario Regional El Mañana de Valles, El Sol de San Luis, Esto del Centro, Gran Diario Regional Zona Media El Mañana de Rioverde, La Jornada de San Luis, La Prensa del Centro, and Pulso Diario de San Luis.
Ponciano Arriaga International Airport serves the capital of San Luis Potosí (named the same) with a variety of domestic and international daily flights. Other cities such as Matehuala, Tamuin and Rioverde also have airports but they are only domestic flights.
Besides airports, the state has an extensive road network, like the rest of the country. Most of the roads are paved in urban areas and highways. Some small towns, however, have cobblestone streets.
Arts and sciences
Querétaro, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro, is one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities. Its capital city is Santiago de Querétaro.
Hidalgo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Hidalgo, is one of the 32 states which constitute the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 84 municipalities and its capital city is Pachuca de Soto.
The Huichol or Wixáritari are an indigenous people of Mexico living in the Sierra Madre Occidental range in the states of Nayarit, Jalisco, Zacatecas, and Durango. They are best known to the larger world as the Huichol, however, they refer to themselves as Wixáritari in their native Huichol language. The adjectival form of Wixáritari and name for their own language is Wixárika.
Wirikuta is a desert, sacred to the Wixárika (Huichol) Indians high in the mountains of central Mexico, between the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Zacatecas ranges, near Real de Catorce. In Wixárika cosmology, the world was believed to have been created in Wirikuta.
Rioverde is a city and its surrounding municipality located in the south-central part of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. It is the fifth-most populated city in the state, behind San Luis Potosí, Soledad de Graciano Sánchez, Ciudad Valles, and Matehuala. It is the agricultural, economic, turistic and demographic most important core in the Zona Media, one of the four geographical divisions of the state. The city had a 2005 census population of 49,183, while the municipality, of which it serves as municipal seat, had a population of 85,945 and an area extent of 3,109.71 km². The population of its metropolitan area, which includes the largest municipality of Ciudad Fernández, was 126,997.
Pinal de Amoles is a town located in Pinal de Amoles Municipality in the state of Querétaro in central Mexico. It is part of the Sierra Gorda region which stretches over northern Querétaro into Guanajuato, Hidalgo and San Luis Potosí, with 88% of the municipality's land comprising the Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve. The municipality contains large areas of forests and the highest peaks in the region, which separate the wetter areas of both the north and east from the drier areas of the south and west. The town began as a mining camp in the 17th century. However, most mining in the area has disappeared and the municipality is one of the poorest in Mexico, despite recent efforts to promote ecotourism and restart mining. This has led a large number of residents to migrate to larger cities in Mexico and to the United States to work, sending remittances back home. These remittances now overshadow the locally generated economy.
The Sierra Gorda is an ecological region centered on the northern third of the Mexican state of Querétaro and extending into the neighboring states of Guanajuato, Hidalgo and San Luis Potosí. Within Querétaro, the ecosystem extends from the center of the state starting in parts of San Joaquín and Cadereyta de Montes municipalities and covering all of the municipalities of Peñamiller, Pinal de Amoles, Jalpan de Serra, Landa de Matamoros and Arroyo Seco, for a total of 250 km2 of territory. The area is extremely rugged with high steep mountains and deep canyons. As part of the Huasteca Karst, it also contains many formations due to erosion of limestone, especially pit caves known locally as sótanos. The area is valued for its very wide diversity of plant and animal life, which is due to the various microenvironments created by the ruggedness of the terrain and wide variation in rainfall. This is due to the mountains’ blocking of moisture coming in from the Gulf of Mexico, which generally makes the east side fairly moist and the west semiarid scrub brush. Most of the region has been protected in two biosphere reserves, with the one centered in Querétaro established in 1997 and the one centered in Guanajuato established in 2007. The Sierra Gorda is considered to be the far west of the La Huasteca region culturally and it is home to the Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda World Heritage Site.
Ciudad Valles is the second-largest city in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. It is located in the eastern part of the state, in the cultural region of Huasteca. The city is also the municipal seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name. The city had a 2014 census population of 176,935.
Jalpan de Serra is a town in Jalpan de Serra Municipality located in the north of the state of Querétaro, Mexico. It is located in the heart of an important ecological zone called the Sierra Gorda. It is also the site two of five Franciscan missions, including the first one, to have been built in the mid-18th century, and declared a World Heritage Site in 2003. The municipality is also home to a small but important indigenous group called the Pame. However, the municipality has been losing population since the mid-20th century even though recent events such as the town being named a Pueblo Mágico have worked to create a tourism industry.
Real de Catorce, often shortened to Real, is a village in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí and the seat of the municipality of Catorce. It is located 160 miles (260 km) north of the city of San Luis Potosí, and currently has a full-time population of under 1,000 residents. This 'ghost-town' in the high and dry expanses of northern San Luis Potosí state was once a thriving silver mining settlement. Real de Catorce has long been a pilgrimage site for both local Catholics and Huichol shamanists, and is now being discovered by international tourists drawn by the desert ambience and reputed spiritual energy.
La Huasteca is a geographical and cultural region located in Mexico along the Gulf of Mexico which includes parts of the states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Puebla, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro and Guanajuato. It is roughly defined as the area in which the Huastec people had influence when their civilization was at its height in the Mesoamerican period. Today, the Huastecs occupy only a fraction of this region with the Nahua people now the most numerous indigenous group. However, those who live in the region share a number of cultural traits such as a style of music and dance, along with religious festivals such as Xantolo.
Cerro de San Pedro is a village and seat of the Municipality of Cerro de San Pedro, located in the state of San Luis Potosí in central Mexico. It is located in hills, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) northeast of the city of San Luis Potosí.
Cárdenas is a municipality and city in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí.
Guadalcázar is a Mexican municipality, within the state of San Luis Potosí, Northeastern Mexico.
Zacatecas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas, is one of the 32 states of Mexico. It is divided into 58 municipalities and its capital city is Zacatecas City.
Federal Highway 57 (Fed. 57) is a free (libre) part of the federal highways corridors of Mexico.
Santa Maria del Rio is one of the 58 municipalities that make up the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. The municipality is located in the southern part of the state, approximately 48 kilometers east of the city of San Luis Potosí. Santa Maria del Rio has a land area of 1,655 square kilometers, with 37,290 inhabitants. As of 2005, 12,000 were living in the town of Santa Maria del Rio. The area is famous for its rebozos, being the cradle of the blue and white rebozo de bolita. The Rebozo Caramelo is woven there.
Tancanhuitz is a town and one of the 58 municipalities of the state of San Luis Potosí in central Mexico. It is located in the southeastern part of the state, approximately 330 km (210 mi) from the city of San Luis Potosí. The municipality covers an area of 134.05 km². As of the 2005 census, the it had a total population of 20,495, of which 10,180 were men and 10,315 were women.
First Majestic Silver Corp. is a Canadian silver-mining company that operates in Mexico. The company has seven producing mines under its control: San Dimas Silver/Gold Mine, Santa Elena Silver/Gold Mine, La Encantada Silver Mine, La Parrilla Silver Mine, San Martin Silver Mine, Del Toro Silver Mine, and La Guitarra Silver Mine. First Majestic also produces and sells its own bullion rounds and bars.
La Luz Silver Project is a proposed mining venture in the Real de Catorce Desert, San Luis de Potosi, Mexico, by Canadian mining company First Majestic Silver.
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