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|King of Castile and León|
|Reign||4 April 1284 – 25 April 1295|
|Born||12 May 1258|
|Died||25 April 1295 36) (aged|
|House||Castilian House of Ivrea|
|Father||Alfonso X of Castile|
|Mother||Violant of Aragon|
Sancho IV of Castile (12 May 1258 – 25 April 1295) called the Brave (el Bravo), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia from 1284 to his death. Following his brother Ferdinand's death, he gained the support of nobles that declared him king instead of Ferdinand's son Alfonso. Faced with revolts throughout his reign, before he died he made his wife regent for his son Ferdinand IV.
Sancho was the second son of Alfonso X and Yolanda, daughter of James I of Aragon.His elder brother, Ferdinand de la Cerda, died in November 1275. In 1282 Sancho assembled a coalition of nobles to declare for him against Ferdinand's son Alfonso, then took control of the kingdom when Alfonso X died in 1284. This was all against the wishes of their father, but Sancho was crowned in Toledo nevertheless.
Sancho's ascension was in part due to his rejection of his father's elitist politics. Sancho was recognised and supported by the majority of the nobility and the cities, but a sizable minority opposed him throughout his reign and worked for the heirs of Ferdinand de la Cerda. One of the leaders of the opposition was his brother John, who united to his cause the lord of Biscay, Lope Díaz III de Haro. Sancho responded by executing the Lord of Biscay and incarcerating his brother. According to the chroniclers, he cemented his hold on power by executing 4,000 other followers of Infante Alfonso, son of Ferdinand de la Cerda, in Badajoz. He executed 400 more in Talavera and more in Ávila and Toledo.
Upon dispensing with this opposition, Sancho pardoned his brother, who was released. John bided his time before fomenting revolt again: the conflict over Tarifa. He called in the aid of the Marinids in Morocco and besieged Guzmán the Good in his castle (1291). At this siege occurred that famous act of heroism, the innocent death of the son of Guzmán. Tarifa was faithfully defended until Sancho could rescue it and the Marinids retreated to the Maghreb. The intent of both John and the Sultan of Marinids (to invade) was foiled.
When James II succeeded to the Crown of Aragon, he endeavoured to bind the two crowns more closely and to unite in the Reconquista. Indeed, both of James' predecessors had tried to do likewise. Sancho was also the friend and tutor of Juan Manuel of Castile.
Just before succumbing to a fatal illness (possibly tuberculosis)he appointed his wife, María de Molina, to act as regent for his nine-year-old son, Ferdinand IV. He died on 25 April 1295 in Toledo.
Sancho married Maria de Molina in 1282,but at first their marriage did not have the necessary papal dispensation for two reasons: First, they had a distant blood relation, and second, Sancho had been betrothed as an infant to a rich Catalan heiress named Guillerma Moncada.
They had the following children:
He had three illegitimate children:
By María Alfonso Téllez de Menezes (d. Toro), wife of Juan García, Lord of Ucero:
By another woman whose name is unknown, he had:
Ferdinand IV of Castile called the Summoned, was the king of Castile and León from 1295 until his death.
Urraca is a female first name. In Spanish, the name means magpie, derived perhaps from Latin furax, meaning "thievish", in reference to the magpie's tendency to collect shiny items. The name may be of Basque origin, as suggested by onomastic analysis.
Alfonso of León, Lord of Molina was an infante (prince) of León and Castile, the son of King Alfonso IX of León and his second wife Queen Berengaria of Castile. He was the brother of King Ferdinand III of Castile and León, and father of Queen Maria of Molina, wife of King Sancho IV. He became Lord of Molina and Mesa after his first marriage to Mafalda González de Lara, the heiress of those lands.
Constance of Portugal, was Queen of Castile by her marriage to Ferdinand IV.
Eleanor de Guzmán (Leonor) (1310–1351) was a Castilian noblewoman and long-term mistress to Alfonso XI of Castile. She was the mother of King Henry II of Castile.
María Alfonso Téllez de Meneses, known as María de Molina, was queen consort of Castile and León from 1284 to 1295 by marriage to Sancho IV of Castile, and served as regent for her minor son Ferdinand IV and later her grandson Alfonso XI of Castile (1312-1321).
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Muhammad II was the second Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula, succeeding his father, Muhammad I. Already experienced in matters of state when he ascended the throne, he continued his father's policy of maintaining independence in the face of Granada's larger neighbours, the Christian kingdom of Castile and the Muslim Marinid state of Morocco, as well as an internal rebellion by his family's former allies, the Banu Ashqilula.
Blanche of France (1253–1323) was a daughter of King Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence.
Fernando de la Cerda (1275–1322) was the younger son of Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile and his wife Blanche of France. His paternal grandparents were Alfonso X of Castile and Violant of Aragon. His maternal grandparents were Louis IX of France and Marguerite of Provence. His elder brother was Alfonso de la Cerda.
Alfonso de la Cerda,, called "the disinherited," was the elder son of Ferdinand de la Cerda and his wife Blanche of France, and was a grandson of Alfonso X of Castile. Alfonso and his brother Fernando were candidates for the Castilian-Leonese crown during the reigns of Sancho IV of Castile, Ferdinand IV of Castile and Alfonso XI of Castile. In 1331, Alfonso renounced his rights and swore allegiance to Alfonso XI of Castile.
Fernando Rodríguez de Castro, was a Galician noble and a member of the House of Castro. He was the son of Esteban Fernández de Castro, Lord of Lemos and Sarria, and Aldonza Rodríguez de León. His paternal grandparents were Fernando Gutiérrez de Castro and Emilia Iniguez de Mendoza. His maternal grandparents were Rodrigo Alfonso de León, son of Alfonso IX of León, and Ines Rodríguez Cabrera.
Pedro Fernández de Castro, nicknamed el de la Guerra, was a powerful Galician noble and military figure of the House of Castro, descended by illegitimate lines from the kings of Castile-Leon-Galicia. Pedro Fernandez de Castro was Lord (Señor) of Lemos and Sarria and served as mayordomo mayor of Alfonso XI of Castile, adelantado de la frontera (governor) of Andalusia, Galicia and Murcia and pertiguero mayor of the lands of Santiago.
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John of Castile, called the "el de Tarifa" was an infante of Castile and León. He was engaged in a decades-long fight for control over the Lordship of Biscay with Diego López V de Haro, the uncle of his wife.
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Lope Díaz de Haro was a Spanish noble of the House of Haro, the traditional Lords of Biscay. He was the firstborn son of Diego Lopez V de Haro, Lord of Biscay. Whilst he did not inherit his father's title of Lordship over Biscay, he is best known for being the lord of Orduña-Urduña and of Balmaseda. He further served as Alférez to King Ferdinand IV of Castile.
Fernando Díaz de Haro was a Spanish noble of the House of Haro. He was the second born son of Diego López V de Haro, the Lord of Biscay, and his wife, the infanta Violante de Castilla y Aragón, daughter of Alfonso X of Castile. Fernando became lord of Orduña and Balmaseda in 1322, after the death of his brother, Lope Díaz IV de Haro who died without leaving any descendants.
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Juan Núñez I de Lara y León, also known as "el Gordo" or "the Fat", was a Spanish noble. He was the head of the House of Lara, Lord of Lerma, Amaya, Dueñas, Palenzuela, Tordehumos, Torrelobatón, and la Mota. He was further known as Señor de Albarracín through his first marriage with Teresa Álvarez de Azagra.
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