|Sanjak of Dibra|
Sanxhaku i Dibrës
|Sanjak of the Ottoman Empire|
• Treaty of London (1913)
|30 May 1913|
|Today part of|| Albania |
The Sanjak of Dibra, or the Sanjak of Debar, (Turkish : Debre Sancağı, Albanian : Sanxhaku i Dibrës, Macedonian : Дебарски санџак, romanized: Debarski sandžak) was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire. Its capital was Debar, Macedonia (modern-day North Macedonia). Today, the western part of its territory belongs to the Republic of Albania (Lower Dibra and Mat) and the eastern part to the Republic of North Macedonia (Reka and Debar).
Besides Debar, the territory of the Sanjak of Dibra included part of northern Albania, namely Krujë and areas between the Mat and Black Drin rivers.In 1440, Skanderbeg was appointed as sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Dibra.
Since the mid-19th century, the Sanjak of Dibra had consisted of two kazas: Debar and Reka.By the time of its dissolution in 1912, it had four kazas: Debar, Reka, Mat and Lower Dibra.
In the late Ottoman period, the Sanjak of Dibra had a population of 200,000. Debar, the main town and capital, had 20,000 inhabitants, 420 shops, 9 mosques, 10 madrasas, 5 tekkes, 11 government-run primary schools, 3 Christian primary schools, 1 secondary school, and 1 church. Due to its strategic position as the seat of a sanjak, an Ottoman army division was stationed within the town.
Albanian tribes known as the "Tigers of Dibra" held power in the mountainous areas of the sanjak, along with much of the valley. These tribes, known as malësorët (highlanders), were mostly of Muslim faith, and governed themselves according to the Kanun, a set of traditional Albanian laws last codified by Skanderbeg. The customs of these malësorët were deeply steeped in a sense of personal honor, and they were known to place great value in the concept of besa (a pledge of honor), and were also known to blood feud (gjakmarrja).
One of the largest tribes of the malësorët was the Mati tribe, numbering 1,200 households. One of the most prominent of the Mati families were the Zogolli, who are most notable for being the clan from which Ahmed Zogu, future king of Albania, descended. The Zogolli also produced many pasha (senior Ottoman officials).
By the 1880s, the Sanjak of Dibra was culturally seen to be a part of Gegënia
In 1897, the Russian Consul in the Monastir Vilayet, A. Rostkovski, completed a very limited demographics surveyof the Sanjak of Dibra. Most portions of the survey do not add up, and of note is the highly unlikely number of Albanians represented in particular regions. This is most likely attributable to an error resulting from categorizing individuals by both ethnicity and religion; the total number of Albanians is purported to be 52,144, but only 9,408 of those are represented in sub-totals due to religious affiliation, with the rest being unaccounted for.
|Sanjak of Dibra||Upper Dibra (Debar)||Reka||Lower Dibra/Mat|
|Ethnic Group||52,144 Albanians, 28,015 Slavs, "No Ottoman Turks"||3,548 Albanians, 15,993 Slavs||5,860 Albanians, 12,022 Slavs||"No Slavs"|
|Religion||N/A||3,548 "Christians," 12,355 Exarchists, 3,638 Patriarchists||3,518 Muslims, 2,342 "Christians," 11,850 Exarchists, 172 Patriarchists||N/A|
In 1867, the Sanjak of Dibra merged with the Sanjak of Prizren and Sanjak of Scutari to become the Scutari Vilayet. In 1871, it was joined with the Sanjak of Prizren, Sanjak of Skopje and Sanjak of Niš into one vilayet, the Prizren Vilayet, which later became part of the Kosovo Vilayet in 1877.
The Sanjak of Dibra was separated from the Kosovo Vilayet and joined to the Monastir Vilayet after the Congress of Berlin in 1878.The sanjak became well-connected with the rest of the Monastir Vilayet, and in period before its dissolution, more than half of its imports came from Skopje and a quarter from Bitola.
On 4 September 1912, the successful Albanian Revolt of 1912 led to part of the Sanjak of Dibra being permitted to move to the newly proposed Albanian Vilayet, as a result of the Revolt's demand for greater autonomy. However, the Albanian Vilayet would not be realized, due to the outbreak of the First Balkan War (1912-1913), one month later.
During the First Balkan War, the Sanjak of Dibra was occupied by the Kingdom of Serbia, along with the rest of the sanjaks set to become the proposed Albanian Vilayet. Due to the occupation, Albanian leaders petitioned Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary for support for Albania's independence, but all he conceded was support for Albanian autonomy within the Ottoman Empire.
Despite this, in 1912 Independent Albania was declared at the All-Albanian Congress, and it petitioned the London Conference of 1913 for recognition on the basis of the ethnic rights of Albanians, but its claims of wider sovereignty were ignored.
In the Treaty of London (1913), many of the Albanian sanjaks were partitioned between the Kingdom of Greece, the Kingdom of Montenegro, and the Kingdom of Serbia.Consequently, the Sanjak of Dibra was dissolved, and its territory was divided between Serbia and the newly established Principality of Albania.
Part of a series on the
|History of Albania|
The Albanian National Awakening, commonly known as the Albanian Renaissance or Albanian Revival, is a period throughout the 19th and 20th century of a cultural, political and social movement in the Albanian history where the Albanian people gathered strength to establish an independent cultural and political life as well as the country of Albania.
The League of Prizren, officially the League for the Defense of the Rights of the Albanian Nation, was an Albanian political organization officially founded on June 10, 1878 in the old town of Prizren, in the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire, and suppressed in 1881.
Debar is a city in the western part of North Macedonia, near the border with Albania, off the road from Struga to Gostivar. It is the seat of Debar Municipality. Debar has an ethnic Albanian majority of 74% and is North Macedonia's only city in which ethnic Macedonians do not rank first or second demographically. The official languages are Macedonian and Albanian.
The Vilayet of Kosovo was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula which included the current territory of Kosovo and the north-western part of the Republic of North Macedonia. The areas today comprising Sandžak (Raška) region of Serbia and Montenegro, although de jure under Ottoman control, were in fact under Austro- Hungarian occupation from 1878 until 1909, as provided under Article 25 of the Treaty of Berlin. Uskub (Skopje) functioned as the capital of the province and the mid way point between Istanbul and its European provinces. Uskub's population of 32,000 made it the largest city in the province, followed by Prizren, also numbering at 30,000.
The Sanjak of Novi Pazar was an Ottoman sanjak that was created in 1865. It was reorganized in 1880 and 1902. The Ottoman rule in the region lasted until the First Balkan War (1912). The Sanjak of Novi Pazar included territories of present-day northeastern Montenegro and southwestern Serbia, also including some northern parts of Kosovo. The region is known as Sandžak.
The Vilayet of Manastir was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, created in 1874, dissolved in 1877 and re-established in 1879. The vilayet was occupied during the First Balkan War in 1912 and divided between the Kingdom of Greece and the Kingdom of Serbia, with some parts later becoming part of the newly established Principality of Albania.
The Vilayet of Scutari, Shkodër or Shkodra was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire that existed from 1867 to 1913, located in parts of what today is Montenegro and Albania. In the late 19th century it reportedly had an area of 13,800 square kilometres.
Hasan Prishtina, originally known as Hasan Berisha, was an Ottoman, later Albanian politician, who served as the 8th Prime Minister of Albania in December 1921.
The Pashalik of Iskodra, or Pashalik of Shkodra (1757–1831), was an autonomous and de facto independent pashalik created by the Albanian Bushati family from the previous Sanjak of Scutari, which was situated around the city of Shkodër in modern-day Albania and large majority of modern-day Montenegro. At its peak during the reign of Kara Mahmud Bushati the pashalik encompassed much of Albania, most of Kosovo, western Macedonia, southeastern Serbia and most of Montenegro. Up to 1830 the Pashalik of Shkodra controlled most of the above lands including Southern Montenegro.
Vardar Macedonia, the area that now makes up North Macedonia, was part of the Ottoman Empire for over five hundred years, from the mid-14th century to 1912. However, the Ottomans themselves did not keep any "Macedonia" as an administrative unit. Instead Vardar Macedonia was part of the Ottoman province or Eyalet of Rumelia. The name Rumelia means "Land of the Romans" in Turkish, referring to the lands conquered by the Ottoman Turks from the Byzantine Empire.
The Albanian Vilayet was a projected vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in the western Balkan Peninsula, which was to include the four Ottoman vilayets with substantial ethnic Albanian populations: Kosovo Vilayet, Scutari Vilayet, Manastir Vilayet, and Janina Vilayet. In some proposals, it included the Salonica Vilayet as well. The creation of the Vilayet was confirmed in September 1912, but negotiations were interrupted a month later in October by the beginning of the First Balkan War. Plans for an Albanian Vilayet were lost with the Partition of Albania.
The Sanjak of Scutari or Sanjak of Shkodra was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire. It was established after the Ottoman Empire acquired Shkodra after the siege of Shkodra in 1478–9. It was part of Rumelia Eyalet until 1867, when it became a part, together with Sanjak of Skopje, of newly established Scutari Vilayet. In 1912 and the beginning of 1913 it was occupied by members of the Balkan League during the First Balkan War. In 1914 the territory of Sanjak of Scutari became a part of the Principality of Albania, established on the basis of the peace contract signed during the London Conference in 1913.
The Sanjak of Prizren was one of the sanjaks in the Ottoman Empire with Prizren as its administrative centre. It was founded immediately after Ottoman Empire captured Prizren from Serbian Despotate in 1455. The rest of the territory of Serbian Despotate was conquered after the fall of Smederevo in 1459, and divided into following sanjaks: Sanjak of Vučitrn, Sanjak of Kruševac and Sanjak of Smederevo. At the beginning of the First Balkan War in 1912, the territory of Sanjak of Prizren was occupied by the army of the Kingdom of Serbia. Based on Treaty of London signed on 30 May 1913, the territory of Sanjak of Prizren became part of Serbia.
The Sanjak of Üsküp was one of the sanjaks in the Ottoman Empire, with Üsküb as its administrative centre.
The Sanjak of Niš was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire and its county town was Niš. It was composed of the kazas of Niš (Niş), Pirot (Şehirköy), Leskovac (Leskofça), Vranje (İvranye), Kuršumlija (Kurşunlu), Prokuplje (Ürküp) and Tran (Turan).
The Sanjak of Elbasan was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire. Its county town was Elbasan in Albania.
The Sanjak of İpek or Sanjak of Dukakin was a sanjak with its capital in İpek (Peja), now in Kosovo.
The Sanjak of Ohri was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire established in 1395. Part of it was located on the territory of the Lordship of Prilep, a realm in Macedonia ruled by the Ottoman vassal Prince Marko until his death in the Battle of Rovine.
The Sanjak of Vučitrn, also known as the Pristina Pashaluk, was a sanjak of the Ottoman Empire in Rumelia, in present-day Kosovo. It was named after its administrative center Vučitrn.
The Battle of Lumë, also referred by the Albanians as the Uprising of Lumë, was a series of clashes between the Albanian locals of the region of Lumë in Ottoman Albania against the invading Serbian army in 1912 during the First Balkan War period. The Serbians sought access to the Adriatic Sea but against predictions were defeated by the Albanian forces. As a result, Serbia's advancement to the west was delayed, which contributed to the safety of the independence of Albania on 28 November 1912.
Dibra and its surrounding became separate sanjak
portion of the north Albanian lands was included in the sancak of Debar, namely Kruja, Debar and the areas lying between the rivers of Mat and Black Drin
In 1440, he was promoted to sancakbey of Debar
..До првата половина на XIX век „Деборија" админи- стративно припаѓала во Дебарскиот пашалак, покасно кон Дебарскиот санџак (дебре - санџаги) кој се делел на Дебарска каза со седиште во дебар и на Реканска каза со
Дебарски санџак има четири казе: Дебарску, матску, доњодебарску и речку (Река)
the vilayet of Prizren was founded in 1871
In 1868 the vilayet of Prizren was created with the sancaks of Prizren, Dibra, Skopje and Niš; it only existed till 1877
After the Berlin Congress other administrative reforms were carried out. So the Debar Sanjak was separated from Kosovo Vilayet and was added to the Bitola vilayet...
Уопште Дебарски санџак се, у последње време до осло- бођења, трговачким артиклима са 50°/» снабдевао из Скопља а са 25°/» из Битоља.