|Sanjak of Drama|
Ottoman Turkish: Liva-i Drama
|Sanjak of the Ottoman Empire|
1907 Ottoman map of the Salonica Vilayet, with the sanjaks of Salonica, Siroz and Drama
|Today part of|
The Sanjak of Drama (Ottoman Turkish: Sancak-i/Liva-i Drama; Greek : λιβάς/σαντζάκι Δράμας) was a second-level Ottoman province ( sanjak or liva ) encompassing the region around the town of Drama (now in Greece) in eastern Macedonia.
The sanjak was formed as part of the Tanzimat reforms ca. 1846, from territory taken from various provinces; Drama itself belonged to the Sanjak of Siroz. The sanjak belonged to the Salonica Eyalet, after 1867 the Salonica Vilayet. In 1867–69, the Sanjak of Drama was merged back into the Sanjak of Siroz, was re-established and then temporarily abolished in 1872–73. In 1891, its territories east of the Nestos river became part of the Sanjak of Adrianople.
In 1912, the sanjak comprised six sub-provinces ( kazas ): Drama, Kavala, Sarışaban (Chrysoupoli), the island of Taşuz (Thasos) and Pravişte (Eleftheroupolis). The province was dissolved when occupied by Bulgarian troops in the First Balkan War, and in 1913, after the Second Balkan War, it became part of Greece
The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire. Outside this system were various types of vassal and tributary states.
The Vilayet of Kosovo was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula which included the current territory of Kosovo and the north-western part of the Republic of North Macedonia. The areas today comprising Sandžak (Raška) region of Serbia and Montenegro, although de jure under Ottoman control, were in fact under Austro- Hungarian occupation from 1878 until 1909, as provided under Article 25 of the Treaty of Berlin. Uskub (Skopje) functioned as the capital of the province and the mid way point between Istanbul and its European provinces. Uskub's population of 32,000 made it the largest city in the province, followed by Prizren, also numbering at 30,000.
The Vilayet of Salonica was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire from 1867 to 1912. In the late 19th century it reportedly had an area of 12,950 square miles (33,500 km2).
Vardar Macedonia, the area that now makes up North Macedonia, was part of the Ottoman Empire for over five hundred years, from the mid-14th century to 1912. However, the Ottomans themselves did not keep any "Macedonia" as an administrative unit. Instead Vardar Macedonia was part of the Ottoman province or Eyalet of Rumelia. The name Rumelia means "Land of the Romans" in Turkish, referring to the lands conquered by the Ottoman Turks from the Byzantine Empire.
The Eyalet of Adrianople or Edirne or Çirmen was constituted from parts of the eyalets of Silistra and Rumelia in 1826.
A vilayet was a first-order administrative division, or province of the later Ottoman Empire, introduced with the promulgation of the Vilayet Law of 21 January 1867. The reform was part of the ongoing administrative reforms that were being enacted throughout the empire, and enshrined in the Imperial Edict of 1856. The reform was at first implemented experimentally in the Danube Vilayet, specially formed in 1864 and headed by the leading reformist Midhat Pasha. The reform was gradually implemented, and not until 1884 was it applied to the entirety of the Empire's provinces.
The Eyalet of Rumeli or Rumelia, also known as the Beylerbeylik of Rumeli, was a first-level province of the Ottoman Empire encompassing most of the Balkans ("Rumelia"). For most of its history it was the largest and most important province of the Empire, containing key cities such as Edirne, Yanina (Ioannina), Sofia, Manastır/Monastir (Bitola), Üsküp (Skopje), and the major seaport of Selanik/Salonica (Thessaloniki).
The Sanjak of Dedeağaç, originally in 1878–1884 the Sanjak of Dimetoka, was a second-level province (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire in Thrace, forming part of the Adrianople Vilayet. Its capital was Dedeağaç, modern Alexandroupoli in Greece.
The Sanjak of Gümülcine was a second-level province (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire in Thrace, forming part of the Adrianople Vilayet. Its capital was Gümülcine, modern Komotini in Greece.
The Sanjak of Inebahti or Aynabahti was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the central parts of Continental Greece. Its name derives from its capital, Inebahti/Aynabahti, the Turkish name for Naupaktos, better known in English with its Italian name, Lepanto.
The Sanjak of Tirhala or Trikala was second-level Ottoman province encompassing the region of Thessaly. Its name derives from the Turkish version of the name of the town of Trikala. It was established after the conquest of Thessaly by the Ottomans led by Turahan Bey, a process which began at the end of the 14th century and ended in the mid-15th century.
The Sanjak of Serfiğe was a second-level Ottoman province centred on the town of Serfiğe (Servia) in western Macedonia, now part of Greece.
The Sanjak of Preveza was a second-level Ottoman province centred on the town of Preveze (Preveza) in southern Epirus, now part of Greece.
The Sanjak of Rodos or Rhodes was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the Dodecanese or Southern Sporades islands, with Rhodes as its centre.
The Sanjak of Gelibolu or Gallipoli was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the Gallipoli Peninsula and a portion of southern Thrace. Gelibolu was the first Ottoman province in Europe, and for over a century the main base of the Ottoman Navy. Thereafter, and until the 18th century, it served as the seat of the Kapudan Pasha and capital of the Eyalet of the Archipelago.
The Sanjak of Çirmen or Chirmen was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the region of Çirmen (mod. Ormenio in Thrace. It was succeeded in 1829 by the Sanjak of Edirne.
The Sanjak of Salonica or Selanik was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the environs of the city of Thessalonica and the Chalcidice peninsula.
The Sanjak of Nakşa Berre or Naxos was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the central and southern Cyclades islands, and named after the two largest islands of Naxos and Paros. The sanjak encompassed the territory of the former Duchy of Naxos, which had been tributary to the Ottomans since 1537, but was not formally incorporated into the Empire until after 1579, when the last Duke, Joseph Nasi, died. The sanjak formed part of the Eyalet of the Archipelago at least by 1600, but is no longer attested after the late 18th century. Aside from the sanjakbey at Naxos, two other beys, at Milos and Santorini, are recorded in 1629. With the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821, the islands came under Greek control.
The Sanjak of Kavala was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the region around the port town of Kavala in eastern Macedonia.
The Sanjak of Siroz or Serres was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the region around the town of Serres in central Macedonia.