Sanjak of Elbasan

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Sanjak of Elbasan
Sanjak of Ottoman Empire
1466–1913
Ottoman Flag.svg
Flag
Osmanli-nisani.svg
Coat of arms
Sanjak of Elbasan, Ottoman Balkans (late 19th century).png
Capital Elbasan
History 
 Construction of the Elbasan fortress
1466
1913
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ottoman Flag.svg Sanjak of Albania
Principality of Albania Albania 1914 Flag.svg
Today part ofFlag of Albania.svg  Albania

The Sanjak of Elbasan (Turkish : İlbasan Sancağı) was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire. Its county town was Elbasan in Albania.

Contents

Administration

Although Halil Inalcik explains that the Sanjak of Elbasan was established as soon as the fortress of Elbasan has been constructed, based on Tursun Beg's records there is a possibility that Elbasan initially was part of the Sanjak of Ohrid. [1]

The Sanjak of Elbasan had three kazas: [2]

It became part of the Manastir Vilayet when it was established in the 19th century. [3]

Marino Bizzi, the Archbishop of Bar (Antivari), stated in his report that on May 17, 1591 that name of the sanjakbey of Sanjak of Elbasan was Mehmet Bey. [4]

During the reign of Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha (1637 – August 19, 1691) one of the sanjakbeys of Elbasan was Hasan Pasha. [5] In 1714 the sanjabey of the Sanjak of Elbasan was Zejnil-beg. [6] At the beginning of 20th century sanjakbey of Elbasan was Necib Efendi, who was transferred to another position in February 1904. [7]

History

Disestablishment

Territorial expansion of the Kingdom of Serbia in 1913. Serbian greater expansion 1913.png
Territorial expansion of the Kingdom of Serbia in 1913.

During the First Balkan War at the end of 1912 the Sanjak of Elbasan together with most of the territory of Albania was occupied and de facto annexed by the Kingdom of Serbia. The Sanjak of Elbasan was on 29 November included in the Serbian administrative system as a srez (Serbian : Срез Елбасан) within Drač County (Serbian : Драчки округ), one of four srezes (the other being Drač, Lješ, Tirana). [8] In 1914 Elbasan became a part of the newly established Principality of Albania, established on the basis of peace contract signed during the London Conference of 1912–13. [9]

Demographics

15th century

In 1467 many Christians from Skopje, Ohrid, Serres and Kastoria were forcibly deported to Elbasan. [10]

16th century

At the beginning of the 16th century the Sanjak of Elbasan had the highest population density of all Ottoman sanjaks in the Balkans, with 5.65 per square kilometre (14.6/sq mi). [11] Between 1520 and 1535 up to 94,5% population of the Sanjak of Elbasan were Christians. [12]

17th century

An Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebi recorded in 1670 that Elbasan had 18 quarters with Muslim population and 10 quarters populated by an Orthodox and Roman Catholic population. He also stated that Serbs, Bulgarians and Voyniks (Ottoman Christian mercenaries) were not allowed to take up residence in Elbasan, otherwise they would be immediately slain according to ancient custom. [13] The Albanian language was spoken by all residents, most of whom also had an advanced knowledge of Turkish. The merchants could also speak Greek and Italian.

19th century

According to Russian consul in the Manastir Vilayet, A. Rostkovski, finishing the statistical article in 1897, the total population of the sanjak was 56,105. Albanian Muslims were 51,786, Albanian Christians were 3,319, and Vlachs (Aromanians) were 1,000. [14]

20th century

At the beginning of the 20th century it was estimated that 15,000 people lived in Elbasan, which was then the seat of a Greek bishop. [15] In the region between Elbasan and Berat there were numerous villages which population publicly declared themselves as Muslims, but privately practised Christianity. [16]

Albanians who lived in Elbasan were Tosks and because of that the Sanjak of Elbasan was seen as part of Toskalik, land of Tosks, together with the sanjaks of Ergiri, Preveze, Berat, Yanya, Gorice and Manastir. Tosks did not have a tribal society like Ghegs had. [17]

Related Research Articles

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Manastir Vilayet

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Tosks

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Sanjak of Albania

The Sanjak of Albania was a second-level administrative unit (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire, located in what is today central and southern Albania. Its territory stretched between Krujë in the north and Kalamas river in the south. It was established in 1415–17, and was disestablished in 1466 with the establishment of the Sanjak of Elbasan.

Sanjak of Dibra

Sanjak of Dibra, or Sanjak of Debar, was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire which county town was Debar in Macedonia. The western part of its territory today belongs to Albania and the east to the Republic of North Macedonia.

Sanjak of Scutari

The Sanjak of Scutari or Sanjak of Shkodra was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire. It was established after Ottoman Empire acquired Shkodra after the siege of Shkodra in 1478-9. It was part of Rumelia Eyalet until 1867, when it became a part, together with Sanjak of Skopje, of newly established Scutari Vilayet. In 1912 and beginning of 1913 it was occupied by members of Balkan League during the First Balkan War. In 1914 the territory of Sanjak of Scutari became a part of Principality of Albania, established on the basis of peace contract signed during London Conference in 1913.

Sanjak of İpek

The Sanjak of İpek or Sanjak of Dukakin was a sanjak with its capital in İpek (Peja), now in Kosovo.

Sanjak of Avlona

The Sanjak of Avlona was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire which county town was Berat in Albania. It was established in 1466, after the construction of the Elbasan Castle of the territory that belonged to the preceding Ottoman sanjak, Sanjak of Albania.

Sanjak of Ioannina

The Sanjak of Ioannina was a sanjak of the Ottoman Empire whose capital was Ioannina in Epirus.

Sanjak of Ohrid

The Sanjak of Ohri was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire established in 1395. Part of it was located on the territory of the Lordship of Prilep, a realm in Macedonia ruled by the Ottoman vassal Prince Marko until his death in the Battle of Rovine.

Congress of Dibra

The Congress of Dibra was a congress held by members of Albanian committee in Debar from July 23 to July 29, 1909. The congress was chaired by Vehbi Dibra, Grand Mufti of the Sanjak of Dibra and was sponsored by the government of the Young Turks. It was held on the first anniversary of the Young Turk Revolution and was a countermeasure on the Latin script based Albanian alphabet which came out of the Congress of Manastir.

Sanjak of Monastir

The Sanjak of Monastir or Manastir or Bitola, was a sanjak within the Rumelia Eyalet (1465–1867) and then the Manastir Vilayet (1874–1912). The administrative seat was in Manastir (Bitola).

The Sanjak of Görice was a second-level administrative unit (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire centred in Korçë. It was established in the 15th century following Ottoman conquests and disestablished during the Balkan Wars (1912–13). It was one of several sanjaks part of the Manastir Vilayet (1874–1912). It had territory in what is today southeastern Albania and northwestern Greece.

Congress of Elbasan

The Congress of Elbasan, also known between Albanians as the Congress of the Albanian schools, was held from 2 to 8 September 1909 in Elbasan, today's Albania, back then part of the Vilayet of Monastir of the Ottoman Empire. The congress, sponsored by the local Bashkimi literary club, was attended by 35 delegates from central and southern Albania.

References

  1. Kiel, Machiel (1990), Ottoman architecture in Albania, 1385-1912, Istanbul: Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture, p. 39, ISBN   978-92-9063-330-3 , retrieved 9 January 2012, ...states that Elbasan became a sandjak capital right after 1466 but the usually well informed Tursun Beg noted for 1466: "The sultan attached this fortress of Elbasan to the Sancak of Ohrid and returned to Edirne..."
  2. "20. yüzyılda Osmanli Vilayetleri" (PDF) (in Turkish). http://tarihvemedeniyet.org/ . Retrieved 28 July 2011. İlbasan Sancağı ...İlbasan Liva merkezi Grameç Kaza merkezi Peklin Kaza merkeziExternal link in |publisher= (help)
  3. Ottoman Provinces before 1908
  4. Bizzi 1610.
  5. Jagoš, Jovanović (1947). Stvaranje Crnogorski države. Narodna Knjiga. p. 103. Retrieved 1 August 2011. Под Ћуприлићевом командом били су скадарски Ахмед-паша, елбасански Асан-паша,
  6. Pelidija, Enes (1989). Bosanski ejalet od Karlovačkog do Požarevačkog mira, 1699-1718. Veselin Masleša. p. 82. Retrieved 1 August 2011. Već 15. maja 1714...već krajem maja .. Numan paša je dobio ferman....Fermani sa sličnim pretnjama su dolazili....Elbasanskom Zejnil-begu
  7. Gawrych 2006, p. 110.
  8. Bogdanović, Dimitrije; Samardžić, Radovan (1990). Knjiga o Kosovu: razgovori o Kosovu. Književne novine. p. 208.
  9. Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history. I.B.Tauris. pp. 77, 78. ISBN   978-1-86064-541-9.
  10. Shukarova, Aneta; Mitko B. Panov; Dragi Georgiev; Krste Bitovski; Ivan Katardžiev; Vanche Stojchev; Novica Veljanovski; Todor Chepreganov (2008), Todor Chepreganov (ed.), History of the Macedonian People, Skopje: Institute of National History, p. 133, ISBN   9989-159-24-6, OCLC   276645834 , retrieved 26 December 2011, At the same time or nearly in 1467 the citizens from Skopje, ...were expa-triated to the Albanian city of Konjuh (Elbasan), which was constructedas a fortress to help the fighting against Skender-Bey. ... these Christians from Skopje as Elbasan’s citizens appeared other families from Ohrid, Kastoria and Serres that were compulsorily moved into this city..
  11. Vranjski glasnik, Volumes 17-19. Narodni muzej u Vranju. 1984. p. 26. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 1520....На Балканском полуострву само је Елбасански санџак имао већу густину живља (5,65)... In 1520... on Balkan peninsula only Elbasan sanjak had higher population density (5,65)...
  12. Zhelyazkova, Antonina (2000). "Albania and Albanian Identities". International Center for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations. Retrieved January 10, 2011. According to data published by Ö. Barkan, concerning the period of 1520–1535, the Christian population in the sancak of Elbasan ran up to 94.5 per cent.
  13. Chelebi, Evliya (1670), Robert Elsie (ed.), 1670 Evliya Chelebi: Seyahatname - a Journey to Berat and Elbasan, archived from the original on 2011-09-28
  14. "Jedna statistika iz srednje Maćedonije". Nova Iskra (15–16): 251. 26 July 1899.
  15. Raza, Moonis (1906). Geographical Dictionary Of The World In The Early 20th Century. Logos Press. p. 588. Retrieved 31 July 2011. Elbassan, el-basvsan', a town of European Turkey, in Albania, 64 miles SE. of Scutari. It has numerous mosques and is the seat of a Greek bishop....Pop estimated at 15,000
  16. Gawrych 2006, p. 27.
  17. Gawrych 2006, p. 23.

Further reading