|Sanjak of Rhodes|
Ottoman Turkish: Liva-i Rodos
|Sanjak of the Ottoman Empire|
• Ottoman conquest of Rhodes
|Today part of|
The Sanjak of Rodos or Rhodes (Ottoman Turkish: Sancak-i/Liva-i Rodos; Greek : λιβάς/σαντζάκι Ρόδου) was a second-level Ottoman province ( sanjak or liva ) encompassing the Dodecanese or Southern Sporades islands, with Rhodes as its centre.
After the Ottoman conquest of Rhodes from the Knights Hospitaller in 1522,the island initially became the seat of a beylerbey , and was not subordinated to the Eyalet of the Archipelago as a sub-province ( sanjak ) until 1546. However, for most of the duration of Ottoman rule, apart from Rhodes itself, the other Southern Sporades islands (the remainder of the Dodecanese including Samos) were practically autonomous, and were not subject to a centralized administration until the introduction of the uniform vilayet -based administrative system in the 1860s. Rhodes itself did not enjoy this autonomy, and declined during the early Ottoman period both as a commercial centre and as a site of military importance, since the Eastern Mediterranean became an Ottoman lake. Only from the 18th century on is there evidence for an economic upturn in the island.
During the Greek War of Independence, Rhodes and Kos did not take part in the uprising, although many Rhodians were members of the Filiki Etaireia and fled to join the Greek rebels. The other islands of the sanjak however rose up, most prominently Kasos until its destruction in 1824.
Rhodes apparently became the seat of the Kapudan Pasha (the chief admiral of the Ottoman Navy, who also served as governor of the Archipelago Eyalet) in the late 17th century. In 1849, Rhodes became officially the pasha-sanjak of the Archipelago province, now separated from any relation with the Kapudan Pasha. With the introduction of the vilayet system, the capital of the new Vilayet of the Archipelago was transferred to Kale-i Sultaniye in 1867, returned to Rhodes in 1877, went to Chios in 1880, before finally returning to Rhodes in 1888.
In 1912, the year the province was occupied by the Kingdom of Italy during the Italo-Turkish War, it comprised the kazas (districts) of Rodos itself, Kasot (Kasos), Mis (Kastellorizo), Sömbeki (Symi), Kerpe (Karpathos), and Istanköy (Kos).The islands were slated to be returned to the Ottoman Empire after the Treaty of Ouchy, but Italy took advantage of the outbreak of the Balkan Wars to continue its occupation. The islands were finally ceded to Greece in 1948, in the aftermath of World War II.
The Dodecanese are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea and Eastern Mediterranean, off the coast of Turkey's Anatolia, of which 26 are inhabited. This island group generally defines the eastern limit of the Sea of Crete. They belong to the wider Southern Sporades island group.
The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire. Outside this system were various types of vassal and tributary states.
Eyalets, also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.
The Eyalet of Cyprus was an eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus, which was annexed into the Empire in 1571. The Ottomans changed the way they administered Cyprus multiple times. It was a sanjak (sub-province) of the Eyalet of the Archipelago from 1670 to 1703, and again from 1784 onwards; a fief of the Grand Vizier ; and again an eyalet for the short period from 1745 to 1748.
The Turks of the Dodecanese are a community of 5,500 Turkish-speaking people and ethnic Turks as well as Greek Muslims from Crete and the Dodecanese whose ancestors converted to Islam in the Ottoman period. They live on the Dodecanese islands of Rhodes and Kos, since they were not affected by the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey because the Dodecanese islands were under the rule of the Kingdom of Italy at the time. All inhabitants of the islands became Greek citizens after 1947 when the islands became part of Greece.
The Kapudan Pasha, was the Grand Admiral of the navy of the Ottoman Empire. He was also known as the Kapudan-ı Derya. Typically, he was based at Galata and Gallipoli during the winter and charged with annual sailings during the summer months. The title of Kapudan Pasha itself is only attested from 1567 onwards; earlier designations for the supreme commander of the fleet include Derya Bey and Re'is Kapudan.
The Vilayet of the Archipelago was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire extant from 1867 to 1912–13, including, at its maximum extent, the Ottoman Aegean islands, Cyprus and the Dardanelles Strait.
The Eyalet of Bosnia, was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, mostly based on the territory of the present-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Prior to the Great Turkish War, it had also included most of Slavonia, Lika, and Dalmatia in present-day Croatia. Its reported area in 1853 was 52,530 square kilometres (20,281 sq mi).
A vilayet was a first-order administrative division, or province of the later Ottoman Empire, introduced with the promulgation of the Vilayet Law of 21 January 1867. The reform was part of the ongoing administrative reforms that were being enacted throughout the empire, and enshrined in the Imperial Edict of 1856. The reform was at first implemented experimentally in the Danube Vilayet, specially formed in 1864 and headed by the leading reformist Midhat Pasha. The reform was gradually implemented, and not until 1884 was it applied to the entirety of the Empire's provinces.
The Eyalet of Rumeli or Rumelia, also known as the Beylerbeylik of Rumeli, was a first-level province of the Ottoman Empire encompassing most of the Balkans ("Rumelia"). For most of its history it was the largest and most important province of the Empire, containing key cities such as Edirne, Yanina (Ioannina), Sofia, Manastır/Monastir (Bitola), Üsküp (Skopje), and the major seaport of Selanik/Salonica (Thessaloniki).
The Eyalet of the Archipelago was a first-level province (eyalet) of the Ottoman Empire. From its inception until the Tanzimat reforms of the mid-19th century, it was under the personal control of the Kapudan Pasha, the commander-in-chief of the Ottoman Navy.
The Sanjak of Dedeağaç, originally in 1878–1884 the Sanjak of Dimetoka, was a second-level province (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire in Thrace, forming part of the Adrianople Vilayet. Its capital was Dedeağaç, modern Alexandroupoli in Greece.
The Sanjak of Tirhala or Trikala was second-level Ottoman province encompassing the region of Thessaly. Its name derives from the Turkish version of the name of the town of Trikala. It was established after the conquest of Thessaly by the Ottomans led by Turahan Bey, a process which began at the end of the 14th century and ended in the mid-15th century.
The Sanjak of Sakız or Chios was a second-level Ottoman province centred on the eastern Aegean island of Chios. Its Turkish name, Sakız, derived from the island's most distinctive product, gum mastic.
The Sanjak of Preveza was a second-level Ottoman province centred on the town of Preveze (Preveza) in southern Epirus, now part of Greece.
The Sanjak of Gelibolu or Gallipoli was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the Gallipoli Peninsula and a portion of southern Thrace. Gelibolu was the first Ottoman province in Europe, and for over a century the main base of the Ottoman Navy. Thereafter, and until the 18th century, it served as the seat of the Kapudan Pasha and capital of the Eyalet of the Archipelago.
The Sanjak of Salonica or Selanik was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the environs of the city of Thessalonica and the Chalcidice peninsula.
The Sanjak of Kavala was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the region around the port town of Kavala in eastern Macedonia.
The Sanjak of Drama was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the region around the town of Drama in eastern Macedonia.
The Sanjak of Biga was a second-level Ottoman province, roughly corresponding to the modern Çanakkale Province of Turkey.