|Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha|
18 January 1980 –23 June 1980
|Preceded by||Ravindra Pratap Singh|
|Succeeded by||Rajiv Gandhi|
|Born|| 14 December 1946 |
|Died||23 June 1980 33) (aged|
|Cause of death||Aircraft accident|
|Political party||Indian National Congress|
|Children||Varun Gandhi (son)|
|Relatives|| Rajiv Gandhi (brother)|
Rahul Gandhi (nephew)
Priyanka Gandhi Vadra (niece)
Jawaharlal Nehru (grandfather)
Kamala Nehru (grandmother)
Sanjay Gandhi (14 December 1946 – 23 June 1980) was an Indian politician and the younger son of Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi. He was a member of parliament,Lok Sabha and the Nehru–Gandhi family. During his lifetime,he was widely expected to succeed his mother as head of the Indian National Congress,but following his early death in a plane crash his elder brother Rajiv became their mother's political heir and succeeded her as Prime Minister of India after her assassination. His wife Maneka Gandhi and son Varun Gandhi are politicians in the Bharatiya Janata Party.
Gandhi was born in New Delhi,on 14 December 1946,as the younger son of Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi. Like his elder brother Rajiv,Gandhi was educated at St. Columba's School,Delhi,Welham Boys' School,Dehra Dun and then at the Doon School,Dehra Dun. Gandhi was also educated at the Ecole D'Humanité,an international boarding school in Switzerland.Gandhi did not attend university,but took up automotive engineering as a career and underwent an apprenticeship with Rolls-Royce in Crewe,England for three years. He was very interested in sports cars,and also obtained a pilot's licence in 1976. He was interested in aircraft acrobatics and won several prizes in that sport. His brother was however a Captain in Indian Airlines flying the Boeing 737-200ADV aircraft.
In 1971,Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's cabinet proposed the production of a "People's car":an efficient indigenous car that middle-class Indians could afford. In June 1971,a company is known as Maruti Motors Limited (now Maruti Suzuki) was incorporated under the Companies Act and Gandhi became its Managing Director. [ citation needed ] It provided the government a feasible Design of their 'Model 796',which was also successful in Japan and East Asian countries.While Gandhi had no previous experience,design proposals or links with any corporation,he was awarded the contract to build the car and the exclusive production licence. The criticism that followed this decision was mostly directed at Indira,but the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War and victory over Pakistan muted the critical voices. The company did not produce any vehicles during his lifetime. A test model put out as a showpiece to demonstrate progress was criticized. Public perception turned against Gandhi,and many began to speculate about growing corruption. Gandhi then contacted Volkswagen AG from West Germany for a possible collaboration,transfer of technology and joint production of the Indian version of the "People's Car",to emulate Volkswagen's worldwide success with the Beetle. During the emergency,Gandhi became active in politics and the Maruti project went on the back burner. There were accusations of nepotism and corruption. Finally,the Janata Government came to power in 1977 and "Maruti Limited" was liquidated. A commission was set up by the new government headed by Justice Alak Chandra Gupta which gave very critical report of the Maruti affair. A year after his death in 1980,and at the behest of Indira,the Union government salvaged Maruti Limited and started looking for an active collaborator for a new company. Maruti Udyog Ltd. was incorporated in the same year through the efforts of Nehru Gandhi family friend and industrial doyen V. Krishnamurthy. The Japanese company Suzuki was also contacted to present the design and feasibility of their car to be manufactured in India. When Suzuki learned that the Government of India had contacted Volkswagen as well,it did everything to pip the German company in the race to produce India's first People's Car (Maruti 800).
In 1974,the opposition-led protests and strikes had caused a widespread disturbance in many parts of the country and badly affected the government and the economy. On 25 June 1975 following an adverse court decision against her,Indira Gandhi declared a national emergency,delayed elections,censored the press and suspended some constitutional freedoms in the name of national security. Non-Congress governments throughout the country were dismissed. Thousands of people,including several freedom fighters like Jaya Prakash Narayan and Jivatram Kripalani who were against the Emergency were arrested.
In the extremely hostile political environment just before and soon after the Emergency,Gandhi rose in importance as Indira's adviser. With the defections of former loyalists,Gandhi's influence with Indira and the government increased dramatically,although he was never in an official or elected position. According to Mark Tully,"His inexperience did not stop him from using the Draconian powers his mother,Indira,had taken to terrorise the administration,setting up what was in effect a police state."
It was said that during the Emergency,he virtually ran India along with his friends,especially Bansi Lal.It was also quipped that Gandhi had total control over his mother and that the government was run by the PMH (Prime Minister House) rather than the PMO (Prime Minister Office). He "recruited into the party thousands of younger people,many of them hooligans and ruffians,who used threats and force to intimidate rivals and those who opposed Mrs Gandhi's authority or his own."
During the emergency,Indira declared a 20-point economic programme for development. Gandhi also declared his own much shorter five points program promoting
Later during the emergency Sanjay's programme was merged with Indira's 20-point programme to make a combined twenty-five point programme.
Out of the five points,Sanjay is now chiefly remembered for the family planning initiative that attracted much notoriety and caused longterm harm to population control in India.
Although he had not been elected and held no office,Sanjay began exercising his newfound influence with Cabinet ministers,high-level government officials and police officers. While many Cabinet ministers and officials resigned in protest,Sanjay reportedly appointed their successors.
In one famous example,Inder Kumar Gujral resigned from the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting when Sanjay attempted to direct the affairs of his ministry and give him orders. Gujral is reported to have angrily rebuked Sanjay and refused to take orders from an unelected person.Gujral was replaced by Vidya Charan Shukla,a Sanjay Gandhi acolyte. In another incident,after popular Bollywood singer Kishore Kumar refused to sing at a function of the Indian Youth Congress,his songs were banned on All India Radio upon Gandhi's insistence.
Sanjay stood for his first election to the Indian parliament following the lifting of the Emergency in March 1977. This election saw the crushing defeat of not only Sanjay in his constituency of Amethi but also the wiping out of Indira's Congress party throughout Northern India. However,Sanjay won Amethi for the Congress(I) in the next general election held in January 1980.
Just one month before his death,he was appointed secretary general of the Congress Party in May 1980.
Sanjay Gandhi and Brij Vardhan,accompanied by Jagmohan the vice-chairman of Delhi Development Authority (DDA),was reportedly irked during his visit to Turkman Gate in old Delhi area that he couldn't see the grand old Jama Masjid because of the maze of tenements. On 13 April 1976,the DDA team bulldozed the tenements. Police resorted to firing to quell the demonstrations opposing the destruction. The firing resulted in at least 150 deaths. Over 70,000 people were displaced during this episode. The displaced inhabitants were moved to a new undeveloped housing site across the Yamuna river.
In September 1976,Sanjay Gandhi initiated a widespread compulsory sterilization program to limit population growth. The exact extent of Sanjay Gandhi's role in the implementation of the program is somewhat disputed,with some writersholding Gandhi directly responsible for his authoritarianism,and other writers blaming the officials who implemented the program rather than Gandhi himself.
David Frum and Vinod Mehta state that the sterilization programmes were initiated at the behest of the IMF and the World Bank:
"Forced sterilisation was by far the most calamitous exercise undertaken during the Emergency. The IMF and World Bank had periodically shared their fears with New Delhi about the uncontrolled rise in population levels. India’s democracy was a hurdle: no government could possibly enact laws limiting the number of children a couple could have without incurring punishment at the ballot box. But with democracy suspended, the IMF and World Bank encouraged Indira to pursue the programme with renewed vigour. Indira and Sanjay, the self-styled socialists, inflicting on Indians the humiliation of forced sterilisation in order to appease western loan sharks: the irony was lost on them. Socialism, like much else, had been reduced to a slogan."— David Frum, reviewing The Sanjay Story by Vinod Mehta
Sanjay Gandhi escaped an assassination attempt in March 1977.Unknown gunmen fired at his car about 300 miles south-east of New Delhi during his election campaign.
After losing the 1977 general election, the Congress party split again with Indira Gandhi floating her own Congress(I) faction. She won a by-election from the Chikmagalur Constituency to the Lok Sabha in November 1978However, the Janata government's Home Minister, Charan Singh, ordered her and Sanjay arrested on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. The arrest meant that Indira Gandhi was automatically expelled from Parliament.However, this strategy backfired disastrously. Her arrest and long-running trial gained her great sympathy from many people.
Kissa Kursi Ka is a satirical film directed by Amrit Nahata that lampooned Indira Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi. The film was submitted to the Censor Board for certification in April 1975. The film had lampooned Sanjay Gandhi's car manufacturing plans, besides Congress supporters like Swami Dhirendra Brahmachari, private secretary to Indira Gandhi R.K. Dhawan, and Rukhsana Sultana. The board sent the film to a seven-member revising committee, which further sent it to the Government. Subsequently, a show-cause notice raising 51 objections was sent to the producer by the Information and Broadcasting ministry. In his reply submitted on 11 July 1975, Nahata stated that the characters were "imaginary and do not refer to any political party or persons". By the time, the Emergency had already been declared.
Subsequently, all the prints and the master-print of the film at Censor Board office were picked up, and brought to Maruti factory in Gurgaon where they were burned. The subsequent Shah Commission, established in 1977 by the Janata party led Government of India, to enquire into excesses committed in the Indian Emergency found Sanjay guilty of burning the negative, along with V. C. Shukla, Information and Broadcasting minister during the emergency.The legal case ran for 11 months, and the court gave its judgment on 27 February 1979. Both Sanjay Gandhi and Shukla were sentenced to a two-year plus a month prison sentence. Sanjay Gandhi was denied bail. In his judgment, District Judge, O. N. Vohra at Tis Hazari in Delhi, found the accused guilty of "criminal conspiracy, breach of trust, mischief by fire, dishonestly receiving criminal property, concealing stolen property and disappearance of evidence". The verdict was later overturned.
The Janata coalition under prime minister Morarji Desai was only united by its hatred of Indira Gandhi.The party included right wing Hindu Nationalists, Socialists and former Congress party members. With little in common, the Morarji Desai government was bogged down by infighting. In 1979, the government started to unravel over the issue of dual loyalties of some members to Janata and the RSS. The ambitious Union Finance minister, Charan Singh, who as the Union Home Minister during the previous year had ordered arrest of Gandhi, took advantage of this and started courting different Congress factions including Congress (I). After a significant exodus from Janata party to Charan Singh faction, Morarji Desai resigned as prime minister in July 1979. Charan Singh was appointed Prime Minister, by President Reddy, after Indira and Sanjay promised Singh that Congress(I) would support his government from outside on certain conditions.The conditions included dropping all charges against Indira and Sanjay. Since Charan Singh refused to drop the charges, Congress withdrew its support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in August 1979.
Before the 1980 elections Gandhi approached the then Shahi Imam of Jama Masjid, Syed Abdullah Bukhari and entered into an agreement with him on the basis of 10-point programme to secure the support of the Muslim votes. [ citation needed ]In the elections held in January, Congress returned to power with a landslide majority.
The Congress(I) under Gandhi swept to power in January 1980.Elections soon after to legislative assemblies in States ruled by opposition parties brought back Congress ministries to those states. Sanjay Gandhi at that time selected his own loyalists to head the governments in these states.
Gandhi married Maneka Anand, who was 10 years his junior, in New Delhi on 24 September 1974.Their son, Varun, was born shortly before Gandhi's death. Maneka and Varun represent the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in the Lok Sabha.
A hitherto unknown chapter of his personal life was revealed in January 2017, when Priya Singh Paul claimed that Gandhi was her biological father,and that she was given away by her biological family for adoption. In June 2017, she gave a legal notice in her capacity as his daughter to stop the release of a film on Gandhi.
Gandhi died instantly from head wounds in an air crash on 23 June 1980 near Safdarjung Airport in New Delhi. He was flying a new aircraft of the Delhi Flying Club, and, while performing an aerobatic manoeuvre over his office, lost control and crashed. Gandhi was a novice pilot but given to flashy daredevilry and dangerous low-flying. His brother had repeatedly warned Gandhi to wear proper shoes and not Kolhapuri chappals in the cockpit but Gandhi chose to ignore his advice. He was clad in kurta-pajama and Kolhapuri chappals when he got into the advanced Pitts S-2A aircraft. He flew low and indulged in some reckless maneuvers before crashing. Gandhi died instantly. It took eight surgeons four hours to stitch up his mutilated body.
The only passenger in the plane, Captain Subhash Saxena, also died in the crash.WikiLeaks has revealed that three attempts were made on Sanjay's life before he died in the plane crash.
According to his wife, Gandhi wanted to raise his children in the Zoroastrian faith of his family.
The death of Gandhi impacted the political face of India.Gandhi's death led his mother to induct her other son Rajiv into politics. After the assassination of Indira Gandhi, Rajiv succeeded her as Prime Minister of India. Gandhi's widow Maneka fell out with her in-laws soon after Gandhi's death and started her own party named Sanjay Vichar Manch in Hyderabad. Maneka served in a number of non-Congress opposition-led governments over the years. Currently, she and her son Varun are members of the BJP, which is the current ruling party in India. Maneka was appointed to the cabinet as Minister of Women and Child Development by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in May 2014, she currently represents BJP from Sultanpur (Lok Sabha constituency) in Uttar Pradesh. Varun is a BJP member of Parliament from Pilibhit constituency in Uttar Pradesh.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. She was the 3rd prime minister of India and was also the first and, to date, only female prime minister of India. Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the 1st prime minister of India. She served as prime minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984, making her the second longest-serving Indian prime minister after her father.
Morarji Ranchhodji Desai was an Indian independence activist and politician who served as the 4th Prime Minister of India between 1977 and 1979 leading the government formed by the Janata Party. During his long career in politics, he held many important posts in government such as Chief Minister of Bombay State, Home Minister, Finance Minister and 2nd Deputy Prime Minister of India.
Chaudhary Charan Singh served as the 5th Prime Minister of India between 28 July 1979 and 14 January 1980. Historians and people alike frequently refer to him as the 'champion of India's peasants.'
The Janata Party was a political party that was founded as an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the Emergency that was imposed between 1975 and 1977 by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of the Indian National Congress. In the 1977 general election, the party defeated the Congress and Janata leader Morarji Desai became the first non-Congress prime minister in independent modern India's history.
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy was an Indian politician who served as the sixth president of India, serving from 1977 to 1982. Beginning a long political career with the Indian National Congress Party in the independence movement, he went on to hold several key offices in independent India—as the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, a two-time Speaker of the Lok Sabha and a Union Minister—before becoming the youngest-ever Indian president.
Maneka Sanjay Gandhi is an Indian politician, animal rights activist, and environmentalist. She is a member of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian parliament and a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). She is the widow of Indian politician Sanjay Gandhi. She has been a minister in four governments, most recently in Narendra Modi's government from May 2014 to May 2019. Gandhi inspired many individuals towards social entrepreneurship for example TreeAndHumanKnot in August 2020 which triggered it become a nation wide movement to plant fruit trees by couples.
The Indian National Congress (Organisation) also known as Congress (O) and Congress (Organisation) was a political party in India formed when the Congress party split following the expulsion of Indira Gandhi.
Feroze Varun Gandhi(listen) is an Indian politician, and a third-term member of Parliament for Lok Sabha from the Pilibhit constituency. He is also member of the Bharatiya Janata Party and was inducted into Rajnath Singh's team in March 2012 as General Secretary. He hails from the Nehru–Gandhi family, which has occupied a dominant place in the politics of India since the country's independence in 1947.
The Emergency in India was a 21-month period from 1975 to 1977 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had a state of emergency declared across the country. Officially issued by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed under Article 352 of the Constitution because of the prevailing "internal disturbance", the Emergency was in effect from 25 June 1975 until its withdrawal on 21 March 1977. The order bestowed upon the Prime Minister the authority to rule by decree, allowing elections to be cancelled and civil liberties to be suspended. For much of the Emergency, most of Indira Gandhi's political opponents were imprisoned and the press was censored. Several other human rights violations were reported from the time, including a mass forced sterilization campaign spearheaded by Sanjay Gandhi, the Prime Minister's son. The Emergency is one of the most controversial periods of independent India's history.
Although India is a parliamentary democracy, the country's politics has become dynastic or with high level of nepotism, possibly due to the absence of party organizations, independent civil-society associations which mobilize support for a party, or centralized financing of elections. The dynastic phenomenon is present at the national, state, regional, and district level. The Nehru–Gandhi family has produced three Indian prime ministers, and family members have largely led the Congress party since 1978. The ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) also has several senior dynastic leaders. In addition to the major national parties, other national and regional parties such as Shiromani Akali Dal, Shiv Sena, Samajwadi Party, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal Secular, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Kerala Congress, Jammu & Kashmir National Conference, Indian Union Muslim League, AIMIM, and the Nationalist Congress Party are all dominated by families, mostly those of the party founders.
Bansi Lal Legha was an Indian independence activist, senior Congress leader, former Chief Minister of Haryana, former Defense Minister of India, and considered by many to be the architect of modern Haryana. Bansi Lal was part of the famous Lal trio of Haryana which also included 'Tau' Devi Lal and Bhajan Lal, that form the major Political families of Haryana.
Raj Narain was an Indian freedom fighter and politician. He won in a famous electoral malpractice case against the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, which led to her disqualification and imposition of Emergency in India in 1975. He defeated Indira Gandhi during the 1977 Lok Sabha elections.
Satyendra Narayan Sinha was an Indian politician and statesman, participant in the Indian independence movement, a leading light of Jaya Prakash Narayan's ‘complete revolution’ movement during the Emergency and a former Chief Minister of Bihar. Affectionately called Chhote Saheb, he was also a seven-time Member of Parliament from the Aurangabad constituency, a three-term Member of the Bihar Legislative Assembly, and a Member of the Bihar Legislative Council once. Regarded to be one of India's most influential regional people of the time, his reputation was synonymous with being a strict disciplinarian and tough taskmaster.
Vidya Charan Shukla was an Indian politician whose political career spanned six decades. He was predominantly a member of the Indian National Congress, but also had spells in Jan Morcha, Janata Dal, Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya), Nationalist Congress Party and Bharatiya Janata Party. He was known as a close associate of Indira Gandhi.
General elections were held in India on 3 and 6 January 1980 to elect the members of the 7th Lok Sabha. The Janata Party alliance came into power in the 1977 general elections amidst public anger with the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Emergency. However, its position was weak; the loose coalition barely held on to a majority with only 295 seats in the Lok Sabha and never quite had a firm grip on power. Bharatiya Lok Dal leaders Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram, who had quit the INC, were members of the Janata alliance but were at loggerheads with Prime Minister Morarji Desai. The tribunals the government had set up to investigate human rights abuses during the Emergency appeared vindictive.
Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna was an Indian National Congress leader and former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh; he later joined Bharatiya Lok Dal and worked with Charan Singh.
The Nehru–Gandhi Family is an Indian political family that has occupied a prominent place in the politics of India. The involvement of the family has traditionally revolved around the Indian National Congress, as various members have traditionally led the party. Three members of the family – Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, and Rajiv Gandhi – have served as the prime minister of India, while several others have been members of the parliament.
The Congress for Democracy (CFD) was an Indian political party founded in 1977 by Jagjivan Ram. It was formed after Jagjivan Ram, Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna, and Nandini Satpathy left the Indian National Congress of Indira Gandhi and denounced her rule during the Indian Emergency. The party contested the 1977 Indian general election with the Janata alliance and later merged with it.
The premiership of Morarji Desai extended from 24 March 1977 to 15 July 1979. In the 1977 Indian general election Morarji Desai led the Janata Party to victory against the Congress party. Upon taking office, Morarji Desai became the first Indian Prime Minister not belonging to the Congress party.
Chandra Shekhar Singh was an Indian politician who served as the 8th Prime Minister of India, between 10 November 1990 and 21 June 1991. He headed a minority government of a breakaway faction of the Janata Dal with outside support from the Indian National Congress. He was the first Indian Prime Minister who had never held any Government office.
Sanjay Gandhi, started to run the country as though it were his personal fiefdom, and earned the fierce hatred of many whom his policies had victimized. He ordered the removal of slum dwellings, and in an attempt to curb India's growing population, initiated a highly resented program of forced sterilization.
Sanjay Gandhi's rash promotion of sterilization and forcible clearance of slums ... sparked popular anger
The Congress, on the other hand, charges Sanjay Gandhi of "over enthusiasm" in dealing with certain programmes and ... "Unfortunately, in certain spheres, over enthusiasm led to compulsion in enforcement of certain programmes like compulsory sterilisation and clearance of slums. Sanjay Gandhi had by then emerged as a leader of great significance.".
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