Cabaças tower, formerly part of the city's fortifications
|Intermunic. comm.||Lezíria do Tejo|
|• President||Ricardo Gonçalves (PSD)|
|• Total||552.54 km2 (213.34 sq mi)|
|• Density||110/km2 (290/sq mi)|
|Time zone||WET/WEST (UTC+0/+1)|
Santarém (Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐ̃tɐˈɾɐ̃j] ) is a city and municipality located in the district of Santarém in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 61,752, in an area of 552.54 km². The population of the city proper was 29,929 in 2012.
The District of Santarém is a district of Portugal, located in Portugal's Centro Region. The district capital is the city of Santarém.
The mayor is Ricardo Gonçalves (PSD). The municipal holiday is March 19, the day of Saint Joseph (São José). The city is on the Portuguese Way variant of the Way of Saint James.
The Social Democratic Party, founded as the Democratic Peoples' Party, is a liberal-conservative and liberal political party in Portugal. Commonly known by its colloquial initials PSD, on ballot papers its initials appear as its official form PPD/PSD, with the first three letters coming from the party's original name. Alongside the Socialist Party (PS), the PSD is one of the two major parties in Portuguese politics. Although branded as a social democratic party, the party is in practice a centre-right conservative party.
The Portuguese Way is the name of the Camino de Santiago pilgrimage routes starting in Portugal. It begins at Porto or Lisbon. From Porto, along the Douro River, pilgrims travel north crossing the five main rivers—the Ave, Cávado, Neiva, Lima and Minho—before entering Spain and passing through Padron on the way to Santiago de Compostela.
Since prehistory, the region of Santarém has been inhabited, first by the Lusitani people and then by the Greeks, Romans, Visigoths, Moors and later Portuguese Christians. Of the various legends related to the foundation of Santarém, the most famous tells of the Visigoth Saint Iria (or Irene), who was martyred in Tomar (Nabantia) and whose uncorrupted body reached Santarém. In her honour, the name of the town (then known by its Latin name Scalabis) would later be changed to Sancta Irene, from which Santarém would eventually be derived.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.
The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period. The Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups who had invaded the Roman Empire beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient. The Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410. After the Visigoths sacked Rome, they began settling down, first in southern Gaul and eventually in Hispania, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD.
The foundation of the city is attributed to the Romans, who occupied the region in the 2nd century BC and named the city Scalabis . During the Roman period Scalabis was an important commercial post in the mid-Tagus region and was the administrative capital of one of the regions (Conventus Scalabitanus) of Lusitania. Julius Caesar ordered the creation of a military camp in Santarém in 61 BC. The city takes at this time the designation of Scallabis Praesidium Iulium.
Scallabis was the Roman name of Santarém, Portugal.
Lusitania or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province located where modern Portugal and part of western Spain lie. It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people.
The 3rd century crisis and the decline of the Western Roman Empire affected the civitas and in the 5th century the town was conquered by Germanic tribes (Vandals and Alans). In 460, the Visigoths, led by Sunerico, conquered the city and expelled the Alans.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland. Some later moved in large numbers, including most notably the group which successively established kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula and then North Africa in the 5th century.
The Alans were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
After the period of Visigoth domination, Santarém was taken in the 8th century by the Moors, who named it Shantarin. Under the rule of the Moors the city became an important cultural centre. Important Moor personalities born in Santarém include the poet and historian Ibn Bassam (died 1147) and the poet Ibn Sara (1043–1123).
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors initially were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers. The name was later also applied to Arabs.
Ibn Bassam or Ibn Bassam Al-Shantarini (1058-1147) was a poet and historian from al-Andalus. He was born in Santarém and died in 1147.
The period of Moorish domination was finished in 1147 by the first King of Portugal, Afonso Henriques, who conquered the city on March 15. According to period chronicles, the King and a small army managed to take the city after some men climbed the walls during the night and opened the gates. The story of the conquest of Santarém is told in a heroic tone in the medieval chronicle De expugnatione Scalabis, which celebrates and justifies the power of the first Portuguese King. From a military point of view, the conquest of Santarém and, in that same year, of Lisbon were crucial steps in the Reconquista of Portugal.
The most notable Almohad ruler, Abu Yaqub Yusuf (patron of Averroes and Ibn Tufail), died in Santarém while trying to recapture it during the siege of 1184.
After the reconquest of Santarém, the city was frequently visited by the successive monarchs and many feudal parliaments ( Cortes ) were held in Santarém. King Fernando I, in particular, was very fond of the city and chose to be buried in the Convent of Saint Francis (Convento de São Francisco). His tomb is now in the Carmo Museum in Lisbon. The city was one of the most important in medieval Portugal, as attested by its large number of monasteries and its royal palace (no longer in existence but was located where the Cathedral currently stands). There are still enough examples of Gothic buildings in the city for it to be known as the "Capital of the Portuguese Gothic".
In the 15th century, during the period of Portuguese discoveries, expeditions like the conquest of Ceuta (1415) were planned in the royal palace of Santarém. Many important personalities related to this historical time are buried in the churches of Santarém. Pedro de Meneses, first governor of Ceuta (1415–1437) after the Portuguese conquest, is buried in a magnificent Gothic tomb in the Church of the Grace (Igreja da Graça). In the same church is also buried Pedro Álvares Cabral, the navigator that discovered Brazil in 1500.
The following centuries represented periods of decadence for Santarém. The city was hit by earthquakes twice: one in 1531 and the other in 1755, which hit the city hard and many historical monuments were lost. During the Napoleonic invasions in the early 19th century the city was invaded and pillaged.
In the second half of the 19th century many improvements reached Santarém, like running water, gas light, the building of a bridge over the Tagus and the railway in 1861. In the 20th century, the infrastructure of the city (education, housing, commerce) continued to improve and the economy of the city remained mainly dedicated to the production of agricultural goods.
The city of Santarém stands is situated on a plateau, located on the right bank of the Tagus River 65 kilometres (40 mi) northeast from Lisbon. This city, the urbanized portion, includes the former-parishes of Marvila, São Nicolau, São Salvador and Várzea, united in the green paper on administrative reform.
Administratively, the municipality is divided into 18 civil parishes ( freguesias ):
Santarém, Portugal has a Mediterranean climate (Csa).
|Climate data for Santarém|
|Record high °C (°F)||20.6|
|Average high °C (°F)||14.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||4.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||−4.4|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||91|
|Average precipitation days||11.9||11.6||8.9||10.8||8.8||4.6||1.7||1.7||5.1||10||10.9||12.7||98.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||87||85||83||77||76||71||67||68||73||80||87||85||78|
Santarém city centre has several monuments, including the largest and most varied ensemble of gothic churches in Portugal. These include fine examples of transitional Romanesque–Gothic, mendicant (plain style derived from the mendicant orders) and late (flamboyant) Gothic. In addition, the city has nice examples of Manueline, Renaissance, Mannerist and Baroque architecture.
Braga is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province. The city has a resident population of 192,494 inhabitants, representing the seventh largest municipality in Portugal. Its area is 183.40 km². Its agglomerated urban area extends from the Cávado River to the Este River. It is the third-largest urban centre in Portugal
A dos Francos is one of twelve civil parishes (freguesias) in the municipality of Caldas da Rainha, Portugal. The population in 2011 was 1,701, in an area of 18.93 km². It includes the settlements A dos Francos, Broeiras, Carreiros, Casais da Aramanha, Casais da Bica, Casais da Paraventa, Casais de Santa Helena, Casais Gaiolas, Casal da Palmeira, Casal das Cheiras, Casal das Sesmarias, Casal Sobreiro, Casal Pinheiro, Casal Val Covo, Salgueirinha, Santa Susana and Vila Verde de Matos.
Sacavém is a former civil parish in the municipality of Loures, Lisbon District, Portugal. In 2013, the parish merged into the new parish Sacavém e Prior Velho. It is a few kilometers northeast of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon. The civil parish covers an area of 4.09 km2 (1.6 sq mi), and included as of 2001 Census a resident population of 17,659 inhabitants. The region is known for its famous ceramics industry.
Camarate is a former civil parish in the municipality of Loures, Lisbon District, Portugal. In 2013, the parish merged into the new parish Camarate, Unhos e Apelação. With a population of 23,000 inhabitants in 2001, the parish of Camarate extends into an area of 5.52 km².
Almeirim is a city and a municipality in Santarém District, Portugal. The population in 2011 was 23,376, in an area of 222.12 km². The city proper had a population of 10,520 in 2001.
Cartaxo is a municipality in the district of Santarém in continental Portugal. The population in 2011 was 24,462, in an area of 158.17 km². The urbanized centre of Cartaxo had a population of 9,507 in 2001.
São Vicente is a former freguesia, located in the municipality of Abrantes, in Santarém District, Portugal. In 2013, the parish merged into the new parish Abrantes e Alferrarede. The population in 2011 was 11,622, in an area of 38.20 km². It included the northern part of the city of Abrantes.
The Church of Saint Francis is the most prominent Gothic monument in Porto, Portugal, being also noted for its outstanding Baroque inner decoration. It is located in the historic centre of the city, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The Convent of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is a former Catholic convent located in the civil parish of Santa Maria Maior, municipality of Lisbon, Portugal. The medieval convent was ruined during the sequence of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, and the destroyed Gothic Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel on the southern facade of the convent is the main trace of the great earthquake still visible in the old city.
Architecture of Portugal refers to the architecture practiced in the territory of present-day Portugal since before the foundation of the country in the 12th century. The term may also refer to buildings created under Portuguese influence or by Portuguese architects in other parts of the world, particularly in the Portuguese Empire.
Portuguese Gothic architecture is the architectural style prevalent in Portugal in the Late Middle Ages. As in other parts of Europe, Gothic style slowly replaced Romanesque architecture in the period between the late 12th and the 13th century. Between the late 15th and early 16th century, Gothic was replaced by Renaissance architecture through an intermediate style called Manueline.
The architecture of the Portuguese Renaissance intimately linked to Gothic architecture and gradual in its classical elements. The Manueline style was a transitional style that combined Renaissance and Gothic ornamental elements to buildings that were architectonically closer to Gothic architecture, as is the Isabelline style of Spain. Manueline was succeeded by a brief Early Renaissance phase, closer to Classical canons, followed by the adoption of Mannerist forms. Portuguese Mannerism, specially in secular architecture, is characterised by simplicity in the organisation of façades and relative lack of decoration, being often referred to as Estilo Chão. Even with the arrival of Baroque architecture in the late 17th century, Portuguese architecture continued to use Mannerist forms well into the 18th century.
The Igreja de São Roque is a Roman Catholic church in Lisbon, Portugal. It was the earliest Jesuit church in the Portuguese world, and one of the first Jesuit churches anywhere. The edifice served as the Society’s home church in Portugal for over 200 years, before the Jesuits were expelled from that country. After the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the church and its ancillary residence were given to the Lisbon Holy House of Mercy to replace their church and headquarters which had been destroyed. It remains a part of the Holy House of Mercy today, one of its many heritage buildings.
Gilded woodcarving in Portugal is, along with tile, one of the country's most original and rich artistic expressions. It is usually used in the interior decoration of churches and cathedrals and of noble halls in palaces and large public buildings. An impressive collection of altarpieces are found in Portuguese churches. Originating in the Gothic era, Portuguese gilded woodcarving assumed a nationalist character during the 17th century and reached its height in the reign of King D. João V. In the 19th century it lost its originality and began to disappear with the end of the revival era.
The Monastery of Saint Denis is located in the city of Odivelas, near Lisbon, in Portugal. The feminine Cistercian convent was founded by King Dinis I and was built during the 14th century in Gothic style. It is the burial place of the king. Since 1900, it houses the Instituto de Odivelas, a military school for young girls.
João Manuel was a religious Carmelite, Bishop of Ceuta (1443-1459) and Bishop of Guarda (1459-1476). Although some genealogists claimed that he was the son of Edward, King of Portugal and Joana Manuel de Vilhena, great-granddaughter of Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, Anselmo Braamcamp Freire dismisses such filiation and provides sufficient arguments against it.
The Chapel of D. Fradique is a chapel located in the Convent of São Francisco, in the civil parish of Estremoz, in the municipality of Estremoz, in the Portuguese district of Évora.
During his stay at the court of Lisbon, he made the acquaintance of then Portuguese Chief Rabbi Don Moses from Santarem, who was the king's personal physician, and who took on the name Navarro by royal permission. Während seines Aufenthaltes am Lissaboner Hofe lernte er den damaligen portugiesischen Oberrabiner D. Moses aus Santarem, der auch zugleich des Königs Leibarzt war und mit königlicher Erlaubniss den Beinamen Navarro führte, persoehnlich kennen.
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