Santi di Tito

Last updated
Vision of St Thomas Aquinas (1593) Santi di Tito - Vision of St Thomas Aquinas - WGA22722.jpg
Vision of St Thomas Aquinas (1593)

Santi di Tito (December 5, 1536; July 25, 1603) was one of the most influential and leading Italian painters of the proto-Baroque style – what is sometimes referred to as "Counter-Maniera" or Counter-Mannerism. [2]



He was born in Florence, in Tuscany [3] . There is little documentation to support the alleged training under Bronzino or Baccio Bandinelli. From 1558 to 1564, he worked in Rome on frescoes in Palazzo Salviati and the Sala Grande of the Belvedere (Homage of the People) alongside Giovanni de' Vecchi and Niccolò Circignani. He acquired a classical trait, described as Raphaelesque by S.J. Freedburg. This style contrasted with the reigning ornate Roman painterliness of Federico and Taddeo Zuccari or their Florentine equivalents: Vasari, Alessandro Allori, and Bronzino.

After returning to Florence in 1564, he joined the Accademia del Disegno. He contributed two conventionally Mannerist paintings for the Duke's study and laboratory, the Studiolo of Francesco I in the Palazzo Vecchio. This artistic project was partly overseen by Giorgio Vasari. These paintings – the Sisters of Fetonte (Phaeton) [4] and Hercules and Iole [4]  – like many of those in the studiolo, are stylized and overcrowded.

Baldinucci recounts that Santi completely rejected the maniera of Bronzino, and embraced a classical Reformist and naturalistic style. [5] Santi went on to contribute a Sacra Conversazione for the Ognissanti and painted two altarpieces for Santa Croce in Florence: a crowded but monumental Resurrection (1570–74), and a creatively inspired and decorous Supper at Emmaus (1574).

Santi also painted a Resurrection of Lazarus for Volterra Cathedral; a Madonna for San Salvatore al Vescovo; a Burial of Christ for S. Giuseppe; a Baptism of Christ by St John for the Corsini palace, Florence. Santi died in Florence on July 23, 1603. [6]

Santi's mature style is reflected in his masterpiece of the Vision of Saint Thomas Aquinas, also known as Saint Thomas Dedicating His Works to Christ located in the church of San Marco in Florence. It expresses a simple, pious gesture that appeared to have been lost from the courtly sensibility of Italian painting since the days of Raphael, while maintaining the brittle, demarcated color that is classic of Tuscan works. The work has an earnest fervor lacking in his earlier mannerist works, which sometimes appear like a collection of posed statues overpainted with skin hues. This new contra-maniera style finds some echoes in the rising Bolognese Baroque style of the Carracci.

Among his pupils were Ludovico Cigoli, the leading painter of art Reform in late sixteenth and early seventeenth century Florence. Another pupil named Francesco Mochi became a prominent sculptor in the Baroque style and created, among other pieces, the colossal Saint Veronica , in the crossing of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome." [7]


Portrait of Niccolo Machiavelli by Santi di Tito.jpg Pietro de' Medici - Santi di Tito - 1584-1586.jpg Santi di Tito, Ritratto di Cristina di Lorena.jpg Santi di Tito - Portrait of Maria de' Medici - WGA22720.jpg Santi di Tito - Portrait of the Young Maria de' Medici - WGA22719.jpg Santi di Tito - Portrait of a Girl - WGA22721.jpg
Niccolò Machiavelli
Pietro de' Medici
Cristina di Lorena
Maria de' Medici
Maria de' Medici
Portrait of Girl
Frescoes for Cloister of Santa Maria Novella and Villa il Riposo
SMN Chiostro Grande o08 Santi di Tito, Gli apostoli Pietro e Paolo appaiono a San Domenico.JPG SMN Chiostro Grande o10 Santi di Tito, Incontro tra San Domenico e San Francesco.JPG SMN Chiostro Grande n11 Santi di Tito, San Domenico a mensa nutrito dagli angeli.JPG SMN Chiostro Grande n04 Santi di Tito, Morte di San Domenico.JPG SMN Chiostro Grande o12 Santi di Tito, San Domenico salva 40 naufragi.JPG Santi di tito, personaggi illustri della famiglia vecchietti tra ercole a riposo e putti con festone e motto 01.jpg
St Dominic's vision of Sts Peter & Paul
St Dominic and St Francis
St Dominic dines with Angels
St Dominic's Death
St Dominic Saves Shipwrecked
Villa il Riposo

Related Research Articles

Alessandro Allori Italian painter (1535-1607)

Alessandro di Cristofano di Lorenzo del Bronzino Allori was an Italian portrait painter of the late Mannerist Florentine school.

Giorgio Vasari Italian painter, architect, writer and historian

Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. He was also the first to use the term "Renaissance" in print.

Bronzino Italian Mannerist painter (1503-1572)

Agnolo di Cosimo, usually known as Bronzino or Agnolo Bronzino, was an Italian Mannerist painter from Florence. His sobriquet, Bronzino, may refer to his relatively dark skin or reddish hair.

Prospero Fontana Italian painter (1512-1597)

Prospero Fontana (1512–1597) was a Bolognese painter of late Renaissance and Mannerist art. He is perhaps best known for his frescoes and architectural detailing. The speed in which he completed paintings earned him commissions where he worked with other prominent artists of the period. He was a prominent figure in the city of Bologna, whose roles included art instructor and consultant on the reformation of religious art.

Stradanus Flemish painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer

Stradanus, Johannes Stradanus, Jan van der Straet or Giovanni Stradano was a Flemish artist active mainly in 16th-century Florence, Italy. He was a wide-ranging talent who worked as an easel and fresco painter, designer of tapestries, draughtsman, designer of prints and pottery decorator. His subject range was varied and included history subjects, mythological scenes, allegories, landscapes, genre scenes, portraits, architectural scenes and animals. After training in his native Flanders, he left his home country and ultimately settled down in Florence, Italy. He became a prominent court artist to the Medici during the second half of the 16th century and worked on the many decorative projects of the court. Stradanus also produced large altarpieces for the most important churches in Florence.

Studiolo of Francesco I room in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence

The Studiolo is a small painting-encrusted barrel-vaulted room in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. It was commissioned by Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. It was completed for the duke from 1570-1572, by teams of artists under the supervision of Giorgio Vasari and the scholars Giovanni Batista Adriani and Vincenzo Borghini.

Bernardino Poccetti Italian painter (1548-1612)

Bernardino Poccetti, also known as Barbatelli, was an Italian Mannerist painter and printmaker of etchings.

Giovanni Battista Naldini Italian Mannerist painter (1535-1591)

Giovanni Battista Naldini (1535–1591) was an Italian painter in a late-Mannerist style, active in Florence.

Francesco de Rossi Italian painter (1510-1563)

Francesco de' Rossi (1510–1563) was an Italian Mannerist painter who lived and worked mainly in Florence, but also produced several works in Rome. He is known by many names, prominently the adopted name Francesco Salviati or as Il Salviati, but also Francesco Rossi and Cecchino del Salviati.

Alessandro Fei (1543–1592) was an Italian painter active in Florence, working in a Mannerist style. He was also called il Barbiere. He participated in the Vasari-directed decoration of the Studiolo of Francesco I with an oval canvas relating a Goldsmith Shop story. He also painted an altarpiece on the Flagellation of Christ for the Basilica church of Santa Croce in Florence. Trained under Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio. Piero Francia, and under Tommaso Manzuoli, better known as Maso da San Friano, Fei became a member of the Accademia dell’Arte e del Disegno in Florence in 1563 and was a trusted assistant of Giorgio Vasari up until 1574. The artist spent most of his career in Florence, except for a trip to Rome at the side of the Aretine painter to decorate the Vatican chapels of Pope Pius VI.

Girolamo Macchietti Italian painter (1535-1592)

Girolamo Macchietti was an Italian painter active in Florence, working in a Mannerist style.

Antonio Tempesta painter from Florence

Antonio Tempesta, also called il Tempestino, was an Italian painter and engraver, whose art acted as a point of connection between Baroque Rome and the culture of Antwerp.

Alessandro Maganza Italian painter (1556-1632)

Alessandro Maganza (1556–1630) was an Italian painter of the Mannerist style, born and active in Vicenza, as well as in Venice.

Michele Tosini Italian painter (1503-1577)

Michele Tosini, also called Michele di Ridolfo, (1503–1577) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance and Mannerist period, who worked in Florence.

Giovanni da San Giovanni Italian painter (1592-1636)

Giovanni da San Giovanni, also known as Giovanni Mannozzi, was an Italian painter of the early Baroque period.

Agostino Ciampelli Italian painter (1565-1630)

Agostino Ciampelli was an Italian painter of the Baroque period. He trained with Santi di Tito in Florence, and painted in Rome under Clement VIII, including a Crucifixion for Santa Prassede and a Saint Giovanni Gualberto in its sacristy; Angels on the walls above the choirstalls in the apse of Santa Maria in Trastevere; frescoes of the Stoning of Saint Vitale in San Vitale and further frescoes in the little church of Santa Bibiena; and The Visitation in Sant Stefano di Pescia. At the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano, Ciampelli frescoed the walls of the canons' sacristy, the "Sala Clementina".

<i>Deposition of Christ</i> (Bronzino) painting by Bronzino

The Deposition of Christ is a painting by the Italian artist Agnolo di Cosimo, known as Bronzino, completed in 1545. It is housed in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Besançon, France. A copy by Bronzino can be found in the Palazzo Vecchio. This portrayal of the Deposition, although it depicts all the characters typically shown when Jesus is being taken down from the cross, more correctly should be characterized as a Lamentation and is an excellent example of late Mannerism or Maniera.

Astolfo Petrazzi Italian painter (1583-1665)

Astolfo Petrazzi was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active mainly in his hometown of Siena, but also Spoleto and Rome. He was a pupil of mainly Francesco Vanni, but also worked under Ventura Salimbeni and Pietro Sorri. He died in Siena.

Jacopo Coppi Italian painter (1546-1591)

Jacopo Coppi, also called Giacomo Coppi or "'Jacopo del Meglio'" was an Italian painter, mainly active in Florence and Rome in a Mannerist style. Other sources call him Giacinto Coppi.

Vincenzo Borghini was an Italian monk, artist, philologist, and art collector of Florence, Italy.


  1. "Art and Theory in Baroque Europe: From Mannerism to Baroque".
  2. Gauvin Alexander Bailey, Between Renaissance and Baroque: Jesuit Art in Rome, 1565-1610 (Toronto: University of Toronto, 2003), pp.28-30; ‘Santi di Tito and the Florentine Academy: Solomon Building the Temple in the Capitolo of the Accademia del Disegno (1570-71),’ Apollo CLV, 480 (February 2002): 31-39.
  3. BDI Treccani
  4. 1 2 3
  5. F. Baldinucci, Notizie dei professori del disegno da Cimabue in qua, (1681-1728) 2, pp. 540-544., ed. by F. Ranalli, Florence 1845-1847.
  6. Wittkower, Rudolf (1999) Art and Architecture in Italy 1600-1750 Yale Univ. Press.
  7. "Santi di Tito, Le sorelle di Fetonte".
  8. "Browse Artists on artnet - Modern and Contemporary Artists".
  10. "Collection Corse, peintures et sculptures des collections de Joseph Fesch : Musée Fesch".

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Santi di Tito at Wikimedia Commons