Santiago de Vera

Last updated
Santiago de Vera
6th Governor and Captain-General of the Philippines
In office
May 16, 1584 May 1590
Preceded by Diego Ronquillo
Succeeded by Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas

Santiago de Vera was a native of Alcalá de Henares, Spain and the sixth Spanish governor of the Philippines, from May 16, 1584 until May 1590. [1] (pp286–287)

Alcalá de Henares Municipality in Community of Madrid, Spain

Alcalá de Henares is a Spanish city located 35 kilometres northeast of the country's capital, Madrid. It stands out for its rich archaeology and was one of the first bishoprics founded in Spain. Locally, it is generally known simply as "Alcalá", but "de Henares" is appended when needed to differentiate it from a dozen Spanish cities sharing the name Alcalá. The Latin name, Complutum, is sometimes used. The city is the capital of its namesake region, Comarca de Alcalá. Its historical centre is one of UNESCO's World Heritage sites. Since his investiture after the 2015 local election the Mayor is Javier Rodríguez Palacios (PSOE).

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.



Governor Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa and Domingo de Salazar, the first bishop of Manila, had requested the King of Spain to establish the Supreme Court of the Philippines then called the Audiencia, to settle disputes between the Church and State. In 1584, three judges arrived from Mexico and started the justice court with De Vera serving as the chief justice. [2]

Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa, sometimes spelled as Gonçalo Ronquillo Peñaloza, was the fourth Spanish governor and captain-general of the Philippines from April 1580 until his death in 1583. He was succeeded by his nephew, Diego Ronquillo.

Domingo de Salazar Filipino bishop

Domingo de Salazar was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as the first Bishop of Manila (1579–84) which was then newly-annexed to the Spanish Empire.

Supreme Court of the Philippines highest court in the Philippines

The Supreme Court of the Philippines is the highest court in the Philippines. It is presided over by a Chief Justice and is composed of fifteen (15) Justices, including the Chief Justice. Pursuant to the Constitution, the Supreme Court has "administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof".

After the sudden death of Governor Peñalosa, Diego Ronquillo, his nephew became the governor ad interim but was later charged for defalcation in the trust of Peñalosa's estate and was sent back to Spain as a prisoner. As the chief justice of the court, Santiago de Vera succeeded as the governor of the islands on May 16, 1584. [3] (p16)

Diego Ronquillo Spanish governor of the Philippines

Diego Ronquillo was the fifth Spanish governor of the Philippines, from March 10, 1583 until May 1584. He was the brother of his predecessor, Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa, and served as interim governor for little more than a year. Manila suffered heavy damage from a fire that occurred on March 19, 1583.

The Latin phrase ad interim means "in the meantime" or "temporarily".

Defalcation is misappropriation of funds by a person trusted with its charge; also, the act of misappropriation, or an instance thereof. The term is more specifically used by the United States Bankruptcy Code to describe a category of acts that taint a particular debt such that it cannot be discharged in bankruptcy. The United States Supreme Court addressed the issue in 2013, holding that "defalcation" in the context of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code requires proof of "a culpable state of mind… involving knowledge of, or gross recklessness in respect to, the improper nature of the relevant fiduciary behavior."

First houses of stone

Ground plan of the Fort of Nuestra Senora de Guia built by Santiago de Vera in 1587 Nuestra Senora de Guia fort ground plan.jpg
Ground plan of the Fort of Nuestra Señora de Guia built by Santiago de Vera in 1587

Following the great fire of Manila on March 19, 1583, which started during the wake of Governor Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa at the San Agustin Church, Santiago de Vera made an order that all construction in Manila should be of stone. It was found that stone could be easily cut near the banks of the Pasig in Guadalupe (now Guadalupe Viejo in Makati) and brought to Manila in boats.

Manila Capital / Highly Urbanized City in National Capital Region, Philippines

Manila, officially the City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. It is the most densely populated city proper in the world. It was the first chartered city by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949.

Makati Highly Urbanized City in National Capital Region, Philippines

Makati,, officially the City of Makati,, or simply known as Makati City, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in Metro Manila, Philippines.

Fort of Nuestra Señora de Guia

He also built the first stone fort of Manila called Nuestra Señora de Guia (Our Lady of Guidance) in 1587 located at the present location of San Diego Bastion (Baluarte de San Diego) at the southwestern corner of Intramuros with plans by a Jesuit named Sedeño. The artillery for this fort was cast by Panday Pira. [2] [3] (p299)

Panday Pira was a Kapampángan Muslim blacksmith who is acknowledged as "The First Filipino Cannon-maker". His name literally translates as "Blacksmith Pira", panday being the Tagalog word for "blacksmith".

De Vera also began to dig the moat which surrounded the city. He also built a stone breastwork along the Pasig riverfront. The great wall was not begun till the rule of Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas. [2]

Breastwork (fortification) fortification

A breastwork is a temporary fortification, often an earthwork thrown up to breast height to provide protection to defenders firing over it from a standing position. A more permanent structure, normally in stone, would be described as a parapet or the battlement of a castle wall.

Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas y Ribadeneira was a Spanish politician, diplomat, military officer and colonial official. He was the seventh governor-general of the Philippines from May or June 1, 1590 to October 25, 1593. The city of Dasmariñas, located 24 km south of Manila, was named after him. Dasmariñas was a member of the Order of Santiago.

Related Research Articles

Panay island in the Philippines

Panay is the sixth-largest and fourth most-populous island in the Philippines, with a total land area of 12,011 km2 (4,637 sq mi) and with a total population of 4,477,247. Panay comprises 4.4 percent of the entire population of the country. The City of Iloilo is its largest settlement with a total population of 447,992 inhabitants. It is a triangular island, located in the western part of the Visayas. It is about 160 km (99 mi) across. It is divided into four provinces: Aklan, Antique, Capiz and Iloilo, all in the Western Visayas Region. It is located southeast of the island of Mindoro and northwest of Negros across the Guimaras Strait. Just off the mid-southeastern coast lies the island-province of Guimaras. To the north and northeast is the Sibuyan Sea, Jintotolo Channel and the islands of Romblon and Masbate; to the west and southwest is the Sulu Sea and the Palawan archipelago and to the south is Panay Gulf. Panay is the only main island in the Visayas whose provinces don't bear the name of their island.

Intramuros Place in National Capital Region, Philippines

Intramuros is the 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 sq mi) historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration (IA), which was created through the Presidential Decree No. 1616 signed on April 10, 1979. IA is tasked to rebuild, redevelop, administer and preserve the remaining pre-war buildings, structures and fortifications of Intramuros.

Fort Santiago citadel built by Spanish conquistador for the city of Manila, Philippines

Fort Santiago is a citadel first built by Spanish conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi for the new established city of Manila in the Philippines. The defense fortress is part of the structures of the walled city of Manila referred to as Intramuros.

San Agustin Church (Manila) Church in Manila, Philippines

San Agustin Church is a Roman Catholic church under the auspices of The Order of St. Augustine, located inside the historic walled city of Intramuros in Manila. Completed in 1607, it is the oldest church in the country.

Bantayan Island island in the Philippines

Bantayan Island is an island located in the Visayan Sea, Philippines. It is situated to the west of the northern end of Cebu island, across the Tañon Strait. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 120,447.

Captaincy General of the Philippines Spanish 1565-1898 possession in Southeast Asia

The Captaincy General of the Philippines was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire in Southeast Asia governed by a Governor-General. The Captaincy General encompassed the Spanish East Indies, which included among others the Philippine Islands and the Caroline Islands. It was founded in 1565 with the first permanent Spanish settlements.


The Principalía or noble class was the ruling and usually educated upper class in the pueblos of the Spanish Philippines, comprising the gobernadorcillo, and the cabezas de barangay who governed the districts. The distinction or status of being part of the principalía was a hereditary right. However, it could also be acquired, as attested by the royal decree of 20 December 1863.

Don Alonso Fajardo de Entenza y de Guevara, Córdoba y Velasco, Knight of Alcantara, Lord of Espinardo was Spanish Governor-General and Captain-General of the Islands of the Philippines from 3 July 1618 until his death.


The gobernadorcillo was a municipal judge or governor in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period, who carried out in a town the combined charges or responsibilities of leadership, economic, and judicial administration. The gobernadorcillo was the leader of a town or pueblo. In a coastal town, the gobernadorcillo functioned as a port captain. His appointment was through an exclusive nomination provided by the Spanish law. His term of office lasted for two years. The position of a gobernadorcillo was honorary and mandatory in order to afford him those valid exemptions signified in the Philippine law. At the end of his biennial term he would enter and form part of the principalía, and was entitled to enjoy the honors and preeminence inherent to this state. This "mayor", who was at the same time Justice of the Peace and port captain, was directly responsible to the governor of the province in the exercise of his office.

The Cabeça de Barangay, also known as Teniente del Barrio in Spanish, was the leader or chief of a barangay in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period. The post was inherited from the first datus who became cabezas de barangay when the many independent barangays became tributary vassals of the Spanish Crown. King Philip II of Spain, after whom the Philippines were named, decreed that the native nobility of the country should retain the honors and privileges they had before their conversion and subjection to the Spanish Crown. With the new form of government introduced by Spain, several existing neighboring barangays were combined to form a municipality and the Cabezas de Barangay participated in the governance of the new towns, forming part of the elite ruling class called the Principalía. From among their ranks the head of the town, the Gobernadorcillo or Capitan Municipal, was elected. Furthermore, only the members of their class could elect the Gobernadorcillo.

Diego Fajardo Chacón was a Spanish military officer and governor of the Philippines, from August 11, 1644 to July 25, 1653.

Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo Governor general of the Philippines

Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo, a native of Cádiz, Spain, was the Spanish governor-general of the Philippines from December 23, 1830 to March 1, 1835. He was among the most illustrious rulers of the archipelago, on account of his ability, uprightness, and zeal for the public welfare. Enrile was especially active in building highways and providing other means of communication to bring the inland and the maritime provinces into communication with each other.

Greek settlement in the Philippines is a small community of descendants of ethnic Greeks who settled the country since the Spanish colonization of the country.

Francisco Ignacio (de) Alcina SJ was a Spanish historian and a Jesuit missionary in the Philippines. He served as parish priest in the Visayan islands for 37 years. Most of those years were spent among the natives whom he used to call "My beloved Bisayans".

Madja-as pre-Hispanic (c.1200–1569) Philippine state located on the islands of Panay and Negros

The Kedatuan of Madja-as or the Confederation of Madja-as, also known as Sri-Bisaya (Malayo-Sanskrit), was a pre-Hispanic Mandala in Panay, within the Visayas islands in what is now the Philippines, and was the oldest Srivijayan territory in the archipelago, next to the Sulu Archipelago.

Battle of Manila (1574)

The Battle of Manila (1574) was a battle in the Manila area mainly in the location of what is now Parañaque between Chinese pirates, led by Limahong and the Spanish colonial forces and their native allies. The battle occurred on November 29, 1574 when Limahong's fleet landed in the town of Parañaque and from there, began to assault the fortifications of Intramuros. Initially, the inhabitants where disorganized and Limahong's forces routed them. Furthermore, the Chinese killed the Master-of-Camp of the Spanish, Martin de Goiti. This caused them to delay their assault on Manila as Martin de Goiti's house was an obstacle in their march.


  1. BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1904). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. Volume 17 of 55 (1609–1616). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE; additional translations by Henry B. Lathrop. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN   978-1426486869. OCLC   769945708. Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century.
  2. 1 2 3 Jernegan, Prescott F. (1905). "A Short History of the Philippines for use in Philippine schools", p.104. D. Appleton and Company, New York.
  3. 1 2 BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. Volume 06 of 55 (1583–1588). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN   978-0554338217. OCLC   769945230. Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century.
Political offices
Preceded by
Diego Ronquillo
Governor and Captain-General of the Philippines
Succeeded by
Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas