|Nickname: Ilha das montanhas (island of the mountains)|
|Area||785 km2 (303 sq mi)|
|Length||42.8 km (26.59 mi)|
|Width||24.0 km (14.91 mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,979 m (6493 ft)|
|Highest point||Tope de Coroa|
|Concelhos (Municipalities)||Paul, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande|
|Largest settlement||Porto Novo|
|Pop. density||48.66/km2 (126.03/sq mi)|
Santo Antão (Portuguese for "Saint Anthony") is the westernmost island of Cape Verde. At 785 km2 (303 sq mi), it is the largest of the Barlavento Islands group, and the second largest island of Cape Verde. :25 The nearest island is São Vicente to the southeast, separated by the sea channel Canal de São Vicente. Its population was 38,200 in mid 2019, making it the fourth most populous island of Cape Verde after Santiago, São Vicente and Sal. Its largest city is Porto Novo located on the southern coast (population 9.310 in 2010).
Santo Antão is 42.75 km (26.56 mi) long (east-west) and 23.97 km (14.89 mi) wide (north-south). :25 The island is of volcanic origin and very mountainous, characterized by two high plateaus and several steep river valleys. The southern part of the island has a desert climate, while the northeast and the higher elevations are semi-arid.
The main rivers of Santo Antão are:
The tallest mountain is Tope de Coroa, reaching an elevation of 1,979 m. 25 Other high mountains on the island are Monte Tomé (1,863 m), Gudo de Cavaleiro (1,810 m), Monte Moroços (1,767 m) and Pico da Cruz (1,584 m).:
Santo Antão island has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification: BWh) in Sinagoga and Porto Novo and a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) in Espongeiro. The island features very balanced temperatures year round higher on the slopes (~ 800 metres ASL) to cool highland subtropical steppe climate BskL above 1,000 metres ASL. The average annual temperature on the coast is about 23 °C (73 °F), decreasing to some 11 to 15 °C (52–59 °F) on the highest grounds. There can be remarkably cool weather in the interior with warmer wet season starting in July and ending in December–January with colder dry season starting in December–January and ending in June. The major climate risk, similarly to other Cape Verdean islands, yet much less pronounced in the higher altitudes due to better ability in gaining moisture from clouds, is drought.
The island was discovered in 1461 or 1462 by Diogo Afonso, together with the islands of São Vicente and São Nicolau. 73 Settlement of the island started in the first half of the 16th century. The main settlement was Ribeira Grande. Other settlements such as Ponta do Sol, Pombas and Porto Novo developed in the 19th century.:
In 1732 the Municipality of Santo Antão was created, with its seat in the town Ribeira Grande.In 1867 this was divided into the municipality of Paul (covering the area of current Paul and Porto Novo) and the municipality of Ribeira Grande. These were merged in 1895 into one municipality. The municipalities of Paul and Ribeira Grande were recreated in 1917. The municipality of Porto Novo was created in 1962 when the parishes of São João Baptista and Santo André were separated from the older Municipality of Paul.
In the 1830s, the estimated population of Santo Antão was 24,000.
Fishing and agriculture are the main industries on the island.
The island's agriculture products include sugar cane, yams, cassava, bananas, mangoes, and grain. The main product on the island is a kind of rum known as grogue . Mills continue to distill grogue in the Paul Valley.
Due to its mountainous nature, most of the island's plantations are done in terraces, obviating the use of machinery and requiring immense manual labor. Recently, some experiences using drip irrigation have been taking place in order to mitigate the drought conditions.
The exportation of many of the island's agriculture products to other islands has been prohibited for nearly two decades because of the millipede (Spinotarsus caboverdus) blight, but the quarantine was lifted in 2008.
Tourism is becoming one of the most dominant industries on the island. There has been some investment in Rural tourism infrastructures. Hiking, Trekking and Cultural tourism account for most of the touristic offer of this island.
The island is divided in three municipalities, which are subdivided into civil parishes:
Santo Antão has 50 endangered species of flora which has the most number in the nation. Several flora found in the island that are also found in some parts of the archipelago includes Aeonium gorgoneum , Artemisia gorgonum , Campanula jacobaea , the Conyza species of feae , pannosa and varia , Echium stenosiphon , Kickxia webbiana , Lavandula rotundifolia , Limonium braunii , Micromeria forbesii , Sonchus daltonii , Capeverdean navelwort ( Umbilicus schmidtii ) and Verbascum capitis-viridis . Flora found only in the island include Tornabenea insularis and ribeirensis .
Santo Antão has different species of birds including the Cape Verde (Iago) sparrow, reptiles including the Cape Verde wall gecko and insects including the spider Tetragnatha torrensis , the moth Scopula paneliusi and the water bear Echiniscus clavispinosus . The island does not have a lot of animal life comparing to other islands. Along its shores, most of the marine life are within Canal de São Vicente.
Other than Portuguese (official language), the majority of the population speaks Cape Verdean Creole.[ citation needed ]
Mindelo is a port city in the northern part of the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde. Mindelo is also the seat of the parish of Nossa Senhora da Luz, and the municipality of São Vicente. The city is home to 93% of the entire island's population. Mindelo is known for its colourful and animated carnival celebrations, with roots in Portuguese traditions later influenced by the Brazilian culture.
São Vicente is one of the Barlavento Islands, the northern group within the Cape Verde archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, off the west African coast. It is located between the islands of Santo Antão and Santa Luzia, with the Canal de São Vicente separating it from Santo Antão.
Boa Vista, also written as Boavista, is a desert-like island that belongs to the Cape Verde Islands. At 631.1 km2 (243.7 sq mi), it is the third largest island of the Cape Verde archipelago.
Ribeira Grande is a concelho (municipality) of Cape Verde. Situated in the northern part of the island of Santo Antão, it covers one fifth of the island area (166.5 km2), and is home to nearly half of its population. Its seat is the city Ponta do Sol.
Paul is a concelho (municipality) of Cape Verde. Situated in the northeastern part of the island of Santo Antão, it covers 7% of the island area, and is home to 16% of its population. Its seat is the town Pombas.
Manuel António de Sousa Lopes was a Cape Verdean novelist, poet and essayist. With Baltasar Lopes da Silva and Jorge Barbosa he was a founder of the journal Claridade, which contributed to the rise of Cape Verdean literature. Manuel Lopes wrote in Portuguese, using expressions typical for Cape Verdean Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole. He was one of those responsible for describing world calamities of the droughts that caused several deaths in São Vicente and Santo Antão.
Ponta do Sol is the northernmost city on the island of Santo Antão and Cape Verde. It is situated on the coast, 4 km northwest of Ribeira Grande and 20 km north of the island capital Porto Novo. It is the seat of Ribeira Grande municipality.
Corda is a settlement in the island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde. It is part of the municipality Ribeira Grande. It is situated in the mountainous interior of the island at about 1,000 meters elevation, 13 km north of the island capital Porto Novo. Corda consists of several villages, including Chã de Corda and Esponjeiro. The national road from Porto Novo to Ribeira Grande (EN1-SA01) passes through Corda. The crater of Cova lies 4 km to the southeast. Corda lies in the Cova-Paul-Ribeira da Torre Natural Park.
Janela is a settlement in the eastern part of the island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde. It is situated on the Atlantic coast, 4 km southeast of Pombas and 14 km northeast of the island capital Porto Novo The central village, Pontinha, lies on a rocky peninsula. More villages are situated in the valley of the river Ribeira da Janela. The national road from Porto Novo to Pombas (EN1-SA03) passes through Janela.
São João Baptista is a freguesia of Cape Verde. It covers the larger, southern part of the municipality of Porto Novo, on the island of Santo Antão.
Sinagoga is a settlement in the northeastern part of the island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde. It is situated on the coast, 4 kilometers east of Ribeira Grande and 18 km north-northeast of the island capital Porto Novo. It is situated on the national road connecting Ribeira Grande and Pombas (EN1-SA02).
Pombas is a city in the northeastern part of the island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde. It is the seat of the municipality Paul. It is situated on the coast, at the mouth of the Ribeira do Paul, 7 km (4.3 mi) southeast of Ribeira Grande and 15 km (9.3 mi) north of the island capital Porto Novo. The national roads EN1-SA02 and EN1-SA03 connect Pombas with Ribeira Grande and Porto Novo, respectively. Pombas was elevated from town to city in 2010.
Ribeira Grande is the largest town of the Ribeira Grande Municipality on the island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde. It has become a city in 2010. In 2010 its population was 2,564. It is situated in the northeastern part of the island, near the outflow of the river Ribeira Grande and its tributary Ribeira da Torre into the Atlantic Ocean. Neighborhoods include Tarrafal, Rua de Agua, Rua d'Horta and Penha de França.
Porto Novo is a city in the island of Santo Antão, in Cape Verde. It is the seat of the Porto Novo municipality. At the 2010 census, the town had 9,310 inhabitants, which makes it the most populous settlement of the island.
Xoxo is a settlement in the northeastern part of the island of Santo Antão in Cape Verde. It is situated 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of Ribeira Grande and 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) north of the island capital Porto Novo. The settlement lies in Cova-Paul-Ribeira da Torre Natural Park. The Ribeira da Torre flows through the settlement. The only road to Xoxo goes from Ribeira Grande through the Ribeira da Torre valley.
Pico da Cruz is a settlement in the northeastern part of the island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde. In 2010 its population was 138. It is situated 6 km southwest of Pombas and 10 km northeast of the island capital Porto Novo. Its elevation is about 1,400 meters. The village is named after the nearby mountain Pico da Cruz. It lies in the Cova-Paul-Ribeira da Torre Natural Park.
The cuisine of Cape Verde is a West African cuisine largely influenced by Portuguese, Southern and Western European and West African cuisine. Cape Verde was a colony of Portugal from its colonization until 1975.
Cabo da Ribeira is a settlement in the eastern part of the island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde. In 2010 its population was 912. It is situated at about 500 m elevation in the upper valley of the Ribeira do Paul, 5 km southwest of Pombas. It is part of the municipality of Paul, and lies in the Cova-Paul-Ribeira da Torre Natural Park.
Colá is a musical genre of Cape Verdean music
The 2018 Taça Nacional de Cabo Verde is the 6th edition of the Taça Nacional de Cabo Verde, the knockout football competition of Cape Verde. The competition, which is played out in a tournament between the cup winners of the nine islands, returns for the first time since 2012.
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